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MA TO AM F, N O R M AN N K H If n A 








Professor of Music in the University of Oxford. 

VOL. V. 

itb a Merits of portraits rcproaurcfc in |)Ijoto0rftintrc, 
an& Numerous illustrations. 





^\ t' ^ A /? p 

SEP 1 rf 1968 

^S,,V of *^ 




|}00k IV. (niHfinurd). 




FRANCE . . - . .1054 


OPERA ... . ... 1056 




XXXIX. THE PRESENT ........ 1193 

XL. MODERN ENGLISH Music . . . . . . .1274 

INDEX . . ..... . 1315 






268. Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, Por- 

trait of 1012 

269. Wilhelmine Schroeder-Devrient ... 1023 

270. Henrietta Sontag, Portrait of ... ... 1026 

271. Moritz Hauptmann, Portrait of .. 1032 

272. Ignatz Moscheles, Portrait of 1033 

Kobert Schumann To face 1036 

Robert and Clara Schumann, Auto- 
graphs of To face 1038 

273. Clara Schumann, Portrait of 1039 

Schumann, Letter of To face 1041 

Frederick Chopin, Portrait of ,, 1045 

Chopin, Autograph of ,, 1047 

Spontini, Autograph of ... ,, 1063 
D. F. E. Auber, Portrait of 1066 

274. J. F. E. HaleVy, Portrait of 1069 

275. A. E. M. Gr<5try, Portrait of 1085 

276. E. N. Me'hul, Portrait of 1085 

277. F. A. Boieldieu, Portrait of 1087 

278. Hippolyte Roger, Portrait of 1091 

279. L. J. F. Herold, Portrait of ... -.. 1093 

280. Teresa and Maria Milanollo 1102 

281. Malibran Garcia, Portrait of .. 1103 


282. M. L. Cherubim, Portrait of 1108 

283. G. L. P. Spontini, Portrait of 1114 

284. Gioachino Rossini, Portrait of 1130 

285. Paganini, Portrait of 1138 

286. Paganini, Portrait of 1140 

287. Paganini, Portrait of 1141 

Hector Berlioz, Letter of ... To face 1167 
Richard Wagner, Letter of ,, 1173 

288. Exterior of the Wagner Theatre ... 1186 

289. Interior of the Wagner Theatre ... 1187 
Franz Liszt, Portrait of ...To face 1189 
Franz Liszt, Autograph of ... ,, 1191 

290. Johannes Brahms, Portrait of 1199 

291. The Vienna Opera-House 1233 

292. Giuseppe Verdi, Portrait of 1237 

293. N. Gade, Portrait and Autograph of 1252 

294. Rubinstein, Portrait and Autograph 

of 1258 

295. Sarasate, Portrait of 1265 

296. Pauline Lucca, Portrait of 1268 

297. Joseph Joachim, Portrait of 1270 

298. Wilhelmj, Portrait of 1271 

The Organ at King's College, Cam- 
bridge To face 1296 

299. Sir W. Sterndale Bennett, Portrait of 1285 

300. Sir G. Grove, Portrait of .. .. 1308 




THE list of the composers of the Talent period, which commenced with 
Franz Schubert and Karl Maria von Weber, and includes Spohr and 
Meyerbeer, closes with Felix Mendelssohn and Robert Schumann. Richard 
Wagner, though belonging to this period, will, in consequence of his 
exceptional position in the history of music, be treated of in a succeeding 

Schubert and Weber exhibit that naivete to be found in the works of 
the great tone-poets of the Genius epoch, hyper-sentimentality finding 
no place in their works, which are replete with the health" and vigour 
which characterise the national mind. The feature distinguishing Spohr 
and Meyerbeer from Weber and Schubert and the same might be said of 
Mendelssohn and Schumann is that they bear the impress of nationality 
in a less degree. Spohr, as a harmonist and romantic writer, exhibits a 
vein of nationality which forms a special feature in his productions; yet 
his works, taken as a whole, give evidence that he was unable to portray so 
thoroughly the national characteristics of the Germans as did his pre- 
decessor Weber. The works of Meyerbeer, though to a great extent 
lacking that specifically German element to be found in the productions of 
Spohr, have gained a far wider popularity. The national character appears 
in a less degree in the works of Mendelssohn and Schumann, yet their pro- 
ductions are impressed with it more deeply than those of the members of 
the Genius epoch. Mendelssohn's national sentiment finds an outlet in the 
following songs, which have gained great popularity, rivalling that of the 
gems of Weber and Schubert: "Es ist bestiment in Goltes Rath," 
" Wer hat dich, du schoner Wald/' " Liese zieht durch mein Geiniith," and 
" Ihr Thaler weit, ihr Hohen." We are entitled to treat Mendelssohn and 
Schumann as twin talents, as we have treated many of their predecessors 
belonging to the same period, since they possess many mental qualities 
in common, and their points of difference are such that each supplies whnt 
is wanting in his fellow. In discussing their points of similarity we fin 1 
that both are essentially subjective and lyric. The supremacy of the lyric 


over the dramatic style is a characteristic of the latest period of art, and 
exists not only in modern music, but also in poetry and painting. We 
must not be deceived by terms, for much which is to-day presented to us 
as being epic or dramatic is purely lyrical; in the place of an objective 
representation standing out in bold relief, we encounter a restricted and 
most individual conception, the outcome of artistic subjectivity. It cannot 
fail to surprise us that such a feature should appear at a period when society 
is so strongly imbued with realism ; it must be traced to the reaction of 
man's inborn idealism, which rebels against the scepticism and prosaic 
materialism by which it is surrounded on all sides. Music, being the most 
lyrical of all arts, deals most closely with the innermost life. It must also 
be acknowledged that the opportunities for lyrical expression in music 
are more numerous and varied than in poetry, painting, or sculpture ; con- 
sequently Mendelssohn and Schumann, although in many respects but fol- 
lowers of the lyrical school of the great epochs which preceded them, have 
devised new methods for its application. f Mendelssohn is the founder of: 
the concert-overture, a form of composition which consists of a complete 
tone-picture. Instances of composition like his Hebrides and Melusine are 
not to be found among the works* of his predecessors. To Mendelssohn 
also we owe the introduction of "songs without words/'* and the re- 
modelling of the " Capriccio " and four-part a capella songs. Schumann 
must be credited with the invention of the ballad for recitation with piano- 
forte accompaniment, the " Novelette " form and " Symphonic Etude/' 

A fresh instance of the similarity existing between our two composers is 
their prominence in the list of song-writers subsequent to Schubert. Their 
contributions to the fund of German song are not marked by number alone 
but by their excellence. Mendelssohn wrote about one hundred and forty 
songs, including ten duets, twenty- eight four-part songs for male and 
female voices, seventeen songs for male chorus, and eighty-three solo songs. 
The solo song published by Schubert of Leipzig, at the author's request, as 
the eighty-third was composed by Mendelssohn for his mother's album in 
1826, the words being taken from Schiller's " Wallenstein." Schumann's 
vocal works exceed two hundred, and comprise duets and choruses for mixed 

* This must be taken with some reservation, as it may be well contended that John Field 
in his "Nocturnes" had in a great measure forestalled Mendelssohn in this particular. 
F. A. G. 0. 


and male voices. Both composers possess a refined sentiment which 
approaches feminine grace and ardour. 

These masters figure most prominently among the composers of 
symphony, symphonic overture, and concerto for solo instrument with 
orchestral accompaniment, since the period of the three great classical 
syrnphonists, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Whilst Schubert and Spohr 
are entitled by their C major symphony and " Power of Sound " respectively 
to stand on a level with Mendelssohn and Schumann, we must bear in 
mind the fact that those masters composed but one such work, Schubert's 
B minor symphony being unfinished, whereas Schumann has written four 
symphonies of this kind, viz., the B flat major, the D minor, the C minor, 
the \<] flat major, as well as his splendid "Overture, Scherzo, and Finale," 
which might almost be reckoned as a fifth symphony, and the grand piano- 
forte concerto in A minor. Mendelssohn, besides his two symphonies in 
A major and A minor, wrote the pianoforte concerto in G minor, his violin 
, and his five original concert overtures, Midsummer Night's Dream, 
, Mc/n.sine, The Calm and Prosperous Voyage, and Ray Bias ; the 
overture to Athalie, not being an independent conception, cannot be included 
in this list. > Schumann must be acknowledged as the most important com- 
poser of instrumental music since Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. This 
composer attains the same prominence as a composer of chamber music, 
his position being established by his three string quartetts, Op. 41, his 
pianoforte quintett in E flat major, Op. 44, and his piano quartett in 
E flat, Op. 47. Mendelssohn, notwithstanding much that is charming and 
skilfully finished, cannot be compared with his contemporary Schumann as 
regards inventive power and passion. 

chumann and Mendelssohn are entitled to take the lead as composers 
of classical pianoforte music since Beethoven. Schumann employed his piano \ 
as a means of expressing his most intense feeling, and we find that the first 
ten years of his career as a composer (1829 1839) were entirely devoted to 
pianoforte compositions. The results are his " Papillons," " Intermezzi/' 
" Carnival," " Scenes mignonnes sur quatre notes;" his sonatas, Ops. 11, 
14,22; his " Fantasiestiicke," "Arabesken," "Humoresken," "Nachstucke," 
" Kinderscenen," eighteen characteristic pieces entitled " Die Davids- 
biindler;" and " Kreisleriana." Mendelssohn's pianoforte compositions 
are glimpses of an artistic imagination, which never reveal the sentiment 
M M M 


of the innermost soul, and in their composition the master has not 
neglected the opportunities for brilliant execution. Schumann's instru- 
ment was the companion to whom he freely confided his innermost feelings. 
Mendelssohn, on the contrary, considered his piano merely the mediator 
between the composer and his audience, though this assertion by no means 
implies that he ever descended to the level of drawing-room music, as 
is proved by the list of his compositions including the " Songs with- 
out Words," " Characterstiicke," " Praludien und Studien," " Caprices/' 
"Fantasies," "Sonatas," " Variationen," Capriccios/' "Praludien und 
Fuo-en," Op. 35, and " Variations serieuses," Op. 54. 

Both masters failed in their attempts to write operas, neither possess- 
ing the required dramatic gift, and failing to raise their musical expression 
to the necessary climax. Schumann, though having written an opera, is 
even less gifted in this form of composition than Mendelssohn, whose 
music to the Midsummer Night's Dream and Antigone has retained its 
position on the modern stage, whilst the very rare performances of 
Schumann's Genoveva and incidental music to Byron's Manfred are 
regarded rather as a necessary tribute to the memory of a celebrated 

Apart from music we find several points of similarity in the life of 
our two composers : both had received the soundest education ; they both 
exhibited the most refined mental culture, which, however, was not only 
the result of their school and college training but of the development 
of general culture since the reformation which began after the German 
Genius epoch and the rise of German ^poetry. 

In the taste of the two masters we encounter a material difference : 
whilst both composed music for the poetry of Goethe, Heine, Geibel, 
Uhland, Eichendorff and Lenau, Schumann exhibited a preference for Jean 
Paul, Byron, Thomas Moore, Chamisso, T. A. Hoffmann, Riickert, Justinus 
Kerner, Moricke, Hebbel and Tieck ; Mendelssohn's taste, however, in- 
clined towards the older writers, such as the Psalmists, Shakespeare, 
Cervantes, Vosz, and Platen. Schumann's love of the romantic is to be 
seen even in his choice of literature. Mendelssohn, on the contrary, is a 
decided classic, or rather a classic in the romantic era. We have already 
demonstrated that since the entry of the epoch of the Great German 
Talents every musician has been more or less influenced by the romantic 



element, and Mendelssohn, though the resuscitator of the classical art- 
form, did not escape the prevailing influence. The distinction between 
Schumann and Mendelssohn is, in short, that the latter is more en- 
tirely classical, whilst the former, like Mozart and Beethoven, exhibits a 
classical and a romantic side. Schumann, like Spohr, is one of the few 
romantic writers who has thoroughly mastered the classical art-form. 
This is to be seen especially in his orchestral and chamber music. The 
works which bear the most powerful impress of the romantic, and by 
which the master aided in the establishment of the school, belong to his 
youth, and were superseded by the productions of the later period of his life 
which exhibit greater perfection of form; nevertheless the earlier works will 
ever remain interesting specimens as belonging to a period of the past. 
Among the works of this class we must mention his " Carnival ; " his 
grand sonata in F sharp minor ; his " Kreisleriana," based on the hyper- 
romantic work of T. A. Hoffmann, entitled " Kapell-Meister Kreisler;" the 
" Papillons," inspired by Jean Paul's humoristic fancy ; and his " Davids- 
biindler." Schumann himself writes in 1837 to Moscheles concerning the 
"Carnival " : "The whole of it claims no position as a work of art, but 
the many varied moments of emotion may prove of interest/' In 1852 he 
writes to Van Bruyck as follows : " I am afraid you are extolling too 
highly my early works, such as the sonatas whose defects are too clear to 
me. Of my later and more ambitious works, such as my symphonies and 
choral compositions, such a kind recognition would be more just.'' We 
cordially agree with the master's modest opinion, and in respect to his 
choral compositions we should notice particularly his choruses to Goethe's 
Faust, and in particular the Finale of the second part. 

Schumann and Mendelssohn do not only differ as regards the extent, 
force, and quality of their romantic tendency, but in Mendelssohn we find 
an epic element by which he was enabled to resuscitate the oratorio. He has 
founded his resuscitation on the older productions of Bach and Handel, 
re-modelling them to suit the present taste. 

Mendelssohn's St. Paul is based upon Sebastian Bach's Passion of St. 
Mitll/ieir, and his Elijah is founded on the Old Testament oratorios of 
Handel. These works are not mere copies of the productions of the earlier 
masters, for their spirit is thoroughly modern, and they show everywhere 
the characteristic features of the composer. Schumann also attempted 
M M M 2 



religious music, and in his essays he has given birth to much that is new 
'and 7 beautiful; nevertheless the Paradise and Peri and the Pilgrimage 
of the Rose, compared with St. Paul and Elijah, are as the poetry of 
Thomas Moore and Moritz Horn to the language of the Bible. The one 
introduces powerfully drawn Prophets and Apostles; the other represents m 

his music hazy outlines of femi- 
nine grace belonging to the 
poetry of the flowers and fairies. 
Schumann's efforts were strictly 
lyrical, whereas Mendelssohn 
employs an epic power which 
finds its equal nowhere since 
Bach and Handel. Although 
he fails to attain to the sublime 
grandeur of the great masters^ 
we cannot but admire the ear- 
nest and energetic perseverance 
with which he pursues his object. 
No one since has succeeded in 
permeating choral works with an 
equal epic spirit, compared to 
which Schumann's polyphony 
Fig. 268. Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy. appears the weakest point of his 

Bora 3rd February, 1809, at Hamburg ; died wo compositions. 

4th November, 1847, at Leipzig. . , , 

In order to elucidate the rea- 

(After a Portrait painted by Th. Hildebrandt.) 

son of the close relationship of our 

two masters we must mention that, at the most important period of their 
artistic activity, they were both residing at Leipzig. Though there was 
but the difference of a year in the ages of the two composers, Mendelssohn 
was undoubtedly the more matured as regarded artistic individuality. 
Nevertheless Schumann, with remarkable energy, soon made up for what 
he had lost while indulging in subjective humour and fantastic creation. 
He soon felt and became grateful for the beneficial influence of Mendelssohn, 
who, with artistic conscientiousness, steadily followed the path which he had 
chosen, and from which he could be drawn aside by nothing. Schumann's 
gratitude knew no bounds, and his admiration may be gathered from the 


following. He says : " I look up to Mendelssohn as to a lofty mountain ; 
he is divine. Not a day passes but he utters some sentiment worthy of 
inscription in gold/' In another letter he says : " I believe that Men- 
delssohn returns to Leipzig- next winter. He is now the best musician 
in the world/' Schumann in 184*2 dedicated to his friend Mendelssohn his 
three masterly string quartetts, Op. 41. A similar tribute was paid to his 
friend at his death, November 4th, 1847, in his "Album fiir die Jugend, 
No. 28, Erinnerung." Mendelssohn appears to have helped Schumann to 
popularity, which is proved by the frequent appearance of the composer's 
name in the Leipzig Gewandhaus concert programmes, over which Men- 
delssohn had sole control. Schumann's engagement at the Leipzig Con- 
servatorium was also due to his friend, who, it must be remembered, was 
its founder. The author, a pupil at the Conservatorium, well remembers 
how kindly Mendelssohn stood at Schumann's side and advised him during 
the first rehearsals of Paradise and the Peri. He also caused repeated 
performances of Schumann's works at his friend David's " Quartett 

We need scarcely make mention of Mendelssohn's thorough appreciation 
of the interpretation given of his friend's works by his wife Clara 
Schumann ; he continually showed his approbation in public. If the 
relationship existing between these two masters failed to become as intimate 
as Schumann might have desired, we must attribute it to the fact that 
Mendelssohn entertained a decided aversion for any creative artist becoming 
a musical critic. When in 1835 he was called to Leipzig from Diisseldorf 
in order to assume the direction of the Conservatorium and Gewandhaus 
concerts, Schumann had already been for a year the editor of the Nene 
Zctitehrift fur Musik, which, after 1844, came into the hands of Brendel. 
Although Schumann would have made as little use of such means to raise 
his name as Mendelssohn, yet there were amongst his staff a few of his 
admirers who praised him in as extravagant a manner as they afterwards 
did Richard Wagner, when Robert Schumann had become a superseded 
standpoint for these Hotspurs of the new Romantic school. That this was 
unpleasant to a finely organised nature such as Mendelssohn's can be easily 
perceived by the following circumstance. When the celebrated music- 
teacher Dehn asked him for some explanations of his Antigone music for 
insertion in his musical journal Cecilia, the master replied : " I have made 


it a stringent rule never to write anything concerning music in public 
papers, nor directly or indirectly to cause any article to appear concerning 
my own productions. Although I cannot fail to see that this must have 
often been to my detriment, nevertheless I will not depart from a principle 
I have hitherto strictly adhered to." In the same spirit he writes to his 
friend David : " If I am not made for popularity I have no desire to learn 
how to acquire it; if you find that unreasonable I prefer to say I am 
unable to learn it, and really I cannot and would not like to learn it." 
When we remember that Mendelssohn's dislike of theorising or speculating 
on his art was so great that all aesthetic arguments were antipathetic to 
him, and that he once remarked that they made him sad and silent, we can 
understand why he conceived a certain reluctance to form a closer intimacy 
with the editor of the Neue Zeitschrift, which had begun to influence the 
Leipzig public. There may have been a good side to this matter, as we 
doubt whether our master could have acted so unrestrictedly for Schumann's 
benefit if greater intimacy had existed, as it might have been conducive to 
a suspicion of mutual interest. 

Mendelssohn when a child was powerfully influenced by Bach, Handel, 
Mozart, Beethoven, and Karl Maria von Weber. The master has often 
been extolled as being the first to introduce a fantastic world of nymphs 
and gnomes into musical art. Notwithstanding, however, the many 
charming and original effects produced by Mendelssohn in his Midsummer 
Night's Dream, Melusine, Hebrides, and Walpurgis Night, we must ac- 
knowledge Weber as his predecessor, and the real creator of this new 
feature in music. We owe to Mendelssohn, however, the " Instrumental 
Capriccio," in which he often introduces the goblin element, which 
is but rarely found in the works of earlier masters. He introduces this 
element also into many orqhestral and pianoforte compositions ; it will be 
found in the Scherzo of his A minor symphony, the Finale of the A major 
symphony, and the favourite " Rondo Capriccioso." Whilst Weber deals 
with the preternatural world in its hideous or pleasant aspect, as in 
Freischiitz and Oberon, Mendelssohn introduces the humoristic teasing 
nature of the elves and goblins. Weber's influence may be plainly traced 
in Mendelssohn's forest and hunting songs ; for example, in his " Wer hat 
dich, du schoner Wald," in the trio of his A major symphony, and in 
the beautiful horn passage in the " Nocturne " of his Midsummer Night's 


Dream. However independently conceived the above passages may be, we 
cannot doubt but that they were suggested by Weber's hunting chorus 
from Euryanthe, or the introduction to the overture of Der FreiscJtiil:. 

Bach and Handel have influenced Mendelssohn most decidedly in his N 
sacred compositions. In St. Paul we trace the Passion of Bach, and Handel 
is certainly taken for a model in Elijah. Though Mendelssohn does not 
reach the standard of lofty sentiment and grand expression employed by 
his models, we meet in his works with new and independent features 
which will insure their position amongst classical oratorios. These features 
occur in St. Paul in the stoning of Stephen and the scene following, 
in the miracle on Saul journeying to Damascus, in the chorus, "Arise, 
shine, for thy light is come/' and in the chorale, to the Christian spirit 
of which the pagan choruses form so striking a contrast. In the Elijah, 
again, instances of epic power are to be found in the contest of the 
prophet with the heathen and their priests, in the final chorus of the first 
part descriptive of the rejoicing of the land at the termination of the 
drought, and in the scene on Mount Sinai. Mendelssohn's Psalms, though 
containing much that is beautiful, contain too much modern subjective 
sentiment; in Psalm cxiv., however, we meet with the serious grandeur 
which characterises the ancient religious hymns. Mendelssohn was the 
first to attempt, and to succeed in producing without poetical and vocal aid, 
grand pictures of nature ; * these compositions are often replete with local 
colouring solely produced by the orchestra. In the overture to the Hebrides, 
which refers to the group of rock-bound islets enveloped in Ossianic fog, 
amidst which the stormy waves and the sea-gull's doleful cry call forth strange 
echoes, Mendelssohn has depicted musically the impressions on a receptive 
mind of the fantastic scenery. This tendency to descriptive composition ex- 
tends even to the master's symphonies : the A major has received the name 
of the " Italian Symphony/' the A minor has been christened the " Scotch 
Symphony ; " these works reproducing in a striking manner Mendelssohn's 
impressions of each country. The first-named with its cheerful and sunny 
character and its Neapolitan " Tarantella," and the latter with its serious- / 
ness and Scotch melody, clearly show the sources from which they arose.' 
With his "Sons without Words'" Mendelssohn has enriched the 

The Editor feels bound to demur to this statement, remembering Beethoven's symphonies, 
tho " Pastoral Symphony," No. 6. F. A. G. 0. 


of pianoforte music with a form of composition which lends itself readily 
to the transfer of momentary impressions. If the works in this new 
form lack the grace and refinement of Mendelssohn they degenerate into 
mere bagatelles. To the master's great merits we must add one which 
almost equals those he possesses as a tone-poet ; we refer to the enthusiasm 
and persistence which he displayed as the champion of Handel and Bach 
in the first half of the nineteenth century. Mendelssohn, in opposition 
to the modern school which underrates the music of the past, was con- 
vinced that the development of the mind proceeds as little hy skips as 
does nature, and that real progress advances by consecutive gradations. 
However, Mendelssohn was far from wishing to reduce the musicians of the 
present time to mere imitators of the great masters of the past, and in 
St. Paul and Elijah he has clearly shown what he understands by following 
the classical writers. Instead of producing a mere imitation of the old 
masters in his oratorios, Mendelssohn has modernised the style of Bach and 
Handel by removing the long introductory phrases and ritornelli, which, 
especially in the arias, served but to forestall and repeat the singer's theme. 
He omits the tedious sequences and endless roulades, and reduces the 
excessive breadth of the text. Such a condensed classical form, notwith- 
standing its advantages, could not raise Mendelssohn to the level of Bach 
and Handel, for however great and important as a man of talent, like all the 
masters since Beethoven, he cannot be classed as a genius, and the chasm 
between talent and genius will ever remain impassable. Mendelssohn with 
becoming modesty never attempted a comparison with the classics, and 
must be credited with referring to Bach and Handel as the imperishable 
representatives of sacred composition. Mendelssohn may be quoted as the 
resuscitator of Bach, and the earnest study which is made of this composer's 
works at the present time is due to him. 

One of Mendelssohn's most prominent works is the composition of 
Goethe's Walpurgis Nacht, which was commenced at Rome in his early 
years. Concerning this production he wrote to his sister : " In the begin- 
ning there are spring songs and such-like in abundance ; then, when the 
guards create a din with pitchforks and owl hootings, begins the witches' 
scene, for which, as you know, I have a special foible ; this is followed by 
the Druids' sacrifice (in C major, with trombones) ; the frightened guards 
follow, and here I will introduce an uncanny chorus, followed by a hymn 


as Finale" Twelve years later, when the cantata was finished, he wrote : 
" In the second part of the concert my Walpurgis Nacht will be resuscitated, 
although in a somewhat different dress, but, if it fails to suit me now I vow 
I will give it up for the rest of my life." The critic Otto Gumprecht 
adds : " It could not fail to satisfy him, for we find in it the three sources 
from which the composer sought subject and inspiration by preference ; its 
form is classical, its matter romantic, and it faithfully represents the 
composer's characteristics. The loving perception of nature and the joy 
of a fantastic fairy world is followed by a pious invocation. The instru- 
mental interlude following the overture and leading up to the chorus, ' Es 
lacht der Mai/ is the most loving greeting of spring ever expressed in 
music. The description of spring and the dramatic effect of the pretended 
devilry are most powerful, and the Finale breathes piety equal in intensity 
to that which characterises St. Paul and Elijah" 

Mendelssohn's songs, with few exceptions, follow the form of art-song 
created by Franz Schubert ; they are, however, as a rule, more restricted in 
form and more cunningly devised than the productions of the earlier master. 
Schubert's ideas are broader, his construction is more effective, his modu- 
lations are bolder and more surprising, and his thematic treatment is less 
restrained than that of Mendelssohn. The careful finish of the latter master 
resembles the polish of marble, yet a marble coldness also occasionally 
characterises the songs, whereas we are carried away by the vital power and 
warmth of colouring, and refreshed by the imperishable vigour of Schubert's 
gems. A similar distinction exists between the songs of Mendelssohn and 
those of Schumann. Schumann's songs lack the naivete and dewy fresh- 
ness of the works of Schubert, whose inspirations are redolent of the pure 
mountain air and the invigorating breezes of the forest. Schubert derives 
his inspirations from real nature ; Schumann's inspirations are derived 
from an imagined nature. Yet Schumann's are ever superior to Mendels- 
sohn's in passionate expression and deep romantic sentiment. We must 
not, however, be unjust to the latter master, who has written such charming 
songs as " Leucht' Heller als die Sonne ; " " O Winter, schlimmer Winter; " 
"Der Herbstwind riittelt die Baume;" " Auf Flugeln des Gesanges;" 
" Wenn durch die Piazzetta;" "Auf dem Teich, dem regungslosen ; " "Es 
1st bestimmt Gottes Rath ; " and the two-part song, " An des lust'gen 
Brunnens Rand." 


We will now discuss Schumann as a writer for the orchestra. On 
April 14th, 1839, he wrote to Heinrich Dorn : " I would often like to 
smash my piano, it has become too feeble for my ideas ; as yet I have had 
but little experience in orchestration." Two years later the symphonies in 
B flat major, Op. 38, and D minor, Op. 120, were composed. These pro- 
ductions by no means impress us as the works of a beginner, but rather as 
those of a sound master. The B flat major symphony was performed with 
great success under Mendelssohn's personal direction in 1841. The work is 
not only original and impressive, but is possessed of remarkable freshness. 
In the Scherzo of this work, as well as in the C major symphony, and many 
other of his instrumental works, we meet with a peculiarity in the shape 
of two trios. The vigorous first Allegro exhibits a formal finish and 
thematic construction which almost equals that of the first part of the 
C minor symphony of Beethoven. The graceful Finale exhibits proof of the 
influence of Mendelssohn. The second symphony, Op. 120, which number 
it assumed owing to the composer's re-modelling it at a later period, is counted 
as the fourth of his symphonies. It gains an entirely individual character 
by the four movements not being separated by pauses, but continuing in one 
whole. In its later form this work shows a much greater mastery over the 
technical means of the orchestra than its predecessor, the B flat major 
symphony, which, in its three vast movements, shows some instances of 
unskilfulness in the production of orchestral effect. The D minor symphony 
contains many grand traits, although in certain moments it reminds the 
hearer too clearly of Beethoven. Amongst the movements of the C major 
symphony, Op. 61, we prefer the genial Scherzo, though none of the 
movements are without interest. Schumann's E flat major symphony, 
Op. 97, must be acknowledged as one of the most important works in this 
branch of the art which have been written since Beethoven. This beautiful 
work receives its title of the " Rhenish Symphony " from the fact of its 
having been written at Diisseldorf ; its freshness and healthy vigour defy 
any presentiment of the approaching mental derangement which ended 
in an incurable malady. The romantic mind of the composer is said to 
have received the inspiration for this work after witnessing the im- 
pressive ceremony which took place in Cologne Cathedral on the occasion 
of the installation of Archbishop Geiszel as cardinal. Op. 52, which 
consists of an " Overture, Scherzo, and Finale for Orchestra/' shows 


surprising originality. This work, which Schumann re-modelled after 
the first performance, shows very clearly the value of a composer's self- 
criticism ; for it is to this that it owes its classical finish and uninterrupted 
flow. No less prominent are Schumann's chamber compositions. As the 
crowning effort in this direction we should allude to the E flat major 
quintett, Op. 44. The Allegro brillante, which begins most powerfully, the 
second movement like a funeral march, in which the plaintive viola is so 
effectively treated, and the passionate Scherzo, with its two trios and 
vigorous Finale, form a complete work which points to Schumann as im- 
bued with Beethoven's spirit as no other master was. We must also point 
to the excellence of this master's quartett in E flat major for piano and 
strings, and the pianoforte trio in D minor, Op. 63, which is reckoned 
the most important of his works belonging to this class. Among his 
string quartetts, that in A minor is the most important, and in it the 
composer does not show himself a mere imitator of Beethoven, but a com- 
poser whose very flesh and blood are saturated with the spirit of the 
great master. 

Amongst Schumann's moral works Faust undoubtedly takes the first 
place, though this opinion is contrary to that entertained by Schumann 
enthusiasts, who invariably retain the Peri for the place of honour. We 
must restrict our opinion, however, to the third and last part of this work, 
the composition of which extended over a period of ten years. The last 
part was the first written, and he was engaged on its composition at the 
time when his creative power was at its zenith. Faust, especially Goethe's 
version, possesses a magnetic influence which attracts every romantic 
composer. Schumann did not escape this ; his genius also found here a 
favourable field for action, and if the first and second parts of his work 
had been equal to the third we should now possess a most worthy musical 
setting of this grand poem. As it is, we possess a priceless gem in the 
Finale of his work entitled " Waldung, sie schwankt heran." 

That Schumann excelled himself in the last part of his Faust will be 
seen by comparing it with the choruses of his other well-known vocal works ; 
for example, his Peri, Pilgrimage of the Rose, Mignon Requiem, Nacht 
Li<'d (Hebbel), and the two first parts of Faust, all of which, as regards 
polyphonic excellence, are inferior. The fugal chorus in B flat major, 
" Gerettet ist das edle Glied der Geisterwelt vom Bosen," the antiphonal 


chorus, " Alles Vergangliche ist nur ein Gleichnisz," and the contrasting 
choruses for female voices, " Jene Rosen aus den Handen liebend heiliger 
Biiszerinnen " and " Du schwebst zu Hohen der ewigen Reiche/' contain 
the noblest power and the most charming tenderness ever displayed by 
Schumann in choral composition. 

The healthy vigour of the Finale to Schumann's Faust is equal to that 
found in the works of the older Romantic school by Schubert and Weber, 
while for romantic expression it may vie with Mendelssohn's Walpurgis 
Night and Midsummer NigM's Dream. In the early portions of Faust we 
meet already with the monotony of the so-called " endless-melody " of 
the new Romantic school, a feature which also characterises the master's 
music to Byron's Manfred. Schumann does not entirely follow the new 
Romantic school; the form of the overture to his Manfred is entirely 
classical, and, as such, is a masterpiece; the contents, however, are of a 
most pessimistic character. The mission of art is not to darken human 
life, but, even when representing the deepest tragedy, its duty is to console 
and elevate the mind of man. The composer of Manfred drags us down 
into a sea of hopeless misery from which it would seem impossible to rise. 
This dire hopelessness, which we so often meet in the lyrics of Lenau, 
creates a painful impression, which is heightened by the recollection of the 
two masters. Notwithstanding the regrettable pessimism of the Manfred, 
we cannot fail to be attracted by its masterly development and the talent it 
displays. The few compositions which affiliate Schumann to the new 
Romantic school belong either to the " storm and stress period " of 
his life ; or may be selected from Ops. 1 to 23, to which he referred 
as belonging to a superseded class ; or else they belong to that period 
during which the master was most terribly afflicted. The compositions 
on which is founded Schumann's world- wide fame belong, without ex- 
ception, to the period of the master's artistic maturity and sound mental 

Schumann's Peri, if we ignore its pretension as an oratorio, contains 
much beauty, although the third part is somewhat wearisome by reason 
of its extreme length. Otto Jahn says of the music to the Peri, that it 
addresses itself specially to those who form a total impression of the work 
from its detail, which exhibits much beauty and finish. To this we may add 
our opinion that, with the exception of the scenes associated with the con- 


queror Gazna, which exhibit a certain epic and dramatic power, the work 
lacks the thrilling- events which would justify the employment of the means 
supplied by orchestra, chorus, and ensemble; a striking example of the inca- 
pability of a lyric composer to invest any subject with plastic power is thus 
offered by the Peri. The subject of this work would never be chosen by an 
epic composer, as being allegorical and too replete with metaphor. Tom 
Moore's hyper-sentimental " Lalla Rookh," from which the subject of the 
Peri is taken, is totally unable to assume the dimensions of an epic poem, 
nor does it contain the requisite heroic figures and events. In the third part 
the work is restricted to the description of the soaring of the Peri over the 
fertile Indies and glowing Orient, the only episode being the tear of the 
repentant sinner by which the Peri regains the lost Paradise. We are 
far from underrating the lyric charms and poetical colouring to be found 
in many parts of this work. The second part is specially rich in the above 
qualities, which lend a touching and poetical expression to the description 
of the Nile sprites, the pestilence, the dying scene of the lovers, and the 
affecting character of the final chorus, " Schlaf nun und ruh' in Traumen 
voll Duft." Nor do we credit the heroic character to be found in 
the oratorios of Handel as alone worthy of acceptance ; for Handel in his 
L 3 Allegro, il Pensieroso ed il Moderate ; Ads and Galatea ; and Susanna, 
departs from the original character of the subject. To Haydn also we owe 
an entirely new species of oratorio. If a subject of so tender and undefined 
a character as the Peri had to be treated as an epic, the smaller dimensions 
of the cantata form would have amply sufficed, and this compression would 
have spared us many tedious and weak points in the score. What is dis- 
played on a large scale in the Peri, that is Schumann's lack of epic power, 
is to be found in a less degree in his cantata the Pilgrimage of the Rose, 
which offers a similar subject to that of the Peri, though of smaller 
proportions. The poem of the Pilgrimage of the Hose, on account of its 
extravagant allegory, which causes it to appear affected and mean, even 
more stubbornly than the Peri, refuses to lend itself to epic treatment. At 
most its contents would have supplied matter for a suitable " ballade " or a 
small cycle of solos. Instead of this the master seizes the opportunity of 
introducing the too powerful means of expression supplied by choruses and 
solos, and he alters the more fitting pianoforte accompaniment into one for 
the orchestra. There is no .need to expatiate on the many lyrical beauties 


which are present in this work, when we recollect that it is the result of the 
talent of Schumann. 

Schumann's songs are as a rule more intense and breathe a passion more 
fiery than that which pervades those of Mendelssohn. If in the songs of 
the latter we find deep reflection and too anxious self-criticism, we feel that 
Schumann's songs are the result of an irresistible inspiration. As a song- 
writer, therefore, Schumann is undoubtedly the more important; he not 
only surpasses Mendelssohn, but every song-composer since the time of 
Franz Schubert, amongst whose disciples Schumann ranks, as exhibiting 
the deepest feeling. Nevertheless Franz Schubert remains incomparable, 
and it must be confessed that traces of his influence may be found through- 
out Schumann's songs, though the latter is by no. means a mere imitator, 
but rather an explorer who has discovered many new paths. The most 
striking difference between the two masters Schubert and Schumann is that 
the songs of the former are mostly of a manly and vigorous character, and 
are pervaded by an unchanging youth and cheerfulness ; those of Schumann, 
on the contrary, are the result of a dreamy and imaginative character, the 
works of a man entirely occupied by his own " soul-life/' and thus they 
receive a peculiar character which occasionally bears a feminine impress. 
Schumann was the first to depict the innermost sentiment of a woman's 
heart, whose most secret emotions he appears to have fathomed. We 
refer to those beautiful song-cycles entitled " Frauen-liebe und Leben," 
"Myrthen," and " Dichterliebe." The twelve songs from Riickert's 
" Liebesfruhling," Op. 37, and those from Eichendorf's poems, Op. 39, 
mostly partake of this nature. If we had to enumerate our favourite 
songs from the repertoire of this master, we should include "'Waldesges- 
prach;" " Es weisz und Rath' es doch Keiner;" "Es war, als hatte der 
Himmelj" "Es rauschen die Wipfel und schauern;" " Uesberm Garten 
durch die Liiften ; " " Ich grolle nicht ; " " Und wiiszten die Blumen, die 
kleinen;" " Allnachtlich im Traume;" "Der Nuszbaum ; " " Du meine 
Seele, Du mein Herz," and many others equally tuneful. Amongst his 
most charming duets for female voices we must select " Wenn ich ein 
Voglein war" as the most beautiful. 

Amongst the interpreters of Schumann's songs, especially those in 
which he displays such powerful passion, none of her contemporaries sur- 
passed Wilhelmine Schroeder-Devrient, and he who has heard her sing the 


" Waldesgesprach " or " Ich grolle nicht " must have received an ineffaceable 
impression. It is natural that Schroeder-Devrient, who so excelled in 
rendering the songs of Schubert for example, the "Erl King," "Das 
Meer erglanzte Weit hinaus/' " Bachlein, lasz dein Rauschen sein," and 
"Ich schnitt es gern in alle Rinden em" should be the most successful 

Fig. 269. Wilhelmine Schroeder-Devrient. 
(Original published by Franz Havfstdngl, Munich.) 

interpreter of the works of Schumann, who so nearly approached the great 
song-master in depth of feeling. Though Schumann lacks dramatic power, 
his Genoveva abounds in lyric beauties ; for example, Siegfried's aria, and 
Genoveva's scene at the cross, acts iii. and iv. respectively. The overture 
to the opera is most effective, is skilfully finished, and is pervaded by a 
genuine romantic spirit. The introduction, with its mediaeval chorus of 
warriors, and the witches' scene, are also powerfully delineated. Amongst 
Schumann's later works for the pianoforte we must note the duets, 
" Bilder aus Osten/' Op. 66 ; the " Waldscenen/' Op. 82 ; the " Marchen 



Bilder," for viola and piano ; " Variations for two Pianos," Op. 46, which 
were performed for the first time in 1843 by Mendelssohn and Clara 
Schumann ; and the " Four Fugues for the Piano/' Op. 72. As one of 
Schumann's most important tributes to the repertoire of pianoforte music, 
however, we must refer to the "Etudes Symphoniques." The list of the 
master's last great works includes the overtures to Julius Casar and 
Hermann und Dorothea ; the two " ballade " for chorus, soli, and orchestra, 
" Des Sanger's Fluch" and " Das Gliick von Edenhall ; " and six splendid 
organ fugues, Op. 60, on the notes represented by the letters comprised in 
the name of Bach. 

We must now consider the principal events in the lives of the two 
masters. Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy was born at Hamburg, on February 
3rd, 1809. His father, a wealthy banker, was the son of the well-known 
philosopher and friend of Lessing, Moses Mendelssohn. The boy's musical 
gift was apparent at an early age indeed to such an extent that there could 
be no doubt as to his future career. In 1813, his family moving to Berlin, 
Mendelssohn commenced his musical education under the care of the cele- 
brated Ludwig Berger (1777 1839). Berger established a pianoforte 
school at Berlin, amongst the pupils of which we find Mendelssohn, 
Adolf Henselt, Taubert, and Fanny Hensel. This school might well be 
called the "Berlin Classical Pianoforte School," as Berger founded his 
method on that adopted by Mozart and his pupil Hummel, which was in 
close connection with that of Clementi, Cramer, and Dussek (1761 1812). 
Dussek was one of the first to apply to the piano what is understood as 
" making it sing.-" Mendelssohn was a pianist of the highest order, and 
his method greatly influenced other well-known pianists, such as Killer, 
Reinecke, and Wilhelmine Clausz. While at Berlin he studied harmony 
under Karl Friedrich Zelter (17581832), who was renowned as the friend 
of Goethe, his correspondence with that master having been published in 
1833 in six volumes ; he composed music to many of Goethe's poems, and 
was conductor of the celebrated Berlin Vocal Academy. Zelter, as a com- 
poser, was of moderate calibre, and, according to Mendelssohn, by no means 
an erudite contrapuntist. The master's conscientious earnestness led him 
to select the best models, his favourite being Sebastian Bach, and this 
could not fail to be most advantageous to the promising pupil. The boy 
heard at this academy the best choral works, in which he took part in 


person, and, when still a youth, occasionally assumed the post of con- 
ductor at rehearsals. This was more beneficial to him than all the 
lessons he received. The attention bestowed on the a capella style 
formed a special feature of this institution, and proved of the utmost 
value to the young master. It was introduced by the founder, Karl 
Friedrich Fasch, 1792, who wrote a sixteen-part mass in that form. This 
special feature was continued under the rule of Zdlter's successors, Karl 
Friedrich Rungenhagen and Edward Grell, born in 1778 and 1800 respec- 
tively, at Berlin ; both of whom excelled as a capella writers, the latter 
composing a sixteen-part mass in the style of Palestrina. The Vocal 
Academy possessed at that period an invaluable collection of Sebastian 
Bach's manuscripts, many of which were either unpublished or out of 
print. From this collection Mendelssohn derived considerable benefit, and 
its influence may be traced throughout his whole career, and to this might 
also be attributed his persistent endeavours for the resuscitation of Bach's 
Passion of St. Matthew. 

The Berlin Opera, then at the zenith of its glory, considerably influenced 
Mendelssohn, for although the dramatic element was never brought into 
prominence, yet the excellence of the repertoire could not fail to impress 
him favourably, and to this influence we may attribute the dramatic effects 
with which his oratorios abound, as well as his music to Shakespeare's 
Mi( I* a >n me r Night's Dream, and in Athalie, Antigone, and (Edipus. At 
this period the Royal Opera-House and Konigstadtische Theatre possessed 
most eminent vocalists, such as Sontag, Milder, Seidler, and Faszmanu, as 
well as the great baritone Blume, and those excellent tenors Bader and 
Mantius. Pauline Anna Milder-Hauptmann (1785 1838) possessed one 
of the most powerful voices of the period, in addition to an unequalled 
figure. It was for this vocalist that Beethoven created the part of 
Leonora in Fidelio. Milder was the best interpreter of Gluck's heroines, 
and as such she excited the greatest enthusiasm among the Berlin public 
from 1815 to 18-'il. She excelled in the roles of Alceste, Armida, Iphigenia 
in Aulis, and Iphigenia in Tauris. Goethe was so charmed with her render- 
ing of the latter part that he sent her an edition de luxe of his Iphigenia 
as a memento. Henrietta Sontag (1806 1854), who created Weber's 
Euryanthe at Vienna, came in 1824- to the Konigstadtische Theatre, where 
she remained for three years. As a bravura singer she divided the honours 
N N N 



with the celebrated Catalani. Her most successful efforts were as Agatha 
in Der Freischiitz, Euryanthe, Anna in Boieldieu's Dame Blanche, and Donna 
Anna in Don Giovanni. Besides these classical roles, she performed suc- 
cessfully the part of Desdemona in Rossini's Othello, Semiramide, and 
above all Rosina in II Barbiere. In 1830 Sontag married Count Rossi, 

Fig. 270. Henrietta Sontag. 
(Original published by F. Schuberth and Co., Leipzig.) 

and retired from the stage; but eighteen years later she returned to her 

ormer triumphs, and performed in London, Paris, Brussels, and America. 

She died in 1854, her chief parts at this period being Lucrezia Borgia, 

di Chamounix, La Figlia del Reggimento, and similar characters, in 

her youthfui appearance caused universal astonishment. Carolina 

tfUerwM/HfW donna at the Berlin Opera from 1817 to 1838; while there 

created the part of Agatha, at the first representation of the Freischiitz, 

21. From that time until 1836 she appeared ninety-one times in this part. 


She also excelled as Euryanthe, Costanza in Cherubini's Porteur d'Eau, 
and Isabella in Robert le Diable. Augusta von Faszmann, born at Munich, 
1814, visited Berlin in 1836, and obtained a success so great as to procure 
for her an engagement at the opera for the following year. Faszmann was 
one of the grandest classical mezzo-soprani, and was incomparable in the 
operas of Gluck and Spontini. Heinrich Blume (1788 1856) was one 
of the most prominent interpreters of Mozart, his extraordinary range of 
voice enabling him to sing both tenor and baritone parts. His rendering of 
Don Giovanni has rarely been equalled. During an engagement of twenty- 
seven years, Blume sang this role one hundred and one times. He was 
no less successful as Almaviva in II Barbiere, In Weber's operas he 
shone as Caspar and Lysiart, and was specially successful as an oratorio 
and concert singer. Blume was a true artist, as is proved by the fact that 
he never refused minor characters, his respect for the composer considerably 
outweighing the love of prominence. He sang the Commendatore and 
even Masetto in Don Giovanni. 

Blume was followed by Carl Bader, born in 1789, who was engaged at 
the Berlin Opera, 1820 1849, when he was especially famous as Adolar in 
Huri/anl/ie, Belmonte in Mozart's Seraglio, Joseph in Mehul's sacred drama, 
Masaniello, and Fra Diavolo. Bader also made a point of conscientiously 
rendering minor parts, such as Blondel in Richard Cceur de Lion, Rudolf in 
William Tell, and Bois Rose in Meyerbeer's Huguenots. He was a member 
of Zelter's Vocal Union ; and, like Blume, was as famous in oratorio as in 
opera. On an equal footing with these two celebrated tenors we can place 
Edward Mantius (1806 1874). Mantius belonged to the Royal Opera 
from 1830 to 1857 i.e., during the last years of Mendelssohn's residence in 
Berlin. He had, however, gained renown as an oratorio singer before seek- 
ing the stage. Mantius was also a member of Zelter's Vocal Union, and 
was in the habit of singing the title-roles in Handel's Samson and Judas 
Maccabeeus. He made his debut at the Berlin Opera as Tamino in Mozart's 
Magic Flute, and became famous in the characters of Belmonte, Ottavio, 
Joseph, Raoul, Adolar, Almaviva, George Brown in Boieldieu's Dame 
Blanche, Florestan in Fidelio, and Pylades in Gluck's Iphigenia in Tauris. 

Young Mendelssohn, as a member of Zelter's Vocal Academy, could not 
fail to be brought into contact with the two last-named singers. The 
excellence of the operatic performances in Berlin at that period inspired the 

N N N 2- 


young master with the desire' of writing an opera for such an ensemble. He 
had already tried his skill as opera-writer at the age of twelve, the result 
being a pretty little operetta, entitled The Two Pedagogues. Although 
parts, and especially the overture, show the strong influence of Mozart, 
there are yet many glimpses of originality. The author is in possession of 
an autograph duet, for soprano and bass, from this work, as well as the 
manuscript of the entire production arranged by the composer for four 
hands. Neither of these has yet been printed, and it is uncertain whether 
any copy exists. Between the composition of this work and the public 
performance of his Marriage of Camacho, the libretto of which is taken 
from Cervantes' " Don Quixote," and which was performed at Berlin in 
1827, Mendelssohn made many essays in dramatic composition. The first 
performance of this work was at the same time the last, for the master 
strenuously refused to witness again the stormy applause of his friends 
confronted by the hisses of an organised opposition. This performance was 
the turning-point of our master's life as regards opera composition. He 
entirely resisted the desire of becoming an opera-writer, his sole efforts in 
this direction being Heimkehr am der Fremde, which was written on the 
occasion of the silver wedding of his parents, and Lorelei, the libretto of 
which was written for him by Geibel, and of which he only completed a 
song, a chorus of vine-dressers, and the Finale. 

In a preceding chapter we grouped a number of composers round 
Meyerbeer, under the title of the Berlin Opera School, and we now deem 
it fit to connect with Mendelssohn the two Berlin theorists, Dehn and 
Marx, who are, by the number and efficiency of their pupils, entitled to be 
regarded as the heads of a special school of composition. We connect these 
masters with Mendelssohn not only on account of their close personal re- 
lation with the great master, but the affinity of their musical tendencies. 
They, as teachers, like Mendelssohn in his compositions, distinctly point to 
the masters of the German Genius epoch as the climax of our musical 
development. Their intention was to teach their pupils that in art, form 
is in as close connection to idea as is the body to the soul. And as the 
soul cannot be imagined without the body, musical ideas without form will 
ever fail to possess an organic existence. The first of these teachers who 
has exercised his influence almost further by his personal tuition than by 
his large collection of theoretical and practical works is Siegfried Dene, 


musical historian and antiquary, born in 1799 at Altona, died at Berlin 
in 1858. Proceeding chronologically, we must include in the list of 
his distinguished pupils, Michael Glinka, Hieronymus Truhn, Theodore 
Kullak, Friedrich Kiel, Martin Blumner, Hugo Ulrich, Woldemar 
Bargiel, Anton Rubinstein, Albert Becker, Bernhard Scholz, and Heinrich 
Hoffmann. Dehn from 1819 to 1823 studied jurisprudence at Leipzig, 
at the end of which period he became attached to the Swedish Embassy at 
Berlin. In 1829 he engaged in music as a professor. Through Meyerbeer's 
recommendation he became, in 1842, custodian of the musical collection at 
the Royal Library at Berlin, where seven years after he received distinction 
as royal professor. By enriching this valuable library, Dehn gained great 
celebrity. Amongst his published works his " Theoretisch - praktische 
Harmonielehre " stands pre-eminent. His list of published works also 
includes an analysis of three fugues from John Sebastian Bach's " Forty- 
eight Preludes and Fugues/' and a double fugue for voices by G. M. 
Buononcini, a collection of music of the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies in twelve parts, and a translation of Delmotte's notes on Orlandus 
Lassus. From among his posthumous papers his pupil Bernhard Scholz 
collected matter for a treatise on " Counterpoint, Canon, and Fugue/' 
Adolph Bernhard Marx, who was born at Halle in 1799, and died in 1866, 
while professor of music at Berlin, was entirely opposed in nature to 
his contemporary. Dehn, although an excellent lecturer, was most posi- 
tive as to his assertions, and terse almost to rudeness. Marx, on the 
contrary, had the diplomatic prudence of a logician, and was an elegant 
and gifted writer. It is pleasant to notice that notwithstanding these 
existing differences, and a reciprocal personal aversion, these men were con- 
scientious enough to work into each other's hands, both starting from the 
same musical principles and aiming at the same end. Among published 
works of Marx we must notice specially his " School of Composition " 
(1837 1847), in four volumes, of which there have been four editions. 
This work is specially calculated for self-tuition, and is most useful 
for pupils who possess some elementary knowledge of music. Of his 
other works, equally intelligent, but not of the same importance, we 
must mention " The Old Musical Theory, in opposition to that of 
our Own Time/' 1842; "Gluck and the Opera/' "Guide to the Per- 
formance of Beethoven's Pianoforte Works," 1863; and the "Musical 


Grammar/' the ninth edition of which appeared in 1875. Amongst 
Marx's most important pupils we must mention George Vierling, Karl 
Reinthaler, and Ludwig Meinardus. Dehn corresponded with Men- 
delssohn, and was repeatedly visited by him at the library, but Marx 
belonged to the closer circle of Mendelssohn's friends, and attended all 
the private performances at the master's house during his earlier years. 

We have already stated that Mendelssohn, in addition to his musical 
knowledge, had received a sound education. At the age of twelve, in 
1821, he was taken by Zelter to Weimar, where he spent several weeks 
with Goethe. The old poet-prince took a great interest in the boy, being 
attracted not only by his beauty, but by his intelligence. During this visit 
Goethe gave more attention to music than he was wont, being attracted 
by the boy's talent. Mendelssohn received instruction at home from 
D. W. L. Heyse, the father of the renowned novelist, who was delighted 
with the gifts of his pupil. Like his predecessor Weber, he possessed a 
decided talent for landscape drawing. His father, notwithstanding the 
boy's evident gift of music, deemed it advisable to apply to an authority 
of the first rank, and to be assured that music was really his destined pro- 
fession. Spontini had already delivered his opinion in the affirmative, adding, 
as he pointed to the church steeple, " II vous faut des idees grandes comme 
cette coupole." This was not sufficient for Felix's father; therefore, in 
1825, the boy being sixteen years of age, he took him to Paris to Cheru- 
bim, to whom the young master showed his B minor quartett for piano 
and strings. Cherubini, who was, as a rule, averse to laudation, said, 
"Le gar9on est riche, il fera bien, il fait meme deja bien."' 

The young master was henceforward allowed to regard music as his 
future profession, but this did not prevent him from becoming an 
industrious student at the University of Berlin. While studying there, 
he paid special attention to history, philosophy, and geography, the 
last-named subject being taught by Bitter. The result of Cherubini's 
encouragement was the composition of the overture to Midsummer Night's 
Dream, The Marriage of Camacho, and numerous psalms and other 
sacred compositions, which were performed at the Vocal Academy under 
his own direction, and received favourable acknowledgment. One of 
Mendelssohn's greatest deeds was the resuscitation of Bach's Passion of 
St. Matthew, 1829, which had never been performed in Berlin, having, 


indeed, been completely forgotten since the death of the composer, p 
Mendelssohn was supported in this movement by Edward Devrient, who 
aided him to overcome the diffidence of Zelter, whose doubts as to the 
success of the work were not dispelled until the final rehearsal. In 1829 
the master visited London for the first time, where his merits as a composer 
and virtuoso were enthusiastically appreciated. Here he met Moscheles, 
who did all that lay in his power to further his success. In the spring of 
the following year, on his way to Italy, he visited Weimar, at the 
request of his friend Goethe. During his visit the poet spent many hours 
by the piano in company with him. Concerning this, Mendelssohn 
wrote : " He sits there still, with flashing eyes, like a Jupiter Tonans. 
Beethoven offered no attraction for him; but telling him I could not do 
otherwise, I played him the first movement of the C minor symphony, that 
seemed to affect him strangely." From Rome, Mendelssohn went, in 1831, 
to Naples, Switzerland, and Munich, and, in the winter, to Paris and 
London. In the following summer he returned to Berlin. The impressions 
he received on the journey were published after his death in a collection 
of letters. In order to please his family he tried to obtain the appoint- 
ment of director to the Vocal Academy, but was unsuccessful. In 1835 
he was appointed " Musik- Director " at Diisseldorf, where he acted in 
concert with Immermann, then stage- manager there. Before the end 
of the year, however, the composer accepted the post of conductor at 
the Gewandhaus concerts. Leipzig was celebrated for its music, even 
before the advent of Mendelssohn; but it reached its utmost point of cele- 
brity during the residence of that master. After a few years this town 
became the musical centre of Germany. By his excellent conducting he 
raised the orchestra to a high point of perfection. The musical reputation 
of the city was not only enhanced by the renown of Mendelssohn as the 
best German pianist and organist, and the excellence and number of the 
compositions he wrote there, but also by the circle of prominent musicians 
whom he attracted thither, and who regarded him as their head. The list 
of these men includes Moritz Hauptmann, born 1792 at Dresden, died 1868 
at Leipzig. Hauptmann was, until 1842, a member of the court orchestra 
at Cassel. In that year Mendelssohn obtained for him the post of cantor at 
tne Church of St. Thomas at Leipzig. The following year Hauptmann 
accepted an engagement as the chief master of theory at the Conservatorium 



newly established by Mendelssohn. Hauptmann is entitled to recognition 
as the first theorist of the age ; in proof of which we must refer to his cele- 
brated work, "Nature of Harmony and Metre," published in 1853, of which 
a second edition appeared twenty years later. His compositions are not 
numerous, but they all bear the stamp of high artistic finish ; for instance, 
his choruses for mixed voices, dedicated to Mendelssohn, which are still well 

Fig. 271. Moritz Hauptmann. 

received, as well as a number of sacred compositions. Hauptmann was justly 
entitled to the friendship of the great master, on account of his sound 
general knowledge, his lofty sentiment, and the purity of his artistic purpose. 
His genial humour can be testified to by his pupils, the list of whom in- 
cludes David, Curschmann, Burgmiiller, Kiel, Jadasohn, Gernsheim, Gold- 
schmidt, Joachim, Von Holstein, Dietrich, and the author. He has left a 
treasury of posthumous works, including a " Treatise on John Sebastian 
Bach's Art of the Fugue ; " " Opuscula," a collection of minor essays, 
published by his son in 1874; the " Laws of Harmony," published 1868 
by Oscar Paul ; the interesting " Letters to Franz Hauser," published by 


A. Schone, in two volumes, 1871 ; and "A Collection of Letters to Ludwig 
Spohr and Others," published by Ferdinand Hiller, 1876. Hauptmann, in 
his earlier years, was an excellent violinist, and a pupil of Spohr. 

Mendelssohn kept a post for his friend Ignatz Moscheles at the Leipzig 
Conservatorium. Moscheles was born at Prague in 1794, and died at Leipzig 

Fig. 272. Ignatz Moscheles. 

in 1870. It will be remembered that he was chosen by Beethoven as 
the arranger of the pianoforte score of Fidelio, and from 1814 to 1834 
emulated Hummel. For many years he occupied a prominent position in 
London. Amongst his compositions his G minor concerto, his " Concerto 
Pathetique," his excellent " Studies " for the piano, a sonata for piano 
and violoncello, and others, belong to our most classical and instructive 
repertoire of music. The third on the list of Mendelssohn's intimate 
friends is Ferdinand David (1810 1873). Like Hauptraann, David was a 
pupil of Spohr. In 1836 he was appointed leader of the Gewandhaus 
concerts, and, in 1843, professor of advanced violin-playing. With the 


exception of Lipinsky, we find no leader who had such power over his 
orchestra as David ; he seemed to impart to every member his own in- 
domitable energy. Notwithstanding that he insisted on strict correct- 
ness, he encouraged individual artistic expression, and if the Gewandhaus 
orchestra under Mendelssohn's baton ranked as one of the first, it owed this 
prominence not only to the conductor, but also to its leader, who carried out 
the intentions of his conductor with the energy of a true artist. Men- 
delssohn wrote his celebrated violin concerto for him, and sought his 
advice during its composition. David's efficiency as a master is proved 
by his pupils Joachim and Wilhelmj. Besides his violin concertos, his 
most important works include his " Violin Schule," and a collection of 
violin compositions by German, French, and Italian masters of the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries, published under the title of " Hohe Schule 
des Violinspiels." Mendelssohn was surrounded by a number of intimate 
friends, who all worked eagerly to extend his influence over the art of musie 
in Germany. The most prominent members of this circle were Julius 
Rietz, Ferdinand Hiller, and Niels Gade. The two latter, during their re- 
sidence in Leipzig, occasionally represented Mendelssohn as conductor at the 
Gewandhaus concerts, or as teacher of composition at the Conservatorium. 
We need hardly mention that Schumann and his wife were included in this 
list. We shall treat of the renowned pianist in this chapter, but Hiller, 
Gade, and Rietz will be included in the chapter entitled " The Present 
Time/' as they survived Mendelssohn longer than Hauptmann, David,, and 

Mendelssohn's St. Paul was commenced at Diisseldorf and finished at 
Leipzig. In this work he displays his creed in an artistic light, and we 
could almost say that it shows the development of the Christian sentiment 
which had not till then become a conviction. In 1836 St. Paul was 
finished, and performed for the first time at a musical festival at Diisseldorf ; 
this performance was soon followed by others in England. In 1837 the 
work was performed for the first time in Berlin, Sophie Lowe taking 
the soprano part. After the success of 81. Paul at Diisseldorf, the master 
was created Doctor of Philosophy, and in 1841 the King of Saxony con- 
ferred on him the title of " Court Chapel-master." In 1837 Mendelssohn 
married Cecilia Jeanrenaud, the handsome and gentle daughter of a pastor 
of the Reformed Church at Frankfort-on-the-Maine. In 1843 Mendels- 


sohn's enthusiasm as a teacher induced him to establish a conservatorium at 
Leipzig 1 , under the protection of the King of Saxony. As a proof of the 
master's earnestness we may mention the fact that from among the pupils 
of the conservatorium he selected six, who met twice a .week to submit their 
works for criticism. The recipients of this special favour were F. A. 
Dupont, who was appointed chapel-master at Nuremburg ; Von Wasic- 
lewski, afterwards " Musik-Director " at Bonn ; E. Biichner, who was created 
court chapel-master at Meiniugeii ; Bratfisch, " Musik-Director " at Stral- 
sund ; Pfretzschner, who accepted the post of organist at the Kreuz Church 
at Dresden ; and the author. Their essays consisted of movements of a 
sonata, or string quartett, a prelude and fugue, or a chorus in the strict 
style. This mutual criticism under the supervision of the master created 
close ties of friendship between the master and pupils, as also between 
the pupils themselves. 

The privilege of seeing Mendelssohn in private was only accorded to 
Sterudale Bennett, Joachim, Wu'rst, and the author, who were allowed 
to bring their compositions for correction and advice. In 1841, when 
the master was invited to Berlin by King Frederick William IV. of 
Prussia, he composed, at the sovereign's request, the music to the Mid- 
summer Night's Dream, the incidental music to Racine's Athalie, and 
choruses to Sophocles' Antigone and CEtlipus in Colonus. During his 
visit he also composed for the newly established royal cathedral choir, 
of which he became the director, many a capella psalms for double 
chorus, liturgies, and chorales. These compositions bear the impress of 
a sacred character more strict than that of most other works of the 
same nature. Heinrich Neithard (1793 1861) was the regular conductor 
of the cathedral choir, and is well known as the composer of the 
national song, " Ich bin ein Preusze." In 142 Mendelssohn was created 
" General Musik-Director/' an honour bestowed on no other before him 
but Spontini. This recognition, however, could not induce him to 
abandon Leipzig. In 1844 he visited Frankfort-on-the-Maine, where 
he spent the winter ; after which, having conducted the performance of 
Athalie at Berlin, he returned to his former post of conductor of the 
Gewandhaus concerts. In the following year the master conducted the 
festival at Aix-la-Chapelle, in which Jenny Lind sang the soprano part of 
Haydn's Creation. This artiste possessed a remarkable gift of rendering 


pianissimo effects, which was especially noticeable in her interpretation of 
Mendelssohn's " O Winter, Schlimmer Winter/' Jenny Lind and her con- 
temporary Livia Frege were undoubtedly the best interpreters of the com- 
poser's vocal music that have appeared before the public. In 1846 
Mendelssohn conducted the German- Flemish " Sanger-Fest" at Cologne, 
and for the first time superintended the performance of his Elijah at the 
Birmingham festival. In the following year he conducted this oratorio 
in London, on which occasion the Prince Consort sent him his book of 
words on which he had written that he was " the saviour of art from the 
service of Baal/' The Queen had already admitted him into the family 
circle, and rendered his songs to his accompaniment. Since the first per- 
formance of his oratorios in England, Mendelssohn has risen into a position 
almost approaching that of Handel. The excessive work of his latter 
years proved too much for his system, which received an additional 
severe shock at the sudden death of his much loved sister Fanny Hensel, 
and he died oh November 4th, 1847. The funeral ceremony at Leipzig was 
worthy of such a prince of musicians. The houses of business were closed, 
the streets were draped in black. At the Church of St. Paul the body was 
received with the final chorus from the Passion of St. Matthew. On the 
journey to the Berlin railway the cortege was accompanied by the members 
of the university bearing torches, and consisted altogether of thirty 
thousand people. At the station, as well as at Dessau, the body was 
received with choruses of his "Es ist bestimmt in Gottes Rath," under the 
direction of the renowned composer of The Last Judgment, Schneider. 

The life of Schumann was no less eventful than that of his contemporary. 
Schumann's father was by trade a bookseller, who, at the time of Robert's 
birth, June 8th, 1810, was residing at Zwickau. It was intended that the 
boy's musical education should be undertaken by Karl Maria von Weber, 
who had agreed to superintend it, but, owing to the course of intervening 
events, this never came to pass. After leaving the high school at Zwickau, 
at the desire of his widowed mother he studied jurisprudence at Leipzig, and 
for one year at Heidelberg. In 1830 he determined to devote himself 
entirely to music, and removing to Leipzig, became the pupil of Wieck and 
Dora. Frederick Wieck (17851873) showed his excellence as a pianoforte 
teacher by the results obtained in the case of his daughters Clara and Marie. 
He excelled also as a singing-master, having been a pupil of Mieksch. 


Born 8th June, 1810, at Zwickau, in Saxony ; died 29th July, 1856, 
at Endenich, near Bonn. 

(By permission of Bartholf Senf of Leipzig, after an original lithograph 
published by him.) 



While studying pianoforte-playing under Wieck, Schumann was receiving 
lessons in composition from Heinrich Dorn. The latter master was born in 
1304 at Konigsberg. He settled in Leipzig until 1832, when we find him 
at Riga in the capacity of chapel-master. We next meet him at Cologne 
in the same capacity, and in 1849 he was appointed court chapel-master. 
Among Dorn's operas Der Sclioffer von Paris and Die Nibelungen are 
the best known. His humorous part and solo songs became very popular. 
As a critic he was noted for his characteristic humour. Schumann was 
unable to continue his career as pianist, having, by excessive practice, 
seriously strained his hand. This is not altogether to be regretted, as it 
was doubtless the cause of the devotion of all his energies to composition. 
An important item of Schumann's artistic career was his association 
with Wieck, Julius Knorr, and L. Schunke, in the foundation of the 
Neue Zeitsckrift fur Musik, in which he took so prominent a part that 
we shall return to it anon. Much praise is due to that band of associates 
who successfully rebelled against the " Kapell-meister rnusik," which 
was the result of the labours of mere adherents of grammatical rule with- 
out ideality, sentiment, or taste. As a genuine follower of the Romantic 
school, loving all that is mysterious and strange, Schumann created in. 
his own mind a union of sympathetic spirits, which he entitled " Davids- 
"biindler," whose intention, he presumed, was the overthrow of " Kapell- 
meister musik." This association consisted not only of imaginary, but 
also living, personages. In connection with this idea, he composed all 
his earlier pianoforte works, ranging from 1829 to 1839. Wasielewski 
speaks of this brotherhood as. the outcome of the poetical ideas and manner 
of Jean Paul. In the articles on the " Davidsbiindler/' Schumann assumes 
the names of Florestan and Eusebius, Wieck is personified by Raro, Banck 
was represented by Serpentinus, Knorr was Julius, and the sentiments of 
Clara Wieck were represented by the opinion of Chiara. Schumann did not 
restrict his choice of characters to the world of the living ; he wrote to 
Dorn : " Mozart was as great a handler as is Berlioz." Wasielewski recog- 
nises in the idea of this " Davidsbiindler " the characteristic trait of Schu- 
mann's nature. The master had an unusual penchant for the mysterious in 
opposition to the reality; his very tread was stealthy. In a preface to 
an edition of his collected works, Schumann, humorously refers to the 
" Davidsbiindler," which he said was no secret society, but a mere creation 



of his imagination. In later years his opinion changed equally in regard 
to his early pianoforte works. Amongst the characters of the " Davids- 
biindler," next to Schumann and Clara Wieck, Carl Banck is the most 
prominent figure. Banck, born in 1811, was a pupil of Klein, Zelter, and 
Berger, and belonged to the original staff of the Neue Zeitschrift. He 
ranks high amongst German critics, and has distinguished himself as a 
teacher of singing, composer of songs, editor of hitherto unknown, 
and arranger of well-known, works of the seventeenth and eighteenth 


In 1837 Schumann essayed to obtain Wieck's consent to his marriage 
with Clara, but was refused. Three years later, having received the degree 
of Doctor at the University of Jena, in recognition of his merits as a com- 
poser, he once more attempted to gain the consent of the father, and this 
being again refused, he married in secret. Clara Wieck, born at Leipzig 
in 1819, had created a sensation as a child of ten when accompanying 
her father on his concert tours. It was to her father that she owed her 
perfect technique, but her conception of the classical masterpieces dates 
without doubt from her meeting with Schumann. The pianist owes her 
reputation as an interpreter of classical music to the fact that she ignores 
her personal identity while performing, and therefore renders equally well 
the works of Bach, Beethoven, Schumann, Mendelssohn, and Chopin. 
Clara Schumann stands unrivalled for conjugal devotion and self-denial. 

During the period of his wooing, Schumann's imaginative mind was in 
a continual state of happy inspiration, which found an outlet in his vocal 
compositions. In the year of his marriage alone he composed no less than 
one hundred and "thirty-eight songs. Among these we must draw special 
attention to the cycle dedicated to his bride under the title of " Myrthen/'- 
the " Frauenliebe und Leben/' " Liederkreis/' the words of which are from 
the pen of Eichendorff ; Riickert's " Liebesfriihling/' of which those 
numbered 2, 4, and 11 were composed by Clara Schumann, and several others. 
In the year 1841 Schumann composed his first two symphonies and Heine's 
Tragodie. These were followed a year later by the three string quartetts, 
the piano quintett and quartett in E flat major. In 1843 The Paradise and 
Peri made its first appearance. In 1845 he composed the fugues for 
piano and organ. These were followed by the C major symphony, 1846 ; 
the opera Genoveva, and the music to Manfred, 1848 ; Das Spanische Lieder- 

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(From t?ie Collcfio 




tr;naiui Sd.ulft uf L'rv'iu. n.) 



spiel, the requiem Mignoti, and "Das Nachtlied," from Hebbel, 1849; 
Faust, which was complete with the exception of the overture, which 
followed three years after ; and the symphony in E flat major, 1850, and 
The Pilgrimage of the Rose, 1851. 

Fig. 273. Clara Schumann. 

In 1843 Schumann was appointed professor at the Leipzig Conserva- 
torium ; but after a concert tour with his wife through Russia he removed 
to Dresden, in 1844. Here he founded a Choral Union, which still exists, 
and bears his name. In 1850 Ferdinand Hiller, on leaving Diisseldorf in 
order to accept the position of chapel-master at Cologne, recommended 
Schumann for his late post of " Musik-Director." After two years of 
activity in this capacity, a misunderstanding with the directors of the 
Diisseldorf " Musikverein," in conjunction with the first symptoms of 
his fatal malady, caused Schumann to resign the post. A concert tour 


through Holland, during which he and his wife received the most enthu- 
siastic ovations, roused him for a short time from his melancholy. On his 
return to Diisseldorf his malady increased alarmingly, and he attempted 
to put an end to his life by throwing himself into the Rhine ; he was, 
however, rescued, and removed to the establishment at Endenich, near 
Bonn, where he died on July 29th, 1856. No tone-poet has been more 
enthusiastic in the praise of woman than Robert Schumann : he was a 
second "Frauenlob." This was acknowledged by the maidens of Bonn, 
who, at his interment, filled the cemetery, and crowned the tomb with 
innumerable garlands. In 1880 a monument by Donndorf, of Stutgardt, 
on which was represented Schumann, accompanied by his wife as the muse 
of music, was placed on the grave. We have already mentioned the 
fact that Schumann possessed more than ordinary gifts as a critic. This 
brings us back to the noteworthy fact that after Beethoven that is, at 
the close of the German Genius epoch composers began to address the 
public as litterateurs. Karl Maria von Weber was renowned as a critic, 
humourist, and contributor to the Dresdener Alendzeltung ; Spohr was the 
first musician to write an autobiography; as early as 1828 we find Berlioz 
engaged as a critic on the Correspondent, the Courrier de I' Europe, and the 
Revue Europeenne, the special champion of Beethoven, Spontini, and Karl 
Maria von Weber. From 1834 we meet him engaged on the Journal des 
Debats and the Gazette Mtisicale, and employing his spare time in other 
literary work, of which we shall make mention anon. Schumann held the 
same position in the literary world of Germany as that occupied by Berlioz 
in France. Franz Liszt and Richard Wagner likewise exemplify the rule. 
Wagner lias gained reputation as a poet, and in his writings has far out- 
stripped the poetical works of Weber and Berlioz. Literary activity among 
the Great Talents was the result of gift, and differed widely from that 
of the host of semi-talents and talentless, who make use of this tendency 
to cloak their lack of productive power in music ; members of this class have 
even descended from concert composition to concert oration. In answer to 
the argument that we find no litterateurs among the great masters, we can 
only offer the proposition that the talents wield the pen in order to establish 
firmly the principles of the Romantic school. Those talents in whom the 
romantic was not the most prominent feature, never employed the pen as a 
means of addressing the public ; and the little that is known of their private 











My thanks for your co-operation in the "Peri," and especially for 

the heartfelt delivery of the aria of the maiden. As I was unsuccessful in my endeavour to 
find you after the performance the ether day I could not express my thanks to you. Receive 
them then now, and accept my good wishes for your future, which to you and yours, to whom 
I beg to be kindly remembered, can only bring joy and happiness. 

With much esteem, 

Yours devotedly, 



opinions has been gathered from their intimate correspondence. The in- 
vestigation of the more profound reasons for the need of literary aid on 
behalf of the steadily increasing Romantic principles we shall reserve for 
a later chapter. Schumann became a litterateur through his opposition 
to many of the features of the musical world, but nowhere do we find him 
claiming indulgence for extreme principles, or a leader of rebellioti against 
all pre-existing tenets. 

As a composer, the storm and stress period of youth past, Schumann 
might be designated a classic in the new Romantic school ; as a critic 
he never indulged in one-sided or unjustifiable arguments ; his pro- 
positions can, even at the present day, be accepted with safety by 
musicians of every party. The best testimony will be found in the 
master's own words. There is an historical interest attached to his 
explanation as to the reasons why he founded his opposition paper in 
1834. " Towards the close of the year '33 there were a series of 
meetings of young musicians, which in the first place were the result of 
chance. The aim of these meetings was social communion, and this 
soon included the mutual exchange of ideas on that art which was to 
them the meat and drink of their life, music. It cannot be said that 
the musical state of Germany at that period was enjoyable. On the 
stage Rossini reigned supreme, on the piano almost exclusively Herz 
and Hiinten, and yet it was but a few years since Beethoven, Karl 
Maria von Weber, and Franz Schubert had lived among us. However, 
the star of Mendelssohn was rising, and wonderful things were being 
said of a Pole, by name Chopin. No lasting effect was, however, produced 
until a much later period. One day an idea seized the young enthusiasts : 
' let us not idly look on, let us act, that the poetry of art may one day 
be honoured/ This gave rise to the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik." The 
following paragraph is still more important : " Our line of action is already 
determined. It is simple ; this is it : to point to the past and its pro- 
ductions, with emphasis ; to strongly demonstrate how, from such a source 
only, new art-beauties can result ; to brand the latest period as inartistic, 
having alone for its aim the elevation of mere virtuosity ; and, lastly, to 
hasten a new period of poetry." Schumann wished to war against " three 
arch-fiends the talentless, the common talent, and the talented scribblers." 
Yet Schumann found later on that he had lighted on a superseded path, 


and that a critical journal b# itself could neither found a new epoch in the 
tonal art, nor call up new talents. Scarcely ten years elapsed before he 
resigned the editorship, hoping as a gifted artist to aid more powerfully by 
his compositions than by his literary work. After this period it was only 
on special request that he contributed minor articles. He broke this rule on 
the occasion of his introduction of Brahms to the world, which he did in an 
article entitled "New Paths/' as he found in the music of that composer much 
that was in sympathy with his own nature, and many novel features. A very 
important item in Schumann's literary work is his first reference to Chopin, 
o one like Schumann has pointed to the importance of Chopin as the com- 
poser of pianoforte music of a most poetical and refined character, and the 
creator of a fresh feature in the new Romantic school. No one has exerted 
himself with so much energy to gain for Chopin an appreciative reception, 
in spite of the attacks of the Philistines, than the composer of the Peri. 
Though we introduce Chopin into this chapter, which had been set apart for 
the discussion of the great German talents, it must not be inferred that we 
have any desire of claiming for Germany the possession of that composer. 
Chopin's position is peculiar. He cannot be identified with the French 
school, no Polish school existed in the first half of the nineteenth century 
to which he could be affiliated, therefore we are only just in classing him 
as a pianoforte composer with Mendelssohn and Schumann. Both masters 
admired Chopin, and there are moments in the pianoforte works of Schu- 
mann and Chopin in which the mental relation and mutual influence of 
the composers cannot escape notice. It is worthy of note too that Chopin, 
notwithstanding the number of monographs and notices in dictionaries of 
biography, has, with the single exception of Brendel, received no notice 
in the most important musical histories of the latter half of our century. 
Arrey von Dommer closes his musical history with Beethoven ; and Am- 
bros, who was a warm admirer of the works of Chopin, was prevented by 
death from continuing his work beyond the life of Palestrina. Owing 
to his descent from a French father and Polish mother, and the influence 
exercised on him by the German school, Chopin may well be styled cos- 

Chopin was not only a highly-gifted musician, but possessed of a most 
poetical and refined nature. He has invested every form of pianoforte 
composition employed by him, be it nocturne, polonaise, mazurka, or waltz, 


with exquisite pathos and charm, and may be said to be the creator of an 
entirely new pianoforte style. Though the waltz was first raised from the 
level of a common dance tune by Franz Schubert, in his " Valses Senti- 
mentales/' Op. 50; "Valses Nobles/' Op. 77; and by Karl Maria von 
Weber, in his " Invitation a la Danse ; " Chopin was the first to enrich 
the art of music by forming a special genre of this class of music. His 
productions were by no means intended to serve as mere dance music, 
but rather as complete poems depicting the various emotions and sen- 
timents engendered in the mind of the dancer. Just as Mendelssohn 
raised the German "folk-song" into an art-song, so Chopin raised the 
dance into an art-form, and the virtuoso salon music that found favour 
with his predecessors into a form of composition possessing a distinctive 
artistic character. He may be said to have infused for the first time 
the genuine spirit of romance into pianoforte music, for it is only in the 
works of Schubert and Field that we find isolated cases, which are still rarer 
in the productions of Hummel and Moscheles. We find this feature inde- 
pendent in Mendelssohn, whereas in Schumann's compositions it is without 
doubt due in part to the influence of Chopin. Indeed, as a pianoforte 
composer, Schumann may be with justice placed 'at the side of the latter 
contemporary, whose influence is seen directly in the works of Henselt, 
Schulhoff, and Hermann Scholtz. 

There is yet another feature in the new Romantic school of Germany 
which is prominent in the compositions of Chopin ; we allude to the use 
of the chromatic progression. This means of obtaining effect was but 
rarely used by earlier masters, like Schubert, W T eber, and Marschner, 
and then in order to express the presence of something strange, super- 
natural, or demoniacal ; in the invention and working of their themes and 
motivi they kept strictly to the diatonic. We only meet one exception to 
this rule, in the person of Ludwig Spohr, who not only used the chromatic 
progression without special purport, but even made it the basis of his 
peculiar manner, which can be traced not only in his part-writing, but also 
in the outline of his themes. If in Schubert and Weber the preference for 
the diatonic element may be regarded as a testimony of vigorous mental 
health, as, with the exception of Bach and Mozart (Don Giovanni), the chro- 
matic element is but rarely found in the works of the heroes of the German 
Genius epoch, and even the most powerful ideas of Beethoven are diatonic; 
o o o 2 


the excessive use of the chromatic found in the works of Spohr, and even 
to a greater extent in those of Chopin, may have a pathological signification. 
The continued presence of an element like this in the creations of a master 
cannot always be considered a fault. Art presents such a boundless field 
that it allows the existence of a pathological character, sentimentality, 
discordance, and even to a certain degree that which is baroque, adven- 
turous, and fantastic, beside healthy vigour, the natural, the euphonic, 
and the beautiful. The latter compared with the former phase is as the 
first crop compared to the second, or the healthy open-air vegetation to 
that reared in the hothouse, which is sickly and mean, commonplace, and 
ugly; the latter, unless used for the purpose of contrast, should be ex- 
cluded from the precincts of art ; whereas we can never fail to be charmed 
by tenderness, longing reverie, and feminine sentiment. These last 
qualities proclaim their presence in Chopin's works in the strong chro- 
matic element, by which he not only bridges the space intervening 
between the old and new Romantic school, but approaches nearer to 
the head of the new Romantic school, Richard Wagner, than does any 
other master. 

The works of Chopin include two concertos for the piano in F minor 
and F sharp minor, a pianoforte trio, and two sonatas for piano and violon- 
cello, with many others. However great the beauty contained in parts of 
these works, they fail to show the perfect mastery of the composer ; that 
is reserved for his smaller pianoforte works, including the polonaises, 
mazurkas, valses, etudes, and the nocturne, which had been previously 
dealt with poetically, but in more restricted proportions. The grand 
symphonic development of instrumental music which had been applied to 
the pianoforte concerto by Beethoven, Mozart, and Weber, and was con- 
tinued by Mendelssohn and Schumann, was beyond the reach of Chopin, 
for he lacks the power of organic development of themes, and strict 
working out of motivi. His orchestration never rises beyond mere accom- 
paniment ; and the same fault may be found with the string parts in his 
chamber music. Chopin appears at his best in the smaller forms of 
composition, such as his twelve polonaises, fifty-two mazurkas, twenty- 
seven etudes, twenty-five preludes, nineteen nocturnes, thirteen waltzes, 
five rondos, as well as in his " Funeral March/' and his compositions in 
the form of the " Crakoviak," "Bolero/' "Tarantella/' "Barcarole/' 


Born 1st March, 1809, at Zelazowa Wola, near Warsaw; died 17th October, 1849, 

in Paris. 

(After an original Lithograph drawn from l(fe.) 



and " Berceuse." Although not a perfect master of the symphonic form, 
Chopin is successful in his impromptus, variations, balladen, fantasias, and 
his scherzi, the form of which he has extended beyond the usual limits. 
We must here not fail to point to the exquisite beauty and originality of 
his sixteen Polish songs. Chopin's originality, which is inseparable from 
his individuality a feature common to the talents of his period renders 
his works almost inimitable. 

Frederic Franois Chopin was born March 1st, 1809, near Warsaw, whence 
his father, Nicholas Chopin, had removed from Nancy. The name of 
his mother was Justina Kryzanowska. He received the earliest portion 
of his musical education at the Warsaw Conservatorium, under the direc- 
tion of Joseph Eisner ; and even as a child excited general admiration. 
He visited Berlin in 1828, in company with the zoologist, Professor 
Jarocki, who was on his way to attend a meeting under the presidency 
of Humboldt. It was now that he wrote about Handel's Alexander's 
Feast : " I confess I have been touched by Handel's Cacilienfest. It 
approaches nearest to the ideal which I carry in the depths of my soul." A 
year later he visited Vienna in the capacity of composer and virtuoso, per- 
forming at the Karthnethor Theatre. From here he wrote : " I have been 
leniently criticised by my compatriots here ; but what can I expect in a 
city that boasts of having heard the performances of Haydn, Mozart, and 
Beethoven?" The refined -interpretation of his imaginative compositions was 
not altogether appreciated in Vienna, for he writes : " There is but one 
voice about my having played too softly, or rather too delicately, for the 
public here. They are accustomed to the thumping of their pianoforte 
virtuosi; but that does not matter. As the case stands, I prefer to be told 
that I played too delicately rather than too coarsely." On his return 
journey to Warsaw, Chopin was fortunate enough to be present at the per- 
formance of Faust at Dresden, given on the occasion of Goethe's eightieth 
birthday. Like a true poet, he had ever before him a female ideal, to 
whom he addressed his inspirations. His first love was Constance Glad- 
kowska. He wrote to his friend, Titus Woyciechovvsky : " I have, perhaps 
unfortunately, found my ideal. I have not, as yet, spoken a single syllable to 
her, but for six months her image has been ever before me." In 1830 Glad- 
kowska sang at the farewell concert ; and he wrote of her : " She has never 
sung so well as to-night : and in her white dress, her hair adorned with roses, 

o o ' 


she looked lovely." On his quitting- Warsaw Chopin was presented by his 
friends with a goblet filled with Polish earth ; and he was implored that, 
wherever he might wander or reside, he would never forget Poland. At 
the end of the year he again visited Vienna, whence he removed to Paris. 
Schumann's enthusiasm was first excited by Chopin's variations on a theme 
from Mozart's Don Giovanni, Op. 2. While in Paris the young master 
met Liszt, Berlioz, Heine, Balzac, Meyerbeer, and Ernst, and afterwards 
Mendelssohn and Hiller. Besides this friendly society, he entered the 
aristocratic circle of the French capital. Prince Radziwill introduced him 
at the soirees of Rothschild, where he soon became a great favourite; and 
indeed, before very long, he became the hero of every Parisian salon. The 
master was helped into this position by the enthusiasm felt for the cause 
of Poland, and the identification of his plaintive melodies with the sorrows 
of his down-trodden fatherland. One of the composer's friends writes at 
the period : " Chopin is at present the hero of the ladies, which causes 
much jealousy among the men. He is all the rage. The fashionable 
world will, before long, be wearing gloves a la Chopin." Every year 
Chopin gave several seances musicales, to which it was very difficult to 
gain admission. The entree was exceptionally high, as his patrons 
wished to keep the concerts as exclusive as those in their own salons. 
We may with justice assert that the /.'refinement of his music might 
partly be traced to his exclusive surroundings. The daughters of the 
highest French and Polish families eagerly sought lessons from him. In 
1835, passing through Leipzig, Chopin spent a day with Mendelssohn, 
concerning. which the latter wrote : " I was glad to be in the company 
of a real musician, not one who is half virtuoso, half classic ; that is, not 
a man who mingles les honneurs de la veriu et les plaisirs du vice, but 
who has a decidedly settled object. However different may be our objects, 
it makes no difference, but I cannot bear those half-hearted people." In 
1836 a second visit to Leipzig brought Chopin into contact with Schu- 
mann. We cannot fail to notice how our master was attracted by 
Germany and German composers. Before his visit Chopin had been 
affianced to Maria Wodzynska, a Polish lady of noble birth, but on his 
return to Paris he found that she had broken faith, and was married to 
a Polish nobleman. It was now that he formed an intimacy with the 
novelist George Sand. During 1838 and 1839 they resided at Majorca, 


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occupying an uninhabited monastery. Of this George Sand says, in her 
memoirs : " Our sojourn in the ruins of the monastery became agony to 
Chopin, and a very difficult task for me ; a broken rose-leaf, the shadow of 
a passing beetle, affected his shattered nerves. All he cared for was 
myself and my children ; all else beneath the southern sky was painful 
to . him/' In the following year we find him at Nohant, her country 
villa. Here her favourite occupation- was to write while he improvised, 
and to this she refers more than once in her novels. Moritz Karasowsky, 
Chopin's biographer, attributes the rupture between them, which took 
place in 1847, to the conduct of George Sand ; and it may be inferred 
that it caused a rapid increase of the composer's malady, of which 
he finally died after two lingering years. In the spring of 1849 he 
rallied, and accepted engagements in London. The improvement in his 
health proved to be, however, only temporary ; and the excitement of the 
London season, and worry caused by a journey into Scotland, hastened his 
death. On his return to Paris it was evident that his life could not be of 
long duration. His knowledge ol this fact was evident from his wish to 
be buried beside Bellini. On the day previous to his death he begged the 
Countess Potocka, who stood at his bedside, to sing something to him. 
She complied by tearfully singing an Italian hymn to the Madonna, at 
the conclusion of which he said, " Oh, Heaven ! how beautiful that is ; 
sing it once more." On the 17th of October he died, after takiug 
affectionate leave of his friend Gutmann. His funeral was public, all 
Paris taking part in it. The burial service was held in the Madelaine. 
On the way to the church his " Funeral March/' which had been pur- 
posely scored, was performed, and the ceremony, according to his desire, 
was concluded with Mozart's Requiem. Thus he was accompanied to the 
grave by the tones of that master to whom he paid homage on his 
first entrance into publicity. In front of the cortege the pall was borne 
by Meyerbeer and Prince Adam von Czartoryski, and the" musicians 
Franchomne and Gutmann, the celebrated painter Delacroix, and Alex- 
ander Czartoryski. Chopin's grave at Pere la Chaise is situated between 
those of his friends Bellini and Cherubini, for whom he felt a marked 
respect. Amongst his lady-pupils Princess Czartoryska is undoubtedly 
the best. On Jules Schulhoff, born at Prague in 1825, Chopin exercised 
remarkable influence. It was through his inducement that Schulhoff, who 


had resided several years in Paris,, made his first appearance in public. The 
author considers that there is no such genial and characteristic pianist 
as Schulhoff performing at present, and that Chopin's works are per- 
. formed either with too little s.pirit, or else with too much realism and 
too many accents. Schulhoff possessed the grace and chivalric spirit so 
prominent in the Polish character. We must reckon as one of the best 
editions of Chopin's works that by Hermann Scholtz. 

Before we take leave altogether of the three masters, Mendelssohn, 
Chopin, and Schumann, who possess many features in common, we must 
consider the position in which they stood with their musical contemporaries, 
as that is the only manner in which we can gain a positive apprecia- 
tion of their importance in the history of musical art. Mendelssohn is 
* the renovator of the oratorio, which assertion will be proved beyond all 
doubt by reference to the sacred compositions of his immediate prede- 
cessors and contemporaries. Before the St. Paul, Graun's oratorio The 
Death of Jesus was regarded as an unsurpassable master-work in the 
north of Germany, and especially at Berlin. It was the ideal of the innu- 
merable cantors, organists, and musik-directors, who, as representatives of 
the still existing Zopf, or the " Kapell-meister " music which had already 
begun its existence, composed oratorios by the dozen, but never dared 
compare their works with that of Graun. The immediate and most im- 
portant predecessors of Mendelssohn in oratorio writing were Schneider 
and Klein. Friedrich Schneider (1786 1853) wrote the Weligericht, 
Die Sundfluth, Das verlorene Paradies, Pharao, Gethsemane, and Golgotha. 
These were considered models of this species of composition, and were 
frequently heard at the German musical festivities at the period in which 
St. Paul was written. Though the WeUgericht contains much that is 
sound and earnest, it has, like the other works of the same master, 
vanished entirely from our churches and concert rooms, although less con- 
ventional than his other works. Bernhard Klein (born at Cologne in 
1793, died at Berlin in 1832) approaches nearer to Mendelssohn. Klein's 
David, contains much meritorious and fine writing, as do his Jephtha and 
Jolt. These works display talent and not mere imitation, but they, with 
those by Reissiger, also including an oratorio entitled David, as well as the 
oratorios of Spohr, the most prominent contemporary of Mendelssohn, pale 
before SI. Paul and Elijah. We must, therefore, connect the works of 


Mendelssohn, for the sake of comparison, with those of his forerunners 
Bach and Handel. We have already given praise to Mendelssohn for his 
resuscitation of the works of Bach. How well-deserved this was is clearly 
seen when we remember that, even in Mozart's time, very little more was 
known of Bach than his " Suites " and his " Forty-eight Preludes and 
Fugues." Mozart found Bach's cantatas and motets, which he saw at 
the house of his friend Doles, quite new. After his death, Bach's works 
again fell into oblivion. The Passions had long been forgotten, his motets 
and a few of his cantatas were occasionally performed at the Church of St. 
Thomas at Leipzig, and in a few isolated cases at vocal academies. Men- 
delssohn directed general attention to the greatness of Bach by his perform- 
ances of the Passion of SL Matthew, 1829, after more than half a century 
of oblivion. The classical vocal unions referred to were that of St. 
Cecilia, founded by Nepomuck Scheibler (1789 1837) at Fraukfort-on- 
the-Maine in the year 1819, and that at Breslau established in 1825 by 
Johann Theodor Mosewius (1788 1858). Not only was Mendelssohn suc- 
cessful in resuscitating Bach's vocal music, but he put an end to the organ 
ZPf> and brought about the death of the meaningless " Kapell-meister " 
fugue. In support of his endeavours Mendelssohn wrote six preludes and 
fugues for piano, Op. 35 ; three organ fugues, Op. 37 ; and six sonatas for 
the organ, Op. 65. Schumann aided in the same cause with four fugues 
for piano, Op. 72 ; and six fugues for the organ, on the notes represented 
by the letters contained in the name Bach. These works were permeated 
with the spirit of Bach and Handel, and, whilst removing everything 
meretricious, they infused into the orthodox forms the spirit of modern 
thought. These praiseworthy efforts produced good effect on other com- 
posers. It was under this influence that Alexander Klengel (1784 1852), 
the court organist at Dresden, composed his excellent canons and fugues, 
which were published after his death by Moritz Hauptmann. The same 
might be said of J. Ch. H. Rinck (17701846), a disciple of Bach's pupil 
Kittel, who became famous through his chorales ; R. Hesse, whose life 
we have discussed in a former chapter ; A. G. Ritter (1811 1885) ; and 
Gustave Rebling, born 1821. 

Mendelssohn also exerted his power on behalf of the quartett for male 
voices, which form of composition had degenerated and become common- 
place, though since the time of Karl Maria von Weber, the father of this 


form, Kreutzer, Methfessel, Marschner, Zollner, Julius Otto, Heinricli 
Dorn, and Abt have done some good work, yet most of the composition of 
this form was of the most trivial kind. With the exception of his splendid 
choruses to (Edipus and Antigone, Mendelssohn has written but few part- 
songs for male voices, yet this small number not only gained great 
popularity, but may be said to vie with those of Karl Maria von Weber, 
and have done much towards reinstating this form of art-song. This 
assertion will not surprise any who have heard, for instance, the "Am 
fernen Horizonte/' We are entitled to speak as strongly in favour of 
Mendelssohn's composition for mixed choirs, which, as regards poetical 
significance, Mendelssohn may be said to have re-created. His most gifted 
follower in this branch of composition was undoubtedly Robert Schumann. 
To gain a definite idea of the value of the songs of these two masters, we 
must compare them with those of their contemporaries. Friedrich Silcber 
(1789 1860), the senior of their contemporaries, whose songs were already 
in vogue in the early days of Mendelssohn and Schumann, compares favour- 
ably with Reichardt and Zelter. He was, however, more successful in 
striking the taste of the public in such songs as " Aennchen von Tharau," 
" Morgen musz ich fort von hier," " Ich hatt' einen Kameraden," which, 
even if failing to rise to the level of art-songs, possess imperishable 
melody. In chronological order, Silcher is followed by Josef Dessauer, 
born in 1798 at Prague, who, like the other composers of the period, wrote 
operas, orchestral, choral, and chamber compositions, but owes his popularity 
chiefly to his songs and romances, many of which became extremely 
popular in France. The intellectual superiority of Dessauer's accompani- 
ments almost raises him to the level of Mendelssohn and Schumann. We 
may almost say the same of Norbert Burgmuller (1803 1836), who has 
left some excellent specimens of orchestral composition, chamber music, and 
songs. Karl Friedrich Curschmann (1805 1841), a native of Berlin, was a 
pupil of Spohr and Hauptmann. Many of his songs gained great popularity. 
The next on the list is Heinrich Proch (18091878), w'ho is followed by 
Friedrich Wilhelm Kiicken, born at Hanover in 1810. These two, like 
Curschmann ajid Franz Abt, although popular, may be justly accused of 
hypersentimentality, which at times approaches dangerously near to tri- 
viality. Proch's " Alpen Horn/' and Kiicken's " Ach wenn du warst 
mein eigen," enjoyed popularity for over twenty years. We must except 


Kiicken's " Ach, wie war's moglich dann/' which has become a folk-song 
among the Thuringians. With a reference to Wilhelrn Speier, born at 
Frankfort-on-the-Maine in 1790 ; Hieronymus Friedrich Truhn, born in 
1811 at Elbing ; and Karl Banck, we close the list of song-writers who 
enjoyed popularity in the time of Schumann and Mendelssohn. In favour 
of Banck we may add that he aimed higher than most of his contem- 
poraries, as may be seen in his setting of well-known poems, which give 
proof of Schumann's intiuence. 

Both Schumann and Mendelssohn stand out boldly as composers of 
chamber and orchestral composition. In chamber music Schumann un- 
doubtedly surpasses his contemporary, although Mendelssohn's octett for 
strings and his quartett in E flat major rise above most works of the 
same kind by his contemporaries. Though Schumann may excel in the 
symphony, Mendelssohn is superior in the concert overture ; and if their 
works are carefully examined, and their value duly weighed, their import- 
ance in the history of modern tonal art cannot fail to strike the student. 
However clever may be the well-finished orchestral and chamber music of 
Kalliwoda (18001866), Lindpaintner (17911856), Reissiger (1798 
1859), Vincenz Lachner (1811), Onslow (17841852), Hummel (1778 
1837), and others, none of them have, like Schumann and Mendelssohn, 
approached so near to their great predecessors of the Genius epoch in 
thematic treatment of poetical ideas. As the best works of Lindpaint- 
ner and Reissiger, we quote the overtures to Faust and Felsenmu/t/e. 
Kalliwoda's " Das Deutsche Lied " has been adopted as the national anthem 
by the Germans in Austria. Mendelssohn and Sehumann infused new 
life into orchestral music. Chopin raised the waltz and mazurka from 
simple folk-melodies to the level of art-productions, and Mendelssohn may 
be said to have done the same in song. Nearly all the previous attempts 
to achieve this may be recorded as failures. Weber and Silcher must, of 
course, be excepted ; Reichardt and Zelter may be said to have succeeded 
occasionally; Strauss, Lanner, and Labitzky have produced works far 
superior to those of our contemporary pianoforte composers, with the ex- 
ception of Brahms, who possesses considerable artistic power, -especially 
apparent in his waltzes for four hands, with vocal accompaniment. 
Schumann, Chopin, and Mendelssohn must be also regarded as the 
renovators of modern pianoforte music, which the works of Weber, 


Hummel, and Moscheles excepted had degenerated as much as the 
other branches of the tonal art. This deterioration did not, however, 
extend to the opera. The three musicians with whom we are dealing in 
this section carefully eschewed programme music. Schumann's works of 
this class belong to his early period; and during the epoch of his 
greatness he carefully refrained from expressing more than the mere 
title of his work. In their great symphonic works Mendelssohn and 
Schumann have altogether ignored programmes, although Berlioz and 
Liszt had adopted them, and Wagner had even supplied one for the ninth 
symphony. Mendelssohn ridiculed the idea of attempting to supply 
programmes to his songs without words; in Chopin's works we find no 
traces of any programme. In this respect our composers were stricter 
than the great masters of the Genius epoch. Of those masters Haydn 
indulged to the greatest extent in musical painting; next to him we must 
place Beethoven, who employed programmes for several of his symphonies. 
This ignoring of programme music is rendered still more remarkable by the 
fact that the composers in question belong to the Romantic school. Many 
modern romantic composers consider that instrumental music is incomplete 
unless accompanied by a programme. The author suggests that in many 
cases the programme is merely a cloak to conceal artistic incapability and 
want of power in working in the classical art-form. 

There are still more links of a mental and artistic relation between 
Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Chopin ; for example, the feminine element 
which we find in their being, their creation, and conception of the world. 
This element is most prominent in Chopin. A special feature of these three 
masters is the entire absence of envy. Chopin gave proof of this by his 
enthusiasm for so dangerous a rival as Liszt ; Mendelssohn by his interest in 
the works of Schumann and Gade ; Schumann by his respect for Mendelssohn 
and Berlioz, and the extraordinary zeal which he displayed in smoothing 
the way for Chopin and Brahms. A trait equally common to these com- 
posers was their reverence for the classical composers and everything great 
in art. Mendelssohn wrote to Taubert : " Is this lofty and unpleasant 
manner, this bitter cynicism, as disagreeable to you as to me ? And do you 
agree with me, that the first condition of an artist should be to bear respect 
towards what is great, and to bow to it and acknowledge it, and not 
attempt to extinguish great flames for the sake of making his own rush- 



light burn more brightly?" We gave a similar utterance of Schumann's 
when giving the reasons for his founding the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik. 
Chopin's reverence for Mozart and Beethoven has been already referred to. 
Party spirit was disagreeable to all three. Schumann was annoyed at 
praise from the paper he had established, and the comparison drawn between 
himself and Mendelssohn. Mendelssohn's letters prove positively his dis- 
like for all musical clique; Chopin, with his retiring nature, never took 
any part in such matters. Our three masters may be said, briefly, to have 
infused a new poetical spirit into all the forms of composition excepting the 
opera, which had been for some time before fast degenerating 



E took leave of the most musically-gifted of the Latin races 
in an earlier chapter, when noticing the decadence of their 
music, which was owing to the influence exercised over 
European art in the eighteenth century by the entrance 
of the Zopf period. The sway of the Zopf was rendered 
doubly potent from the fact of its emanating from the Italians, who claimed 
seniority as a cultured nation. Notwithstanding the power exercised by 
Scarlatti over the French school of music, and by Bernini and Borromini 
over the architecture and sculpture of the period, the French nation intui- 
tively formed an idiosyncratic artistic manner, which had been in existence 
even during the period of the Baroque. This is especially noticeable in the 
operas of Lully and Rameau, and the tragedies of contemporary writers. 
Notwithstanding the generally pernicious influence of the Zopf, men of 
talent existed in the eighteenth century who were enabled by their 
individual power to stand out in bold relief from among the multitude of 
their fellow-artists. On Italian music for piano and violin, either chamber 
or orchestral, the Zopf exercised less power than on opera, oratorio, and 
other sacred music. This is proved by the works of the celebrated violin 
virtuosi and composers, such as Tartini (16921770) ; Locatelli (1693 
1764) ; Sammartini (1700 1775), who, by his symphonies, overtures, and 
chamber compositions, might be almost considered the forerunner of Joseph 
Haydn ; Boccherini (1743 1805), who has composed much solid and 
tasteful music for that period ; Nardini, died 1793 ; Lolli, died 1802 ; 
Pugnani, died 1803; Clementi (17521832); Viotti (17531824); 
Valentini, who lived about the latter half of the eighteenth century; 
and Sacchini, who has written many trios and sonatas. In France we 


meet with Leclair (16971764), Gavinies (17261800), and Duport. 
Although the Zopf reigned supreme in Italy and France, these composers 
were all more or less affected by the advancing stream of modern ideas 
which were bringing about the maturity of the German Genius epoch. 
If other nations could not escape the influence of Bach, Handel, Gluck, 
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, how much greater power must those 
masters have exercised over the Italians and French, the most gifted of 
their neighbours, especially when their music had become familiar to the 
masses, and Germany added to its Genius epoch such a brilliant array of 
talents as Schubert, Weber, Spohr, and Meyerbeer, for the influence of 
Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Wagner had as yet not extended thus far. 
Proof of this is found in the works of Cherubini, Spontini, Rossini 
(Tell and Barbiere), and the followers of the Italian melodist. Among 
the French it is exemplified by the works of Gretry, Mehul, Boieldieu, 
Herold, Halevy, and rarely Auber, as well as a considerable number of 
prominent masters who have added to the repertoire of French comic 
opera during the last half of the eighteenth and first of the nineteenth 
century. This genre of composition, notwithstanding the German influence, 
contains all the French grace and finesse. 

The influence of the Germans over the French and Italian music con- 
tinues at the present day, and to such an extent, indeed, that both nations 
imitate them in errors and in improvement. It will be remembered that 
when the old French school of contrapuntists of Notre Dame, the Nether- 
land school, and the Italians ruled the musical world in turn, the position 
was reversed. The imitation by the French and Germans of the Italian 
school, albeit the Italians were then in the midst of their Zopf period, 
was attended with advantage. Such talents as Cherubini who might 
almost claim a place next to the six great masters of the Genius epoch 
or Spontini could never have existed without the influence of Haydn, 
Mozart, Beethoven, or Gluck ; nor could the masters of the charming 
comic Romanvic French opera have perfected their purity of expression, 
freed themselves from conventionality, and acquired such a mode of poly- 
phonic treatment, had not they received aid from the German Genius and 
Talent epochs that preceded them. There is no doubt but that a great part 
of this charm is owing to the national character of the composers, but the 
depth and dramatic spirit of the works are derived from the influence of the 


German school. As proofs of this statement we should mention Gretry's 
Barbe Bleu, Mehul's Joseph, Boieldieu's Dame Blanche, and Herold's 
'Zarnpa. This influence was extended even to literature, and can be 
traced in the works of Chateaubriand, Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas 
(pere), Lamartine, Alfred De Vigny, Edgar Quinet, and George Sand' all 
of whose writings show proof of the power of such books as Goethe's 
"Faust/' "Werther," " Wilhelm Meister/' Schiller's " Jeanne d'Arc " 
and " Marie Stuart/' and the works of Jean Paul, Theodore Hoffmann, 
and Heinrich Heine. In the same way we find that the works of the 
French Romantic school of music are inspired by Mozart's Don Giovanni, 
Weber's Freischiitz and Oberon, Franz Schubert's songs and instrumental 
music, by the symphonies and sonatas of Beethoven, and the works of 
Mendelssohn, Schumann, and Wagner. The Romantic school of the French 
does not only consist of comic opera, but also contains a number of works 
by composers of instrumental, sacred, and romance music. The grand 
French opera has yielded in part to the influence of the Romantic school, 
and we shall deal with it in the following chapter with the comic opera, as 
an interesting, important, and influential factor in the development of 
dramatic music altogether. Auber and Halevy must be placed in the ranks 
of the composers of comic opera, notwithstanding that their Masaniello, 
Gustave III., and La Juive belong to the grand opera. Our reason for 
acting thus is that the greater number of their works can be classed as 
comic, and in them they exhibit that musical na'ivete wd. rhythmic melody 
which form the greatest charm, of the music of this genre. 



WE remarked, while treating of the German Genius eppch, that music, 
after the period of the Reformation, and still more after the commence- 
ment of the eighteenth century, was powerfully influenced by historical 
events and by the march of learning. We intend in this chapter to 
furnish most striking proof of this assertion. In a nation as excitable as 


the French, a reaction of historical events could not fail to find an outlet 
in dramatic music. This is most natural, as the French possess a facility 
for dramatic expression and a power of lapsing into the pathetic at will. 
This talent for dramatic action is noticeable in the history of the nation, 
for at times this tendency has affected the people as a whole, and has 
caused many crises and violent catastrophes, none of which have altogether 
lacked stage effect. Thus we find the French opera in the foreground of 
their musical world, reflecting, as far as music is capable, every phase of 
national, political, and mental existence. As the operas of Lully and 
Rameau exemplify the French Renaissance in the reign of Louis XIV., so 
the masters who succeeded the school of Lully represented a chivalric and 
patriotic fidelity to the sovereign. The passions of the Revolution, and the 
national principle which had travelled throughout Europe, found a place 
in the realms of sound. In the middle of the eighteenth century we meet 
with unpremeditated and primitive features in their art which express 
what we should designate the soul and innermost kernel of French dramatic 
music, being independent of external influences. If this music is credited 
with being the head of the French tonal art, the other opera school which 
deals with the inner life of the populace must be called the heart. We 
purposely employ the term school, as, where the Teutonic love of indivi- 
dualising is prominent, which was the case in the Genius epoch, the Latin 
races indulged involuntarily in forming schools. Of the above schools that 
which represents the innermost life of the people is the national ; the other, 
which absorbs political events, is international, although in its present form 
it is only possible in France. With reference to the latter, we will consider 
those dramatic masters who turned their power to the stage and seized on 
political events, and whose field of choice consists of state events and 
revolutions, and who make the stage the arena for pathos and heroism 
under the title of " Le Grand Opera." Although this species of composi- 
tion is not without foreign influence, it can scarcely be considered less 
the product of the national French mind than the comic romantic opera. 
But the circumstance that the French possessed the power of attracting 
foreigners to the country and rendering them serviceable to their art-cause 
proves that the grand opera, as well as its sister form the comic romantic 
opera, is the result of the gift of the French. There exists between the two 
operas the essential difference that the comic romantic is entirely a French 
p p p 


production in character; indeed to such a degree that wherever the French 
language is to be found spoken by individuals or peoples, it takes root firmly. 
GWfciy waa born at Liege ; Isouard was the son of a French inhabitant of 
Malta. The so-called grand opera may be designated the special product of 
Paris, particularly as all the foreign composers of that form resided at the 
time in the French capital. We find the most prominent French masters of 
the modern grand opera, Auber and Halevy, at the side of the Italian 
Rossini and the German Meyerbeer, the older grand French opera having 
been fostered by Gluck, Spontini, and Cherubini. It may be said that the 
foreigners Spontini, Cherubini, Rossini, and Meyerbeer have elevated 
the special style of the grand French opera in a great degree, thereby 
making it a standard to a greater extent than was accomplished by Auber 
and Halevy. The name of the father of grand opera is in justice applic- 
able to Spontini alone ; he, with his Vestale, preceded all the others and 
established the classical model, the ideal of the new style. Auber with 
Hasaniello, Rossini with Tell, and Meyerbeer with the Huguenots, em- 
ployed Spontini's style with a new and characteristic expression hitherto 
unknown in musical art. 

We must not ignore the fact that a grand opera could nowhere be put 
on the stage to such perfection as in Paris, which city at that time was 
far more cosmopolitan than at present. The opera comique, however, 
flourished equally well throughout all France, and in every country where 
the French language was spoken. A considerable difference exists between 
the two operas owing to the fact that the grand opera was written for the 
enjoyment of the wealthy, whereas the opera comique, the outcome oE 
the ancient pastorals or shepherd plays, ballads, and roundelays, addresses 
itself to the people whose unvitiated taste leads them to recognise genuine 
humour and naivete, and to distinguish the difference between heartfelt 
music and empty phrase. The grand opera presents to the unbiassed observer 
the review of two distinct periods differing entirely in character and style. 
The first of these periods might be designated the " Period of the Com- 
posers of the Great French Revolution and the succeeding Empire," as the 
grand opera continually reflects political and social events ; the second, 
the " Period of the Restoration, July, and Forty-eight Revolution." The 
composers of the former period are Cherubini, Gossec, Spontini, and Lesueur ; 
those of the latter include Auber, Rossini, Meyerbeer, and Halevy. 


One of the earliest masters of the grand opera is Pierre Montan 
Berton (pere), born at Paris in 1727. Berton profited by the traditions of 
Lully and Rameau, which is proved by the great number of additions made 
by him to the operas of those and other masters of that school. His 
reverence for Gluck, in the performance of whose works he took the greatest 
interest, when in 1755 he was appointed conductor of the Grand Opera, 
prevents his classification with the school of Lully and Rameau, which 
was antagonistic to the style of the composer of Armida. Berton is 
instrumental in teaching us that the influence of Gluck, Cherubini, ;md 
Spontini was necessary for the formation of that peculiar style which dis- 
tinguishes the grand opera of the French. When Cherubini went to Paris 
for the second time in 1788, in order to reside there, musical France was 
under the influence of Gluck and Gretry; and the contest between the 
partisans of Gluck and Piccini was at its climax. Although Italian by 
birth, Cherubini did not side with Piccini. Gluck had revealed to Cherubini 
an ideal world elevated in his idea above that of the Italian, and his serious 
and conscientious character soon determined his choice. The ultimate result 
of this decision was the production of Cherubini's immortal tragic opera 
Medee, 1797. Although the grand opera is not so decisively typified in 
Medee as in Spnntini's Vestale, which appeared ten years later, yet it 
exhibits features which that style still possesses. Among these peculiar 
features we may enumerate the greater warmth and diversity of tone- 
colouring, superior power and effect, wealth of harmonic changes, and 
the splendid development of ensembles. In all these qualities, more par- 
ticularly the * last-named, Cherubini's works rise above those of Gluck, 
and still more above those of Lully and Rameau. The declamatory style, 
and superabundance of monologues, forbids the acknowledgment of their 
music-dramas as the fully-developed grand opera. The pathetic operas 
of Lully and Rameau have nothing in common with the grand opera 
but the fact of their being serious. In respect to the music they differ 
so materially from their successors that they seem to stand separate, for 
Gluck neither followed the style of the old French nor of the Neapolitan 
school. Throwing aside all conventionalism, he insisted on dramatic truth 
and heartfelt expression. 

Cherubini also composed a dramatic ballet, entitled Aclnlle a S(\yros, 
and an opera, Die Abenceragen, of which we shall speak in a following 
p P P -2 


chapter. The master is brought into close connection with the grand 
French opera, owing to his pupils Auber and Halevy. He by no 
means disdained the opera comique, however, and contributed some of the 
finest specimens of that form of composition. One of his best productions 
is Les Deux Journees, which was performed in Paris in 1800, and which 
occupies a position between the opera seria, such as Medee, and the opera 
comique, as developed by Gretry and Mehul. This work belongs to the 
grand opera only on account of its ensembles, choruses, and finales , its plot 
being that of an opera comique, the subject the horrors of the Revolu- 
tion. In this work the composer shows his love of liberty and sympathy 
with the people, though he was much opposed to the excesses which were 
the result of revolt. In 1794 he was dragged from his house and paraded 
about the streets by a band of sans culottes ruffians, who finally made him 
provide music for the accompaniment of their orgies. The dislike felt by 
Bonaparte for Cherubini was reciprocated by the composer. On the return 
of the victorious Napoleon from his second campaign, the members of 
the Conservatoire begged permission to perform a festival cantata and a 
"Marche Funebre" composed by the master; the General took notice of 
neither in his speech to Cherubini, but lavished praises on Zingarelli 
and Paisiello as the greatest existing masters. Cherubini answered that 
Paisiello might be accepted as possessing some merit, but that he could say 
nought for Zingarelli, whereupon Bonaparte turned brusquely upon his heel, 
and never forgot the master's candid utterance of opinion. The mutual 
dislike referred to above was further made manifest when Napoleon was 
created Dictator of the Republic. When receiving the masters of the 
Conservatoire, the Consul exclaimed, " I do not see M. Cherubini/' Being 
thus forced into the foreground, the composer could not avoid conversation, 
and when the Dictator resumed his praises of Paisiello and Zingarelli, and 
remarked to Citizen Cherubini that his music was too noisy, the composer 
replied, " I suppose, Citizen Consul, that you only enjoy that music which 
allows you to think without interruption over the affairs of State." In 
1805 the master, disgusted with the condition of the empire, left Paris for 
Vienna, where he was unlucky in encountering Napoleon, who had proceeded 
to that city after his triumph at Austerlitz, and who remarked, " Since 
you are here, M. Cherubini, we will indulge in some music/' The com- 
poser wa.s forced to conduct several concerts at Schonbrunn, the summer 


palace of the Emperor of Austria, without receiving- any such reward as 
had been lavished on Spontini, Lesueur, Paisiello, Zingarelli, and the 

Fran9ois Joseph Gossec (1734 1829) was more ardent than Cherubim 
in introducing incidents of the lie volution into his grand operas. The 
opera, however, was not so powerfully influenced by his works as it had 
been by those of Cherubini and his distinguished foreign contem- 
poraries whom we have already mentioned. Gossec, though not in- 
fluenced by Lully and Rameau, may have written under the influence of 
Gluck, which, however, could hardly have extended to Cherubini, who was 
much younger. In the earlier composed choruses to Racine's Athalie, 
Rochefort's Electra, the grand operas Sabinus, 1773, and Theseus, 1782, 
the working-out of the music is more fully developed and richer in scoring 
than the old French opera seria of Lully and Rameau. These features 
are still more prominent in the cantatas and operas written during the 
Revolution, which differ entirely from the conventional and traditional 
style of Lully in effective and brilliantly-scored orchestration and the exhibi- 
tion of occasional traits of genius. Gossec wrote fourteen minor works, 
including hymns, "A la Raison/' "A la Divinite," "A la Nature/' "A la 
Liberte," "A 1'Humanite," "A FEgalite ; " a "Marche Religieuse," "Marche 
Yictorieuse ; " and choruses in honour of Jean Jacques Rousseau, Voltaire, 
and Mirabeau all which compositions exhibit considerable grandeur of con- 
ception. These works produced so great an effect that the composer was, 
by order of the Directoire, styled the " First Composer of France/' His 
operas may be similarly criticised. The list includes I/a Reprise de Touton, 
1796, in which the " Marseillaise " is introduced with great effect. This 
celebrated national song was composed by Rouget De Lisle, an engineer 
captain, who wrote both words and music on the night of the 24th of April, 
1792, at StrasWg, entitling- it the "Chant du Combat de FArmee du 
Rhin." It obtained its present title owing to the fact that it was sung by 
a battalion of volunteers from Marseilles on their entry into Paris in July. 
Klopstock, the poet, remarked of De Lisle that with this song he had 
caused the death of fifty thousand Germans. The remaining celebrated 
works of this class are Le Camp' tie Grandpre, 1793, and 0/rande a la 
Patrie, 1792. We must credit Gossec with being the most important 
French composer in the latter half of the eighteenth century. Philidor 


said of his funeral mass at Paris, in 1760, that it was so beautiful that 
he would willingly have exchanged all his compositions for the honour 
attached to such a work. We cannot fail to mention Gossec's " Te Deum/' 
"O Salutaris Hostia," and De la Nativite, 1780, an oratorio in which 
there is a chorus of shepherds and angels, which excited the greatest admira- 
tion. We shall refer again to this composer in a subsequent chapter on the 
opera comique. During the Revolution Gossec was appointed musical 
instructor to the National Guard of Paris, and must be regarded as instru- 
mental in the foundation of the world-renowned Paris Conservatoire. This 
institution owed its establishment to the lack of competent performers on 
wood and brass instruments necessary for the army corps of the French 
Republic. This led the Convention, in November, 1793, to start "Une 
Ecole Nationale de Musique," which was amalgamated with the " Ecole 
du Chant et du Declamation," established by the Baron de Breteuil, 1784. 
The Convention determined on an annual allowance of two hundred and 
forty thousand francs, and fixed the number of masters at one hundred and 
fifteen, limiting the number of pupils, male and female, to six hundred. 
Napoleon favoured the Conservatoire by increasing its income in 1803, and 
in the autumn of 1812 by issuing a decree from Moscow that a number 
of free scholarships should be established. 

The last prominent composer of the period of the Revolution was 
Montan Berton (fils), born at Paris in 1767. Berton was an ardent supporter 
of the Revolution ; and under this influence he wrote Les Rigueurs du 
CloUre, Le Nouveau d'Assas, Viola, and Cynthee. During the Reign of 
Terror Berton was proscribed, and, in consequence, his opinions changed 
entirely ; the result being that he wrote an opera, entitled Charles II., in 
which he favoured the doctrine of the Legitimists. When order was 
restored in Paris, he turned his attention wholly to the opera comique, in 
which he gained his greatest triumphs. 

Immediately following the composers of the Revolution we shall 
deal with those of the Empire, who were for the most part contem- 
poraries. The first of these is Gasparo Spontini (1774 1851), an 
Italian by birth, who, like his predecessor of the Revolution, Cherubini, 
rose far above the French composers of the period. No other composer 
has succeeded in infusing into music the spirit of heroism and glory 
which prompted the victorious exploits of Napoleon, in portrayal of which 

f/J? J&L* 



I should be obliged if Signer Hauser would come tbis evening to tbo 
Il5nigstadt Theatre to see and hear the singer Hanal, in order to tell me 
whether she would be preferable, in grand roles, to D , as regards figure, 

voice, and musical talent. 

Yours devotedly, 
Thursday, 30 J;IM. SPOXTIXI. 


Spontini created a kind of artistic expression, the influence of which has 
extended to the present day. When the composer first came to Paris he 
brought several operas, written in Italy under the influence of the Neapolitan 
school, the performance of which, however, caused little or no enthusiasm. 
He had scarcely more success with his first French opera, entitled Julie. The 
second, La Petite Maison, 1804, gave rise to a hitherto unheard-of scandal. 
The ascendancy gained over the French, to the detriment of native com- 
posers, by the Italians on the Paris opera stage, had long been a source of 
continually increasing discontent among the musicians and the public. The 
last-named opera, the libretto of which was of doubtful morality, displeased 
the public, and their disapprobation being received with scorn by Elleviou, 
one of the singers, they invaded the orchestra, stormed the stage, and 
destroyed all within their reach, continuing the scene of disorder until 
checked by the police and soldiery. It was not until after the production 
of the one-act opera, Milton, at the Feydeau Theatre, and that of Julie, on 
le Pot de Fleurs, which made its appearance, and was performed sixty times, 
having been re-arranged by the composer in 1805, that Spontini gained 
popularity. Two romances from these operas, " En vain je cherche a m'en 
distraire," and " II a done fallu pour la gloire," were sung with enormous 
success by the vocalist Desbordes, and were afterwards adopted by the 
Vaudevilles. The hatred against the composer as a foreigner had by no 
means subsided, and an oratorio written in 1807 was hissed to such an 
extent by the young musicians of Paris as to prevent a continuation of the 
performance. This year, however, was destined for his triumph over his 
opponents. The Empress Josephine had already made him court composer, 
and this, though at first supplying a cause for complaint at the precedency 
of a foreigner, could not fail to have a beneficial effect. Josephine had 
commissioned him. in 1806 to write a cantata in honour of the victory at 
Austerlitz. This was performed in Paris, and brought the composer under 
the notice of the emperor, who, in spite of the opposition of the directors 
and performers of the Grand Opera, ordered the representation of his 
Festale, the score of which had been previously submitted to the empress. 
The libretto of this work, written by Jouy, had been submitted in turn to 
Mehul, Boieldieu, and Cherubini, none of whom, however, accepted it. 
Spontini found in it a congenial theme, and at once, according to Berlioz, 
" seized on it like an eagle on its prey," the result being his most magnificent 


and imperishable work. In this production he has found an outlet for 
an artistic representation of the heroism of the period. We defer the 
description of the opera to a later chapter. Spontini's opponents intended 
to oppose the opera as they had the oratorio, and had decided to create a 
disturbance by laughing, yawning, snoring, and even putting on nightcaps 
at the Finale of the second act. This coarse and childish design was frus- 
trated by the effect produced by the overture and the succeeding pieces, 
which were received with ever-growing enthusiasm. Henceforth the fame 
of Spontini was firmly established in Paris, and the Vestale was destined 
to become the model for composers of this genre. The Emperor Napoleon 
rewarded Spontini with 10,000 francs from his privy purse, the same sum 
being bestowed on him by the directors of the Conservatoire as the prize 
which was presented every ten years to the composer of the best grand 
opera. At the request of Napoleon, the master composed his second grand 
opera, Ferdinand Cortez. This demand was prompted in part by diplomacy, 
the emperor wishing to gain the sympathy of the French for the already 
contemplated Spanish campaign, and the reputation of being a friend to 
that country. The total failure of the Spanish campaign caused Napoleon 
to take a violent dislike to the subject of the opera, and to prevent its pro- 
duction by a decree. Spontini's third grand opera, Olympia, composed for 
a Parisian audience, to which it was presented in 1819, did not meet with 
success equal to that of its predecessors, the reason of which must be 
sought in the fact that affairs in the French capital had undergone an 
entire change, and Napoleon, who had been deposed by the Allied Powers 
in 1815, had been for the past four years an exile at St. Helena. France 
of the Restoration was happy in the enjoyment of peace, and had no 
sympathy with Spontini's heroic strains ; the consequence being that that 
composer retired to Berlin, where he accepted the position of chapel- 

Jean Francois Lesueur (or Le Sueur), born near Abbeville in 1763, 
also influenced the spirit dominant during the period of the Empire, though 
as regards talent he stands far behind Spontini. Lesueur's grand operas, 
Les Bardes and Le Mort, d'Adam, being put aside in favour of CateFs 
Semiramis, the composer, who was of passionate temperament, made a 
violent attack upon the masters o the Conservatoire, of which Catel 
was one. This led to his expulsion from the post of inspector to that 


institution. Napoleon, who had heard Lesueur's Paul et Virginie, La 
Caverne, and Telemaque, and had been favourably impressed by them, ap- 
pointed the composer court chapel-master in 1804-, this position putting 
him at the head of all the musicians at Paris. Bonaparte possessed 
the gift of selecting those individuals likely to be of service to him, and 
this, doubtless, was the reason for Lesueur's sudden supremacy over all 
the aspirants for the post formerly occupied by Paisiello. The composer's 
gratitude was boundless, and he immediately composed an effective, albeit 
somewhat stagey mass,' and a brilliantly-scored ' Te Deum," intended 
for the celebration of his protector's coronation as Emperor of the 
French. Napoleon bestowed on his protege every mark of approval. After 
the first performance of Les Bardes, in December, 1804, he presented 
him with a gold snuff-box, on which was engraved " L'Empereur des 
Francois au compositeur de 1'opera Les Bardes" The dramatic works 
bearing the title of divertissements, such as L' Inauguration dn Temple de 
la Victoire and Le Triomphe de Trajan, were intended to extol the fame 
of the emperor. Although self - instructed, and therefore less strictly 
schooled, Lesueur must be credited with being the first to introduce a full 
orchestra as an accompaniment to the church music of the French capital, 
an innovation that has done much to secure increased power and variety 
of colour. Nor is his merit lessened by the fact that his sacred composi- 
tions, are of somewhat superficial, worldly, and too dramatic a character. 
These qualities can be observed in French sacred music dating from the 
middle of the seventeenth century to the present time, though, previous to 
that period, French composers must be honoured as the earliest teachers of 
sacred counterpoint to all nations. The attacks of Lesueur's opponents 
were directed less against the secular character of this sacred composition 
than against the introduction of the entire orchestra, where formerly the 
violoncelli and basses were only occasionally admitted, and the employment 
of this orchestra for the purpose of tone-painting. It was in defence of 
these innovations that Lesueur published, in 1787, his "Essai de Musique 
Sacree " and " Expose d'une Musique Descriptive." This composer may 
be said to have prepared the way for the grand sacred works of Cherubiui, 
in which the prominence of the orchestra cannot fail to attract attention. 
He died at Paris in 1837. 

There are yet two names to be added to this list, those of Loiseau de 


Persuis (1769 1819) and Rudolph Kreutzer (1766 1831). The former 
must be credited with having- gained great reputation as director of the Grand 
Opera. Of his twenty dramatic works, that entitled Jerusalem Delivree 
was the only one that gained more than a succes d'estime. Of Kreutzer's 
forty operas the Jeanne d' Arc alone was received with favour. We shall, 
at a future period, discuss the instrumental works of this composer. 

Our intention is now to deal with composers whose works may be 
classed as forming* the second period of the grand French opera. The first 
of these is Daniel Fran9ois Esprit Auber, born, at Caen, January 29th, 
1782; died May 12th, 1870, at Paris. This composer must be recognised 
as representing- in his music the modern type of French opera, which reflects 
in a striking manner the national French character. His father was an 
offider des chasses, who excelled as violinist, vocalist, and painter; and 
though at eleven years of ag-e the lad already composed romances, he sent 
him to London, destined for a mercantile career. Young Auber returned 
from England more than ever enamoured of music, notwithstanding- the 
commercial sphere in which he moved. In 1812 he composed an operetta, 
entitled Julie, which, notwithstanding its dilettante character, attracted 'the 
at'ention of Cheiubini, who happened to be present, to such a degree that 
he undertook the supervision of the young composer's musical studies. In 
1813, after a course of instruction in composition and instrumentation, 
Auber began the production of comic operas, which followed one another 
in quick succession. What this genre of composition owes to him we shall 
see in a subsequent chapter. Here we must deal with him as one of the 
most prominent masters of the grand French opera, who materially assisted 
in the foundation of the second period of its development. This assertion 
will at first be surprising when it is remembered that amongst his fifty operas 
there are but two which belong strictly to the grand opera, the majority 
being of that species known as the " comic romantic opera/' Amongst the 
latter we may enumerate at most three which may be said to partake of 
the nature of both species of opera. His Masaniello must be accepted 
as commencing the most important period in the history of the grand 
French opera. Cherubini and Spontini, following the school of Gluck, 
had laid the foundations and reared the edifice of the former period of 
grand opera, of which the more prominent works were marked with the 
sublime grandeur of the antique, Spontini introducing in this style the 

D. F. E. AUBER. 
Born 29th January, 1784, at Caen ; died 12th May, 1871, at Paris. 



triumphs of the hero of his age. The productions of the second period 
not only include this epic grandeur, but in addition to it we find the por- 
trayal of the characteristic features of the surroundings, the impressions 
produced by the character of the landscape, the popular song and dance. 
This had already been attempted by Spoutini, who in his Cortez not only 
expresses the national character of the Spaniards and Mexicans, but also the 
effects of a tropical climate, and the peculiar religious dances. In Ip/tigenie 
en Tuuride Gluck portrays the national characteristics of the Greeks 
and Scythians, the storm on the inhospitable rocks of Tauris, and the 
rhythmic dance of Scythian warriors, the result being a remarkably powerful 
specimen of musical painting a foundation for the future productions 
of the French composer. The essays of Gluck and Spontini were not of 
sufficiently frequent occurrence to form a typical feature of their operas, 
whereas the latter period of the grand opera exhibits as a peculiar character- 
istic the attachment to a modern historical epoch, a particular locality and 
nationality. Consequently, the modern grand opera claims more sympathy 
from the public than did that of the former period; and this sympathy is 
strengthened by the fact that, in addition to the peculiar characteristics 
mentioned above, the works of this epoch are pervaded by a breath of 
romance. This feature was noticeable before Auber in the French comic 
operas, more particularly in those of Boieldieu. The false and happily super- 
seded idea that the grand French opera of the modern period lacks all 
na'icefe and. purity of style, should be carefully repulsed. This notion can 
be entertained only by one who possesses no historical knowledge, whose 
ideas are merely superficial, and whose objectivity has vanished and given 
place to mere subjective contemplation. The grand opera was undeniably 
forced to employ increased orchestral, scenic, and decorative means to 
effectively express the extended range of subject caused by the advance- 
ment of the period. The opponent of this genre of dramatic composi- 
tion, that is, the supporter of the modern grand romantic opera, is by no 
means backward in availing himself of increased and unusual scenic effect 
and the support afforded by an augmented orchestra. But as to the 
charge brought against the grand opera, that it lacks purity of style and 
that its composers are artistically degenerate, we can only say that a school 
which regards all traditional forms of art as antiquated and as mere obstacles 
to the flight of genius, can only find the " purity of style," which it desires, 


in the union of the dramatic and musical elements presented by a 
musical drama or opera. 'This faultless unity is found in a greater 
degree in Der Freischiitz, Oberon, Euryanthe, Lohengrin, and Die Meister- 
singer, than in Medee, Vestale, Cortez, Olympia, Masaniello, William 
Tell, Huguenots, and Norma. These latter are compositions which for. 
nearly half a century have maintained their positions on the stages of 
nearly all civilised nations, and have proved to every satisfaction that they 
are not children of fashion. Notwithstanding the beauties of both species 
of composition, neither represents the perfect form of musical drama. This 
ideal is represented by Orpheus, Alceste, Armide, Iphigenie, Don Giovanni, 
Figaro, Magic Flute, Fidelio, Wassertrdger, and Joseph in Egypt. These 
works cannot be quoted as belonging entirely to the classic, romantic, 
tragic, comic, or heroic style ; neither can they be expressed by the term 
genre ; they include and express every sentiment, and may be taken without 
fear as the ideal of human perfection. Time and place can never affect 
these productions ; no future period of development can lessen their value ; 
they are objective in character, and, therefore, eternal. Should not this 
lead the partisans of the grand romantic operas to a more just judgment of 
the respective worth of the works they admire ? All that is strained or exag- 
gerated, partial or exclusive, should be carefully shut out from the realms of 
art. Instances of these faults occur in the grand and romantic operas alike. 
As a proof that the grand French opera is not the result of calculation 
and meretricious striving for effect, as has been asserted, we will quote 
Auber's Masaniello, which is undoubtedly the creation of an ingenious and 
unfettered imagination. The music of this opera, the plot of which is 
founded on the revolt of the Neapolitans, proclaims its origin from a 
most gifted Frenchmen by its intelligible and charming rhythm, its popular 
themes and melodies the bold expression of which occasionally bears re- 
semblance to the "Marseillaise/' its extreme correctness of declamation, 
and its natural and unrestrained pathos. The interest is riveted by 
the vigorous and pleasing expression which pervades the entire work; 
and notwithstanding the tragic Finale, in no instance does the work 
become laboured and dull, a remark not applying equally to all French 
operas. While attracted by the ever-flowing imagination displayed in the 
work, we are surprised by the rich harmony, development, novel instru- 
mentation, and local colouring. The composer's idea of supplying the 



speech of the dumb girl by means of the orchestra is so perfectly executed, 
that her every gesture is explained with a precision almost verbal. ^ e 
know of no master who has succeeded in painting in music the beauties 
of Italy with a character equal to that obtained by Auber, who, though 
the most national of all French composers of the first half of the pineteenth 

; ,^f >" 

Fig. 274. J. F. E. Halcvy. 

century, has achieved what has been attempted, with but moderate success 
by many Italians. How striking are the parting between the brother 
and sister in the second act, the scene in the market, and the prayer 
oefore the battle. And how greatly is the effect heightened by the intro- 
duction of the Barcarole and Tarantella, the national character of which 
has been caught by Auber in a manner more successful than that of any 
other composer. 

The influence of this work, which was first performed in 1828, can be 


clearly traced in Rossini's Tell, which appeared in the following year, 
Halevy's Juive, produced in 1835, and Meyerbeer's Huguenots. Rossini's 
Siege de Corinthe and Mo'ise, given in 1826-7, have vanished from the stage, 
owing to their want of the influence of the new style, having been com- 
posed before the appearance of Masaniello. Tell, on the contrary, owes 
its present vitality to the fact of its production taking place after that of 
Auber's grand work. Meyerbeer's Robert le Diable, though not performed 
until three years later than Masaniello, owes its freedom from the influence 
of the latter work to the fact that its subject and style belong not to the 
grand but to the romantic opera. In this respect its musical and historical 
position is due to the introduction into French musical art of the mannerism 
and strained romance of such German poets as T. A. Hoffmann and Arnim. 
The innovation of this species of poetry is continued in the works of 
Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas (pere). It was this affinity of Robert 
le Diable to the peculiarities of the then most celebrated poets of France 
that caused its unprecedented success, which was aided considerably by the 
evident German spirit pervading it, and the numerous concessions made 
in the score to French musical taste. These items wero important factors 
in increasing the interest taken by the French for a considerable period in 
the romantic school of German music and poetry. Meyerbeer's Robert le 
Diable may thus be considered in the light of a mediator between the 
mental streams of two great nations, which, if considered without prejudice, 
fulHl a most important mission in the history of the art. Not only the 
music of Masaniello, but the plot and the mode of treatment, influenced the 
works of the masters belonging to the second era of the grand opera ; thus 
Tell, La Jmve, and the Huguenots, in which we find portrayed the principal 
incidents of great revolutionary movements belonging for the most part 
to modern history, admit of a greater variety of musical form and instru- 
mental colouring than dp the simple subjects on which antique operas 
are founded, such as Mede'e, La Festale, and Olympia, which allow only 
that grandeur of simplicity which characterises the first period of the grand 
French opera. Rossini succeeds no less completely in Tell in representing in 
music the character of the Swiss and their surroundings, than does Auber 
in portraying the beauties of the Bay of Naples and the fiery temperament 
of the inhabitants of its shores. Both works treat in the same manner 
of social and political, religious or national contests, represented alike by 


individuals and masses. These struggles partake of au ideal as well as a 
real nature, and afford ample scope for musical expression. Such contests as 
these are represented in Masaniello by the revolt of the fishermen against 
the oppression of the aristocracy; in Tell, by the efforts of the Swiss to 
cast off the Austrian yoke; in La Juive, by the ancient hatred existing 
between Jew and Gentile ; whilst the Huguenots and the Prophete represent 
the horrors resulting from religious fanaticism. The preference of the 
composers belonging to the latter period of the grand opera for revolu- 
tionary themes must not be confounded with that entertained by the 
masters who composed during the earlier portion of the first period, whom 
we have styled the composers of the French Revolution. These masters 
recorded their impressions of the circumstances surrounding the period in 
which they lived. They were, therefore, restricted to the same country, 
nationality, and epoch. The composers of the second period of the grand 
opera only selected the events of past historical periods, whether of 
national, political, or sectarian import, and were therefore enabled to 
express their impressions in a manner far more objective than that of their 
predecessors, who were induced through their sufferings to record subjec- 
tively passing events. Notwithstanding the recognition of this difference 
of surroundings, the earlier masters could not compete either as regards 
talent or musical skill with the composers of the latter era. Auber's 
Masaniello possesses a double interest, as it not only recorded but even 
foreshadowed historical events. Spontini's Cortzz and Rossini's Tell were 
but the musical echoes of history ; as also were Mozart's Mtgic Flute, 
which reflected the humanity and tolerance springing out of the period of 
Joseph II., and Spintini's Vestale, which celebrated the French Consulate. 
Masaniello proved the harbinger of the July Revolution, which produced 
a tremor throughout Europe. Only a few weeks later this opera was 
the signal for a general rising of the townspeople of Brussels, who, on 
the 25th of August, 1830, leaving the theatre, hastened to attack the 
Dutch authorities, and thus began the movement which ended in the forced 
separation of Belgium from Holland which followed a year later. Auber's 
second grand opera is his Gitstavus III., or Tke Masked Ball, which was 
performed in 1833 ; and although in freshness of invention and dramatic 
power it does not approach its predecessor, it is still not unworthy of 
notice. The character of the page is a creditable conception, musically 



considered, and the remainder of the work does not lack moments of happy 

A truly grand work is Rossini's William Tell, which immediately 
Followed Auber's masterpiece. The composer of this opera was so struck by 
the dramatic superiority of the French operas which he heard in Paris while 
on his way to fulfil important engagements in London, that he determined 
to make the French capital his home. This resolution was carried out on his 
return, and he accepted the direction of the Italian opera in Paris, a post 
occupied formerly by Paer. His inability to control the finances of the 
company caused him to resign this position after an experiment of eighteen 
months' duration. In order to retain him in Paris, however, he was ap- 
pointed " Premier Compositeur du Roi et Inspecteur General du Chant en 
France," an engagement which produced 20,000 francs per annum. He 
now wrote an opera, II Viaggro di Reims, ossia V Alb ergo del giglio d'oro, 
to celebrate the coronation of King Charles X. The best portions of 
this work were afterwards embodied in an opera entitled Le Comte Or//. 
The master reconstructed two other operas : the Maometto II. was embodied 
in the Siege de Corinthe, and the Hose was reproduced as Moise. These 
works both show the composer's determination to suit his music to the 
taste of a French audience, and his keen perception of the leading charac- 
teristics of the operas in vogue during the early period of the grand opera. 
But it was not until influenced by Auber that the great Italian maestro 
exhibited the full power of his latent gift. The foreign yoke under which 
his native country lay oppressed was brought vividly to his memory by the 
work of the great French master. Under this impression he wrote his 
William Tell, the revolutionary character of which for a long time caused 
its prohibition in Vienna, where it at last gained admission under the title 
of Andreas Hofer. When we consider Rossini's earlier serious operas, such 
as Semiramide, Otello, and Tancredi, we cannot fail to see in William Tell 
that the man and the artist had undergone an entire transformation. This 
result cannot be assigned exclusively to French influence ; in his earlier 
years the composer was an ardent admirer of the works of Haydn and 
Mozart, and their power can be traced throughout his Tell and Barber of 
Seville. Even the influence of Gluck, Cherubiui, and Spontini would not 
be sufficient to account entirely for this change. We cannot but ascribe it 
to the power, exercised over the master by Karl Maria von Weber, whose 


Freischiitz and Euryanthe had considerably lessened Rossini's supremacy on 
the German operatic stage. The influence of the last-named operas on 
Rossini was increased by a personal meeting of the two masters, on Weber's 
passing through Paris while repairing to London. Rossini began to occupy 
himself seriously with Tell in the winter of 1826-27, but a little while 
before all Europe lamented the loss of Weber, who died in the English 
metropolis at an early age. The maestro was weary of the mere melody and 
effect of the operas exclusively written for the exhibition of the vocalists' 
skill. He was fired by artistic ambition, and the fame of his operas begin- 
ning to wane in France and Germany, he determined to convince the public 
that he required energetic resolution alone to make for himself a position 
among the greatest dramatic composers. The lax and almost mechanical 
method of composition into which he had fallen after the production of // 
Barliere yielded to a serious power, which was shown in Tell, to the 
surprise of the whole civilised world. In this work Rossini embodied the 
musical spirit of three nations, but fused so thoroughly the German depth, 
French esprit, and Italian grace into one artistic whole, that in no case can 
we perceive any one of these qualities standing in isolation. The distant 
horns announcing Gessler, the Swiss hunting chorus, the march in C major 
in the first act, and Matilda's romance in the second, could not have existed 
without Weber's hunting choruses, the peasants' march in Der Freischutz, 
and the aria of Agatha; nor could the music descriptive of the storms 
have found birth without Beethoven's pastoral symphony and Auber's 
musical creations; whilst Gluck, Spontini, and Auber inspired the grand 

All these items are welded into perfect unity with an ingenuity never 
before exhibited ; for although Meyerbeer's Huguenots approaches closely to 
Tell in this respect, that master shows the restraint under, and the 
power of will by which he achieves this result, whereas in Tell we cannot 
ascribe the effect to aught but inspiration. In this work Rossini forsook 
the past, and with it the slight and merely mechanical part-writing into 
which he fell after his enormous success with the Barbiere, and adopted in 
the ensembles a form truly classical. Nowhere do we find a superfluity of 
sensuous effect. Having referred to the Huguenots as the next work of 
the grand opera in order of merit, we have here but to add that in this 
work Meyerbeer follows the grand opera school, inasmuch as he adopts 
Q Q q 


the style of Gluck and Spontini, and the power of expression developed by 
Auber and Rossini. In choice of subject he follows the school of the 
second period. Meyerbeer's German origin is pointed to more prominently 
in the Huguenots than in Robert le Diable, by the more developed and 
intellectual polyphony of his orchestra and ensembles, the greater harmonic 
richness of the score, the vigorous structure of the finales to the second 
and third acts; while the conspirators' scene in the fourth act ( is superior to 
similar scenes in Tell. Two very important items in the work are the 
employment of Luther's hymn and the effective septet in E major. In 
the Prophete Meyerbeer has made very many concessions to the prevailing 
taste of the Parisians of the period, in the shape of forced stage effects and 
a musical olio, podrida. According to Heine, Ferdinand Hiller, seeing a 
conversation imminent on Meyerbeer's Prophete, then about to be produced, 
sarcastically remarked, " Gentlemen, let us avoid politics." L'Africaine, 
also composed for the Paris Grand Opera, though far more decided in 
character, and containing many instances of beauty, more especially in the 
third and fourth acts, must be considered as showing evident proofs of the 
degeneration of the master's work. Meyerbeer's Huguenots, Auber's 
Masaniello, and Rossini's Tell form a triad which stands out in bold relief 
from among the many works belonging to the second era of the grand 
opera. Between this trio and the Juive of Halevy, which is next in order 
of merit, there exists a considerable interval. Although art admits of 
many degrees of excellence, a glance will be sufficient to impress us with 
the fact that, important as is Halevy in the history of French comic opera, 
his productions belonging to the school of the grand opera can bear no 
comparison with those of Meyerbeer, Auber, or Ro?sini. Halevy's best 
works written for the latter school, such as La Juive, 1835, Guido ei 
Genevra, 1838, and La Heine de Cfiypre, 1841, cannot, however, be placed 
on as low a level as the works of Gossec and Lesueur, whose operas obtained 
but a transient success, and were forgotten even before the death of the 
composers. The incomparably higher merit of La Juive is proved by its 
existence, accompanied with undiminished success, for half a century upon 
all important European stages. Halevy attempted in the Juive to portray 
musically the aspect of religious fanaticism, and thus aided in preparing 
the way for Meyerbeer, who a year later, in the Huguenots, exceeded by 
far the essay of his predecessor. We must bear in mind that Spontini 


had preceded Halevy by twenty-six years in depicting religious frenzy in 
the choruses and dances of the Mexicans in Cortez. Spohr, in 1823, 
had portrayed in Jessonda the philosophical placidity of the Brahmins, 
whilst Marschner, in 1829, had musically painted the religious sentiment 
of the Jewess in Ivanhoe. Meyerbeer has succeeded to a greater degree of 
perfection than did any of his predecessors in expressing in musical colouring 
the bigoted rage and blind madness of the fanatical Roman Catholics. 

Jacques Fromental Elie Halevy was born at Paris in 1799. He was a 
favourite pupil of Cherubim, under whose direction he studied counterpoint 
and composition. In 1819 his cantata, Herminia, gained for him the Prix 
de Rome. He immediately adjourned to Rome, where he ardently studied 
the works of the Italian sacred writers under the tuition of Baini. Before 
returning to the French capital he resided in Vienna for a year (1822-3), the 
Austrian capital then being the centre of musical study in Germany. It 
is said that during this visit Halevy made the acquaintance of Beethoven. 
We see in La Juive not only the result of serious self-criticism and great 
industry, but moments of passionate feeling and tender expression, evincing 
proof of remarkable dramatic gift. Instances of this occur in the second 
and fourth acts. Although in the works of Halevy traces of the influence 
of Meyerbeer's Robert le Diable and the Huguenots are undeniable, these 
works have in no great degree affected the master's individuality, as ex- 
hibited in his grand operas, and still less in the comic operas with which 
he gained such great success. Besides the grand operas already named, 
Halevy wrote Charles VI., 1843, La Magicienne, and Le Juif Errant. 
These do not approach La Juive in merit, and do not even equal Guido et 
Genevra and La Heine de Chypre. In the three former operas Halevy 
indulges to a greater extent in a propensity for strained melody and forced 
and glaring contrast. Notwithstanding this, he appears as the last promi- 
nent talent among the composers of the grand French opera, as not one of 
his successors can bear comparison with him. He died at Nice in 1862. 
A talent, however, has recently developed in the French opera school. We 
refer to Massenet, of whom we shall speak in a future chapter. As a reason 
for not mentioning G ounod's Faust, we must state that in company with 
Meyerbeer's Robert le Diablevte class it as one of the comic romantic operas. 
The grand French opera has obtained a rich harvest from the foreigners, 
who, from contemporaries of Halevy, have continued to the present time. 


Of the productions of the Italians who figure amongst them, we will only 
quote the Puritani and Nor ma of Bellini; Belisario and La Favorita 
of Donizetti ; II Giuramento, by Mercadante ; Don Carlos, Rigoletto, 
and II Trovatore, by Verdi. Those of the Germans include Ivanhoe, by 
Marschner; Jessoiida, by Spohr ; Catarina Cornaro, by Lachner ; La Reine 
de Saba, by Goldmark. Of these works we have already made mention, or 
shall do so in a following chapter. With the exception of the German 
operas, most of the works we have just mentioned were composed to French 
libretti, and intended either for performance at the Grand Opera or the 
Opera Italien. 

We cannot leave the subject of the grand opera without mentioning 
two of their most celebrated tenors Adolphe Nourrit, born in 1802, and 
Louis Duprez, born in 1806. These vocalists were both natives of Paris. 
The latter possessed the renowned " ut de poitrine." Nourrit made his 
debut in 1821 as Pylades in Gluck's Ipliigenie in Tauride, and excelled 
as Arnold in Tell, Robert in Meyerbeer's opera, Eleazer in La Jttive, 
and Raoul in Les Huguenots. Duprez was equally renowned in the same 

In turning to the French comic opera, which sprang from the fading 
school of Lully and Rameau, we must go back from the nineteenth century 
to the middle of the eighteenth. We divided the history of the grand 
opera into two different periods, according to their characteristics ; the 
comic romantic opera we will separate into three distinct periods. The 
first, which extends from Philidor and Monsigny to Gaveaux and Jardin, 
was preceded by a few dramatic creations, which may be considered as 
forerunners of the artistic movement which raised the primitive folk- 
theatre to the song-play stage. Such precursors, although mostly con- 
ceived in a different mood and style, we meet with in the comic operas 
of Rameau, and especially in the Devin du Village. For it will readily 
be admitted that the French operetta and the modern comic and comic 
romantic opera are not direct descendants of Adam de la Hale, King Thibaut 
de Navarre, or Guillaume de Maschaud, of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries, nor of the ballads, ballets, rondcaux, and song-plays of the 
species of Li Jus de Robin et Marion. These primitive musical dramatic 
or half-danced pantomimic attempts, which graced the old French stage, 
can scarcely claim anything in common with the operas composed during 


the eighteenth century by Duni, Monsigny, Dalayrac, and Desaides, which 
show the novelty of their species by their decided form. At most the only 
existing link would be their leaning to modern tonality and their pastoral 
subjects, which features are occasionally to be found in the works of the first 
period of the modern comic opera. The later masters employed the poly- 
phonic method for their song-stage compositions, which have no relation, 
even in subject-matter, style, or musical form, to the present comic opera, 
into which the earliest composers introduced solos, and whose folk-songs, 
chanson, and rondeaux were rendered by soloists to a soft orchestral 
accompaniment. History records but the most meagre items of the five 
centuries which elapsed between the old French pastorale and the operetta. 

The French Opera Comique, which sprang up in the middle of the 
eighteenth century, and which, for reasons we shall state hereafter, we 
prefer to call the comic romantic opera, is essentially French, and differs 
as widely from the Italian opera buffa as from the German Sing spiel ; 
whereas in the opera buffa the recitativo-parlante is employed, in the 
comic romantic opera dialogue alone is used. The emotional element 
contained in the libretto of the comic opera is more often wanting in that 
of the opera buffa, and lastly the French chanson is entirely different from 
the Italian aria. This chanson is, to a certain degree, related to the lied 
of the older German song-play, which is also totally distinct from the aria, 
but is more fully developed as regards musical form, which fact would be 
clearly established by a careful comparison of the works of Monsiguy 
(17291817) and those of J. A. Killer (17281804). 

The first composer of this new species of opera is Francois Andre 
Darnican Philidor, born at Dreux in 1726, died in London in 1795. His 
predecessors in comic opera writing, the elder Philidor and the Neapolitan 
Duni (1709 1775), who wrote French comic opera for representation in 
Paris, lack the peculiarities which distinguish his work. Fra^ois Philidor 
commenced his career as an operatic composer by writing one-act operas, all 
of which were stamped with the characteristics of the genuine comic opera. 
The list of these works include Blaise le Savetier, 1759; L'Huitre et les 
Plaideurs ; Le Qitiproqno ; Le Soldat Magicien, 1760; Le Jardinier et son 
Seigneur, 1761. The two last-named works and his two-act operas, Le 
Marechal Ferand, and Le Sorcier, 1764, gained for him the favour of 
the Parisian public, giving him a position in the history of music which 


for several decades had a decided influence upon his successors. Of his 
lighter operas we must enumerate Sancho Panga, Le Bucheron, Les Trots 
Souhaits, and Tom Jones. Like his contemporary, Berton (pere), Philidor 
is one of the first composers of the grand opera. Amongst his works of 
this class we must draw attention to his Ernelinde, or Princess de Norwege, 
1767; Pm/<?, 1780; Tkemistocle, 1786; and Belizaire, 1795. As he is 
much less important in connection with the grand than the comic opera, 
we have with justice placed him in the foreground in this chapter. The 
works of Philidor go far to prove the theory which we have submitted 
elsewhere, viz., that what is understood to-day by the " grand opera/' 
differs greatly from the opera seria of Lully and Rameau, and that its 
birth is contemporaneous with that of the French comic opera, whose 
bourgeois character has nothing in common with the mythological characters 
inseparable from the mask plays of Lully, nor with the pedantic comic 
operas of Rameau. 

With the upgrowth of the two new species of opera, we have to notice 
a remarkable feature, which had never occurred before the commencement 
of the late era. We refer to the frequent composition of both styles of 
opera by one master. When this had been the case in the earlier period, it 
was confined entirely to the writing of Intremedes and Comedies-Ballets, 
which exhibit nothing in common with the real French operetta. An 
incident, not without interest, in the life of Philidor, was his success in the 
chess tournament held at London, the enormous prize which he obtained 
on that occasion forming a large part of his fortune. Berlioz accuses this 
master of having taken his aria of the Border from Gluck's Orpheus. 
Fetis vehemently defends him from this charge. We agree with the 
latter, that a master who has given proof of such fertility of invention 
could have well dispensed with any extraneous assistance, and that cases of 
unintentional reproduction are of such frequent occurrence in the works of 
greater masters that we might even defend him on this score alone. 

We find a contemporary of Philidor in Pierre Alexandre Monsigny, who 
became tutor to the Duke of Orleans. Monsigny was born near St. Omer 
in 1729, and died at Paris in 1817. He was first led to the composition of 
comic opera by Pergolesi's Serva Padrona. At a later period, however, he 
adopted the style of Philidor. Amongst his sixteen operas and panto- 
mimic ballets, his comic operas, Rose et Colas, 1764, Le Deserteur, 1769, 


and Felix, ou V Enfant Trouve, were the most successful, and gained him 
great renown. His reputation was based more on his natural musical 
and dramatic talent than on a profound knowledge of the theory of his art. 
One of his chief merits is his judicious employment of the pronounced 
French declamation which h'e combined with the light and somewhat 
conventional forms of the Italian opera buffa, by which he gave to 
the chansons and romances of the Parisian comic opera that attractive and 
spiritnel expression which forms its most pleasing characteristic. In Paris 
Monsigny's operas are not yet entirely forgotten, and his Felix or Le 
Deserteur would be well worthy of reproduction. At the anniversary of 
the French Republic, 1798, the name of Monsigny was proclaimed, linked 
with those of Cherubmi, Lesueur, and Martini, as deserving well of the 
nation, he being a composer of great merit. We may notice at this 
point that Monsigny, like Dalayrac, Gretry, Isouard, Boieldieu, and Adam, 
belongs to the small body of comic opera composers who exerted their 
talent in this branch alone, or gained infinitely greater success with this 
form than with the grand opera. We must now discuss the comic operas 
of Gossec, which include Le Faux Lord, 1764; Les Pecheurs, 1766; Le 
Double Deguisement, 1767; and Toinon et Toinette, 1767. Of these the 
PecheurSj which contained the greatest attractions, enjoyed continued favour. 
Jean Benjamin Delabord, or more correctly De la Borde, a gentleman-in- 
vvaiting to Louis XV., who afterwards became fermier general, gained some 
success with comic operas and operettas, which he wrote as an amateur. 
His works of this description number twenty-eight, of which Gilles Garcon 
Paintre, Annette et Lubin, and Trois Deesses Rivales, achieved some success. 
His talent, however, was questioned by Grimm in his " Correspondance 
Litteraire." Works of lasting merit by this amateur composer are his 
" Essai sur la Musique Ancienne et Moderne," published in four volumes in 

1780, and "Memoires Historiques sur Raoul de Coucy," published in 

1781. Delabord fell a victim to the guillotine in 1794. We meet a most 
gifted and well-schooled musician in Johann Paul jEgidius Schwartzendorff, 
who adopted the name of Martini. He was born in the Upper Palatinate of 
Bavaria in 1741, and died in 1816. He obtained the direction of the 
Theatre de Monsieur, formerly the Theatre de Feydeau, where both Italian 
opera buffa and French comic operas were performed. Martini composed 
nine operas, of which the Amour eux de Quinze Ans, 1771 ; Le Fermier Cru 


Sourd, 1772; Le Rendezvous Nocturne, 1773 ; Henri IF., ou la Bataille 
d'lvry, 1774; and Le Droit du Seigneur, 1783, enjoyed a success almost 
fabulous. These works were characterised by great imagination and esprit, 
and were based on the graceful style of the French comic opera. They re- 
mained in the Parisian repertoire for a much longer period than many of the 
productions of native composers. Martini figures prominently among the 
composers of romances, and the pleasing melody and touching melancholic 
vein which we find in these productions are the cause of their adoption as 
models by the present school. He was followed by Nicholas Dalayrac, 
born in Languedoc in 1753, a member of a noble family. His early 
operettas, which were anonymous, met with such success as to cause 
him to attach his name without further scruple to all succeeding works. 
He enriched the list of comic operas by the addition of sixty works, 
great and small, including Les Deux Savoyards, Raoul de Crequi, 
Nina, J^es Sauvages, and Camille, which were greatly praised by Fetis. 
These productions were received with considerable favour in Germany. 
There are extant, in Paris, some beautiful editions of the scores of these 
operas, and the composer's charming melodies have survived, and are still 
enjoyed in Paris as Vaudeville music. Dalayrac died at Paris in 1809. 
Pierre Gaveaux (17611825), a celebrated tenor, contributed a number of 
charming operettas to increase the musical wealth of Paris, from amongst 
which La Famille Indigente, Le Petit Matelot, and Leonore, ou V Amour 
Conjugal, may be selected as favourable specimens. The last-named has 
also been composed by Paer, and although not superior to many con- 
temporary productions, gained renown owing to the fact of its libretto 
being employed by Beethoven under the title of Fidelia. The most com- 
plete collection of the scores of Gaveaux is perhaps that left by Meyerbeer. 
The last composer of the early period of the school of opera comique was 
Louis Emanuel Jadin, born at Versailles in 1768. Jadin was a page- 
musician to Louis XVI. During the Revolution he joined a band attached 
to the National Guard, and at the Restoration was promoted to the post 
f chief page-musician. The number of his operas and operettas amount to 
forty. The most celebrated are La Supercherie par Amour, L'Avare Puni,. 
s Bons Foisins, and Les Deux Lettres. During the disturbances in Paris 
Im's choruses, "Ennemis des tyrans" and "Citoyenslevez-vous," en joyed 
great populanty with the people. This composer died at Paris in 1853. 



In taking a retrospective view of the first period of development of the 
opera comique, we find that its chief features are the correct and refined 
musical declamation, the peculiar but simple rhythm of its chansons and 
choruses, and the expression of its melodies, which at times equal the 

Fig. 275. A. E. M. Gretry. 

heartfelt sentiment of the folk-song, romance, and roundelay. The musical 
simplicity and originality of the works belonging to this era justify their 
identification with the genuine national character of the French. In the 
latter period of French opera comique we find the composers influenced by 
the works of composers of various nationalities. Gretry and Mehul are 
influenced by Gluck, Isouard and Boieldieu by Mozart. "With the excep- 
tion of Gretry, the above French composers may be said to have yielded to 


the power of Cherubini, in addition to the already named foreign com- 
posers. An elegiac and romantic spirit is found to a far greater extent in 
the latter period, thereby justifying our designation of its productions as 
comic-romantic opera. The romantic breath pervading Isouard's operas 
Cendrillon and Joconde, and Boieldieu's Jean de Paris and La Dame Blanche, 
was without doubt inspired by Mozart. The last-named work also bears 
traces of the influence exercised by Weber's Freischillz. Those composers 
who established the German romantic opera, Mozart with Don Giovanni, 
and Weber with Der Freischiitz, have greatly influenced the second period of 
French opera comique. The introduction of this romantic spirit into Ger- 
man, and, finally, French poetry, facilitated the increase of its influence on 
the French comic opera, which we shall notice when reviewing the prin- 
cipal features of the third period. 

The works of all the composers between G retry and Mehul and 
Isouard and Boieldieu may be classed as belonging to the second period of 
the French comic opera. This list includes the operas of the Revolution, of 
which we must select Cherubini's Porteur d'Eau, as it not only influenced 
his later works written for Paris and Vienna, Lodoiska and Faniska, 1806, 
but also the best operas of Mehul, Berton (fils), Isouard, and Boieldieu. 
Since the production of Cherubini's chef-d'oeuvre, the status of the comic 
romantic opera has risen considerably. This improvement of intellectual 
working-out can be seen in the polyphony of the ensembles, the more 
refined musical portrayal of character, and the richer and more independent 
orchestration. The thoroughly French character of the Porteur d : Eau is 
seen in the romance in G minor and the song in E flat major. Both are 
gems of French grace, reminding one of the chanson and the national folk- 
song, and the melodramatic episodes are of a truly French character. We 
must leave the remainder of Cherubini's works, with further discussion on 
the Porteur d'Eau, for a subsequent chapter, and have but to add that 
the last-named work stands uninjured by any change of school or time. 
Lodoiska and Faniska, although not real romantic operas, like Don 
Giovanni and Der Freischiltz, contain a certain amount of romance, which 
has helped to influence the masters of the second period. Amongst these 
masters, the one most independent of Cherubini's influence is Andre 
iirneste Modeste Gretry, born at Liege in 1741. This independence may 
be attributed to his possession of romantic tendencies in a greater degree 


than that of his contemporary compatriots. Whereas Gretry's predecessors 
wrote instinctively, he formed special doctrines for the guidance of his 
successors in the national school. Influenced, perhaps, by the principles of 
Gluck, Gretry says, in his memoirs, " The true element of musical expres- 
sion is to be found in the accents of the verbal language which must be 
correctly rendered in music by the composer." This caused the composer 
to become a regular frequenter of the Theatre Fran9ais. The comic 
romantic opera of the French owes to Gretry a still greater advance by his 
addition of affecting and dramatic sentiment, which his predecessors allowed 
only in exceptional cases, and his introduction into it of the features of real 
life, thereby giving it a charm and variety to be sought for in vain among 
the conventional mannerisms and almost fossilised characters of the older 
opera buffa of the Italians. Gretry's vocation as a comic opera composer was 
only determined on his seeing the score of Monsigny's Rose et Colas while 
at Rome. This so excited the hitherto composer of sacred music, that he 
was anxious to try his hand at the same genre. At the Lake of Geneva he 
met Voltaire, who pointed to Paris as the only city where world-wide 
renown could be gained. Gretry made many essays, which were but par- 
tially successful, but at length with Lucile, 1769, he gained great celebrity, 
and the quartett, " Ou peut-on etre mieux, qu'au sein de sa famille," 
became exceedingly popular. No less successful was his charming opera, 
Le Tableau Parlant. Deeming his position secured, he gave the rein to his 
unbounded fertility, and in the ensuing thirty years composed no less than 
fifty operas. Of these the best are Les Deux Avares ; Zemire et Azor, 
177 1; L' Amide la Maison; La Fausse Magie; L'Embarras des Richesses; La 
Caravane de Ca'ire, which was performed five hundred and six times in the 
lifetime of the composer; Richard Coeur de Lion, 1784; Raoul Barbe Bleue, 
1789; and Le Barbier du Village. In opposition to these works we must 
place his Ccphale et Procris, Andromaque, and Aspasie, which, being specially 
pathetic in subject and style, must be classed as belonging to the grand opera, 
and failed entirely even in Paris, whilst his charming comic operas were 
triumphant on every French and German stage. The same fate met his 
revolutionary Pierre le Grand, Guillaume Tell, Les Deux Convents, Denys 
le Tyran, and La Fete de la Raison. It is as wrong to say that Gretry's 
Richard Coeur de Lion, Barbe Bleue, and La Caravane de Ca'ire are really 
grand operas, because performed as such, as to assert that Zemire et Azor 


and the Tableau Parlant do not belong to the comic opera, as not being 
exclusively comic. Fairy subjects like Barbe Bleue, Zemire et Azor, and 
romantic such as Richard Cosur de Lion and La Caravane de Ca'ire, have 
since Gretry been acknowledged as distinguishing features of French comic 
opera. The French composer Saint- Saens asserted, in 1885, that Gretry 
had proposed a slanting auditorium, without boxes, and with covered 
orchestra, sixteen years before the birth of Richard Wagner. The works 
which have survived Gretry, and which still remain as proof of his talent, 
are Richard Cceur'de Lion and Barbe Bleue, which are still produced in 
Paris, and seen at times on German stages. In the latter opera Schroeder- 
Devrient produced a great effect. In 1785 the street leading to the 
Theatre Italien was named Rue Gretry, to commemorate the triumphs of 
that composer in the theatres of the French capital. In the previous year 
the Abbot of Liege had appointed the composer privy councillor. The 
Tnstitut de France made him a member on its foundation in 17tf6, and 
Napoleon created him one of the first Knights of the Legion of Honour, 
and settled on him in 1801 a considerable pension. On his death, which 
took place at Montmorency in 1813, the town council of Liege entered 
upon a lawsuit as to the right of burying the heart of their composer 
under the pedestal of the monument to be erected in his honour in that city, 
in front of the university. This curious case was decided in favour of the 
Liegeois as late as 1828. Fourteen years later a bronze life-sized statue 
was added to the monument, and was unveiled with great ceremony. 

The next master of importance belonging to the same school is 
Etienne Nicolas Mehul, born at Givet, in the Ardennes, in 1763. We 
have already mentioned this master in the chapter on Gluck as the 
composer of Joseph in Egypt, which bears an impress almost classical. 
Here we will discuss his comic-romantic operas. The first of these 
is Le Jeune Henri, written in honour of Henry IV. of France, and 
performed in Paris in 1797, where it was hooted and hissed on its 
first representation for introducing a king, though a favourite, during 
the dominion of the Republic. A remarkable evidence of the discrimi- 
nation and just appreciation of the Paris Republic may be found in the 
fact that a repetition of the overture was demanded twice at the close 
of the performance. With the exception of MehuPs Joseph in Egypt, 
which is unique, no other of his operas approaches the level of the 


Jeune lloiri, although his Euphrosine, 1790, Les Deux Aveugles de Tolede, 
1806, and Uthal, which was produced in the same year, contain much 
that is beautiful. Mehul was led by the sombre and dreamy character 
of Ossian's poetry to leave out the violins, giving their part entirely to 
the violas, which seemed to him to supply a more fitting tonal colouring. 
The monotony thus produced by the want of brilliancy caused G retry, 

Fig. 276. E. N. MehuL 

who chanced to be present at the first representation, to exclaim, " I 
would give a louis to hear the sound of a chanterelle '' (the E violin 
string). Mehul's grand operas met with the same fate as did those of 
his predecessor, for neither his Cora nor Stratonice achieved more than 
moderate success. It is noticeable also that even the Pont de Lodi, 
1797, written in honour of Napoleon, was not received with enthu- 
siasm. Mehul's Joseph can be classed with the grand operas as little as 
Gretry's Richard Cosur de Lion; for with its Oriental colouring, elegiac 
rather than heroic spirit, and grand ensembles, it stands alone, un- 
approached by any other opera. Indeed, Mehul might be placed more 


fitly among the typical romantic writers than among those of the grand 
opera, for the foreign scene and period of antiquity belong undoubtedly to 
the romantic. 

The next on the list of romantic writers is Henri Montan Berton (fils). 
The works of this gifted master do not equal in depth and artistic finish 
those of Gretry, Mehul, and Boieldieu ; they are the outcome of a happy 
and inventive imagination. There are two works, however, which rise above 
this level Ponce de Leon and Aline, Heine cle Gokonde. These succeeded 
in Germany as well as in Paris, and might with advantage be reproduced 
at the present day. Berton wrote his Montana et Stephanie under the 
supervision of Gretry, and the beneficial influence can be clearly traced in 
the more serious portions of the work. Anton Reicha, though born at 
Prague in 1770, must also be included in the list of French comic opera 
composers of the first half of the nineteenth century. Reicha composed 
three comic operas, Cagliostro, Natalie, and Sappho, which were performed 
about 1810 to 1822, in Paris. Their success was so slight that the com- 
poser desisted from any further attempt in this field, and devoted the 
remainder of his life to instrumental music. He died at Paris in 1836. 

Nicolo Isouard, born at Malta in 1775, achieved great success as com- 
poser of comic opera. His father was in the service of the Knights of 
Malta, and, intending him to become a merchant, placed him in a large 
mercantile house at Palermo. The boy, entertaining a passion for music, 
composed an opera, and fled with the score to Florence. It was not until 
his arrival in Paris, however, that he justified the step which he had taken. 
In the French capital he was happy in receiving much encouragement from 
Kreutzer, Mehul, and Boieldieu; but it was not until 1802, when he pro- 
duced an opera, Michel Ange, that he gained much success. Before this 
he had written several operettas which had not been received with much 
favour, but the success of Michel Ange, both in Paris and Berlin, where it 
was performed in 1805, decided his future career, and placed him high 
among the composers of comic opera in Paris. The operas, Les Confidences, 
Le Medecin Turc, 1803, Leonce ou le Fils Adoptif, and IS Intrigue au 
Fenetres, 1805, followed in quick succession, and helped to assure his 
position. Isouard became a great favourite, owing to his wealth of melody 
and refined musical taste. He won great triumphs in 1810 with his opera 
Cendnllon, which was performed not only in France, but on almost every 


European opera stage. The performances of this opera produced, in Paris 
alone, over 100,000 francs as the share of the composer. Until a few 
years ago this work was still in favour with the public. Isouard's greatest 
achievement, from an artistic point of view, was the honourable position 
maintained by him when in competition with Boieldieu for the favour of 
the public. The works by which he won this position were Joconde and 
Colin et Jeannot. This master died at Paris in 1818. 

Fig. 277. F. A. Boieldieu. 

Isouard's rival, Fra^ois Adrien Boieldieu, who may be justly de- 
signated one of the greatest of the French comic opera composers, was born 
at Rouen, December 16th, 1775. His father, private secretary to the 
Archbishop of Rouen, perceiving his talent for music, made him a member 
of the cathedral choir, and afterwards placed him as pupil with the organist 
of the metropolitan church, by name Broche. The lad ran away to Paris 
whilst with this severe master, having overturned an ink-bottle on the 
keys of the organ, but he was brought back to his native town. At the 
age of seventeen Boieldieu composed an operetta entitled La Fille Coupable, 
the libretto of which was supplied by his father. This first work meeting 


with success at Rouen encouraged the young composer to go and seek his 
fortune in Paris, which he did in 1795. Notwithstanding the " Reign of 
Terror" from 1792 to 1794, no less than 'thirty-seven new comic operas 
were produced in the French capital. In the morning crowds attended to 
witness the horrors of the guillotine, in the evening the theatres were over- 
flowing. The difficulty for an impoverished composer to obtain a perform- 
ance of one of his works was great, and Boieldieu for a long time was com- 
pelled to exist on the miserable earnings of a pianoforte tuner. He had the 
good fortune, however, of an introduction to the celebrated pianoforte manu- 
facturer Erard, in whose salon he met Cherubini, Mehul, and Rode. He 
now sold a number of romances for the sum of twelve francs apiece, and 
these becoming great favourites greatly enriched the publisher. Boieldieu's 
name thus becoming known to the Paris public, Fievee, a celebrated poet of 
the period, offered him a libretto, La Dot de Suzette. This was accepted, 
and the opera performed in the same year at the Opera Comique. A further 
success was his one-act opera comique, La Famille Suisse, which followed 
soon after, but it was not until 1798 that the production of his opera Zoraime 
et Zulnare firmly established his fame as a superior composer among the 
Parisians. In this opera Boieldieu's peculiarities, as remarked by Fetis, are 
clearly visible. They consist in the possession of a vein of genuine tender- 
ness, refined orchestration, and complete mastery over musical form. 
Boieldieu's sentiment is the deepest to be found in the works belonging to 
the first and second periods of the comic romantic opera. Notwithstand- 
ing this sentiment, the master bore in mind the principles of all French 
librettists and composers of the comic romantic opera, viz., to afford in- 
tellectual amusement and dramatic entertainment. Thus Boieldieu aided 
in preserving that superiority of the French comic opera and song-play 
over that of the Germans, whose works of the same class are heavy 
and undramatic. It is but very rarely that this master yields to the French 
tendency to allow calculation to supply the place of ingenious imagi- 
nation, and to employ powerful contrasts with no artistic result, and 
to indulge in capricious musical mannerisms, which might not inaptly 
be compared to musical witticisms. In 1800 he produced the Caliphe de 
Bagdad, a one-act opera, the music of which is still popular throughout 
France and Germany. Two years later he married a danseuse, Clotilde 
Mafleuroy, but the union proved an unhappy one. He was soon glad to 


accept an engagement at St. Petersburg. Before leaving Paris he produced 
an opera in three acts, entitled Ma tante Aarore, in which there is evidence 
of his progress in the art. Alexander I. of Russia appointed him court 
chapel-master, insisting on his composing three operas annually, the sub- 
jects to be of his own choice. Of the operas Boieldieu composed while at 
St. Petersburg, amounting to nearly a .dozen, only two travelled beyond 
the confines of that city, viz., the minor song-plays Rien de Trap and La 
Jeune Femme Colere. It was not until his return to Paris in 1811 that the 
master developed such a genius as is evinced in his opera Jean de Paris, 
performed in 1812, which, with La Dame Blanche and Le Caliphe de 
Bagdad, has survived his other works, and still maintains a position on every 
stage where regard is paid to true art. In Jean de Paris we can perceive the 
commencement of a transition caused by an absence in foreign countries of 
seven years, and the influence of a close acquaintance with the works of 
Mozart formed in Germany and Russia. Without interference with the 
national character of the work, Boieldieu has introduced into the last-named 
opera a greater wealth of ideas, a deeper sentiment, and more artistic de- 
velopment. The ana of the Prmcesse de Navarre, " Ah, quel plaisir d'etre 
en voyage," and that of the Seneschal, are unequalled in esprit. The three 
great works named above are only separated chronologically by Le Chaperon 
Rouge, which followed Jean de Paris, and which is founded on the well- 
known fairy tale of Little Red Riding Hood. This opera met with great 
success. Seven years later Boieldieu crowned his former successes with the 
production of La Dame Blanche, without doubt his greatest work. This 
dramatic tone-poem is unique in its kind, and forms now, after a lapse of 
half a century, an- attraction on every opera stage. The spirit of the melody 
is inspired by Mozart ; the original modulation, dramatic recitatives, and 
orchestration are all superior to those of any other French composer. 

We have as yet only spoken of the musical merits of La Dame Blanche, 
and have not discussed its significance in the history of French art. 
After Boieldieu had exhibited the deep romance of his nature in his song 
of the minstrel, and that of the troubadour in Jean de Paris, he continued 
to allow this feature to exercise its power by omitting to preserve the 
balance of the romantic and comic, as observed by his predecessors. 
Although we agree, as a rule, with Riehl's opinion of Boieldieu, we do not 
favour his assertion that La Dame Blanche is a perfect romantic opera, 
it R u 


since we find in it a number of purely comic scenes. In Der Freischiltz 
we meet with only two such scenes ; in Euryanthe and Lohengrin they are 
altogether wanting. We agree, however, with the opinion that in this 
work Boieldieu approaches the boundary which separates the purely 
romantic from the comic romantic opera, and the consequences of this we 
shall treat of in the chapter on the third period of the comic romantic 
opera. In this opera the master introduces, in a manner most successful, 
the fusion of the music of a foreign nationality with his own, by the in- 
troduction into the opera of the Scotch " Robin Adair." Boieldieu might, 
for many reasons, be designated the Weber of France. Although we 
cannot say that the French composer presented his country with the first 
complete romantic opera, as did the German, yet he contrived to bring into 
close union the highest art-form with the simple folk-music. Boieldieu 
follows closely the plan adopted by Karl Maria von Weber in his overtures, 
by employing important themes from the opera and combining them with 
the folk-motive in a skilful and intellectual working-out, producing a 
grand whole, without ever degenerating into mere musical mosaic. Not- 
withstanding the great number of the themes, they are welded in a most 
masterly fashion. The introduction to the overture begins with the motivo 
of the first Finale, followed by the ballad with chorus from the same act; 
the Allegro begins with the drinking song, its episode being selected from 
the trio. The chorus, " Sonnez," could never have found birth had not 
the composer studied the hunting choruses of Weber. The aria, "" Ah ! 
quel plaisir d'etre soldat," and the cavatina, " Viens gentille dame," are 
thoroughly French. Such ensembles as are contained in this opera had 
never been known to the opera comique before the appearance of the works 
of Boieldieu. 

We cannot take leave of the masterpiece of Boieldieu without referring 
to his most successful interpreter. We refer to Hippolyte Roger (1815 
1879), who rendered the role of George Brown. Roger was an excellent 
tenor, and gave a classic dignity to every part entrusted to him. As 
regards Boieldieu's domestic life, we must mention that at St. Petersburg he 
married Jeanne Philis. The composer's amiable and unpretending character 
is easily perceived in the charming letter to his future bride respecting the 
performance of his operetta Rien de Trop. " On my way to the theatre I 
looked anxiously at the weathercock over the Feydeau to see from which 



direction the wind was blowing. It came from the north ; that gave me 
hope. I said to myself, ' This wind bears the kindest wishes of my best 
friend, whose joy I should have gladly witnessed this evening/ You would 
have been happy, I am sure. Of course I was called before the curtain, 
led on by Chenard, Gavaudan, and Martin. Cherubini, of whom my 

Fig. 278. Hippolyte Roger. 

brother had never lost sight during the performance, and who never ceased 
applauding, came to tell me, before the whole assembly, that this music 
enchanted him. Had you been here excessive joy would have killed me." 
No less modest were his acknowledgments of the unexampled triumphs 
he gained with La Dame Blanche. He writes : " My success appears to 
be a national one, and all the world tells me it will create a fresh epoch 
in the history of music. The fact of the matter is, foreign music had 
gained such an ascendancy that the public understood that all that could 
be done was to follow in Rossini's wake. The task of overcoming this 
R R R 2 


prejudice was by no means easy. The honour has been awarded to me of 
achieving 1 it, and all French artists, painters, poets, and musicians con- 
tinually bestow on me their thanks. But I fear that their zeal in indis- 
creetly uttering their opinions will cause dissension. Bossini's partisans 
are enraged; they only await an opportunity of taking up arms on behalf 
of their hero. The most amusing feature of the case is that whilst our 
respective adherents quarrel, we, the principals, Rossini and I, are excellent 

After the most romantic of all the French comic romantic operas, that 
is Boieldieu's Dame Blanche, by an increase of the romantic element in the 
works of this school nought could result but a complete separation of 
the comic from the romantic school. The increasing influence of romance 
in music could not tend otherwise than to cause a separation of the 
hitherto united elements of comic romantic opera, the former element 
being admitted after the production of La Dame Blanche in only excep- 
tional cases, most frequently in the shape of satire. There -can be no 
doubt but that the example set by Boieldieu in his masterpiece was 
aided strongly, though indirectly, by the works of Weber, Schubert, 
Spohr, Marschner, Meyerbeer, Hoffmann, Fouque, and Heine; and inas- 
much as many of their works partake of a romantic nature, Mozart and 
Beethoven, Goethe and Schiller may also be reckoned as helping in this 
development of romance. In the third period, which speedily followed the 
production of Boieldieu's Dame Blanche, opera comique was subdivided into 
two separate species, comic romantic and romantic or lyric. The very names 
of the Paris theatres go far to support our theory, for while the Opera 
Lyrique employs an entirely romantic repertoire, the Opera Comique supports 
the comic romantic opera. Many of the works written by French com- 
posers for the Opera Italien may also be added to the new genre of the 
romantic opera ; for example, Halevy's Tempesta. 

The third period may be accepted as dating from Auber and Herold, 
who each adopted a different branch of opera composition, both of 
which exist at the present day, as is proved by the works of Thomas, 
Dehbes, and Bizet. The two first-named composers stand alone as the 
successors of Boieldieu; but whilst Auber favours the comic romantic 
character of the Caliphe de Bagdad and Jean, de Paris, Herold in- 
clines towards the strongly developed romantic mood of La Dame Blanche 



in such a marked manner as to make the romantic opera triumphant 
on the French stage. Louis Joseph Ferdinand Herold was born at 
Paris in 1791, and died at Maison des Ternes, where he was residing, 
in 1833. He received instruction from Adam, Catel, and Mehul, and 
gained his first success in Paris with an opera entitled Charles de France, 

Fig. 279. L. J. F. Herold. 

which he wrote in co-operation with Boieldieu. It is of historical interest 
to notice the frequent and widespread custom of the eighteenth century in 
France and Italy of composing in co-operation, the result being much 
like that produced by a manufactory, works lacking artistic unity. With 
reference to Italy we may regard this habit as an outcome of the Rococo 
and Zopf, but in France it cannot fail to surprise us, as the comic and grand 
operas of that nation had risen to a standard far above the influence of a 
Zopf. Our astonishment is increased by the recollection that this custom 
was by no means confined to petty composers, but that it was followed by 


Chembini, Spontini, Mehul, Boieldieu, Auber, and Herold. Auber, Batton, 
Berton, Blangini, Boieldieu, Carafa, Cherubim, and Paer, all united in com- 
posing La Marquise de BrinviUiers ; Cherubini and Boieldieu wrote La 
Prisonniere ; Catel, Boieldieu, Cherubini, and Isouard produced Bayard a 
Mezieres ; Spontini, Persuis, Berton, and Kreutzer composed Les Deux 
llivaux ; while Herold and Carafa contributed L'Auberge d'Auray. As 
this plan of conjunction in labour is employed at the present time by French 
litterateurs, we must consider it a special trait of Latin nations. Where 
this proceeding is found in German composition, it occurs in the eighteenth 
century in the works of composers tutored in the Italian schools, whose 
Zopf and co-operative custom they had adopted. This feature cannot, how- 
ever, be said to belong now to German composers, amongst whom the habit 
has long since died out ; whereas in France the greatest number of libretti 
are produced by joint authors ; and Dumas, Erckmann, Chatrian, and others 
are associates in authorship. Herold' s earliest comic operas, Les Rosieres and 
La Clockette, were followed by several insignificant works and ballets for 
the grand opera. His next important works are Le Premier Venu, 1818, 
and Marie, performed in 1826. These were followed by seven comic 
operas, but his position in the musical world was assured by Zampa, 

It is strange that such a work as this, with so tragic an end, can be 
classed among comic operas, but we must explain it as the result of the 
French custom, which designates all operas comic which contain the smallest 
amount of that element. Thus it is that Cherubim's Porteur d'Eau, 
Lodoiska, Faniska, and All Baba, Gretry's Barbe Bleu and Ritfiard Cceur 
de Lion, Herold's Zampa and Le Pre aux Clercs, Auber's Lac des Fees, 
Halevy's Tempest a, Thomas's Mignon, Gounod's Faust, and Bizet's Carmen, 
are styled opera comique. This generalisation is occasionally modified by 
the terms Lyric and Italian being applied to various operas, though these 
distinctive expressions bear no very significant meaning. Some of these 
works have been classed even with the grand opera on account of the ex- 
cessive expenditure necessitated by the required scenic effect, their subject 
matter being by no means suited to the character of that genre. In the 
face of such confused though accepted classification, we have ventured to 
separate Boieldieu's Porteur d'Eau and Mehul's Joseph from the mass of 
operas of the period; Gretry's Barbe Bleu and Boieldieu's Dame Blanche 


we bave designated semi-romantic ; while Gounod's Faust and Romeo and 
Juliet, Halevy's Tempesla, Thomas's Mignon, and Bizet's Carmen we 
include in the list of romantic operas. This last-named class found origin 
in Herold's Zampa. We must not forget that Meyerbeer's liobert le Liable 
was produced in Paris at the same time as Herold's chef-d'oeuvre, and that 
this opera, with its extraordinary combinations, went far to bring the 
romantic into favour with the French, who, when once excited, sought 
eagerly for strained contrast and effect, which found no place in the 
classical productions of Boieldieu and his contemporary German composers 
of romantic operas. 

In discussing the commencement of the period of the opera comique, 
we noticed the increased influence of German genius and talent on French 
composers. This assertion is proved beyond doubt by the first exclusively 
romantic opera, Herold's Zampa. Although in Boieldieu's Lame Blanche 
we called attention to a general influence of German masters, now, with 
regard to Herold's Zampa, we can point directly to a special .German work, 
Lon Giovanni, the first German romantic opera, without which Herold's 
work could never have found birth. In these two operas the introduction 
of the supernatural, with its attendant horrors, necessitates a special method 
of musical treatment, such as the employment of trombones on occasion of 
the marble statues assuming vitality. Herold's best dramatic effort was a 
comic opera in one act, La Medecine sans Medecin, which was followed by 
Le Pre aux Clercs, performed in 1832. This opera charmed the French 
to such an extent that by 1871 it had undergone a thousand representations. 
Auber was as successful a writer of comic as he had been of grand opera, 
and as such was directly opposed in style to his contemporary Herold, who 
was an idealist and romanticist, whereas Auber himself gained great popu- 
larity through his cheerful realism. In 1820 La Bergere Chatelaine gained 
for Auber his first success ; it was not, however, until he began to compose 
to Scribe's libretti that his continuous triumphs commenced. Scribe was 
destined as an opera- writer to hold in France the position occupied a century 
before in Italy by Metastasio, with the exception that while the libretti of 
the latter now appear conventional and stiff, those of Scribe especially 
when written for comic opera are full of life and dramatic interest. This 
writer contributed many of the libretti of the works of interest belonging 
to the period of the grand French opera, such as Masaniello, Lets Huguenots, 


Le Prophele, and La Juive. Although at times he favours tragedy, there 
can he no denial of his rare knowledge of stage effect and poetic con- 
ception of character. The first opera by which Auber gained a real and 
lasting success was La Magon, written by Scribe, which was performed 
for the first time in Paris in 1825. The music of this work is pure and 
simple in expression, and therefore calculated to affect us more deeply 
than many other works of the same kind written by him with more pre- 
tension and calculation. 

In this work Auber reflects the amiable character of the lower classes 
of the Parisian population in the most advantageous manner. The com- 
poser contrives to produce the most striking effects by his graphic 
Turkish music, which, in juxtaposition to that of the simple-minded and 
light-hearted French workmen, becomes invested with a highly dramatic 
expression. Auber's other great works of this class include Fra Diavolo, 
1830 ; Le Domino Noir, 1837 ; Les Diamants de la Couronne, 1841 ; and 
La Part du Liable, 1843, all works which have remained on the stages 
of Europe and America, and which gained on their production the fame they 
still retain. Fra Diavolo obtained in the first few years after its production 
a popularity of which we can barely form an idea ; and now, after a lapse 
of half a century, it still attracts crowded houses. The charming solos and 
romances, as well as the ensembles, are specimens of Auber's best finished 
compositions, and are only equalled by the music of Le Mapon and Le Domino 
Noir. Auber, as the most important master of the comic romantic opera 
of the French, differs from Boieldieu, the most important master of the 
immediately preceding period of this class of opera, since the latter draws 
the musical ideas of the situation of his dramatic characters almost always 
from his innermost soul, whilst Auber sketches his in graceful outline, 
and treats their feelings as momentary moods rather than as heartfelt 
emotions. Consequently, Boieldieu employs a more fully developed method 
of working out, and greater unity of construction, welding the two into an 
organic whole. Auber treats form and contents superficially ; and instead 
of employing his power for the purpose of giving unity to the work, 
directs his attention entirely to the elaboration of details; indeed, in 
many of his less important works he descends to a mere manufacture of 
musical mosaic. Nevertheless, we are occasionally surprised by charm- 
ing ideas, striking rhythm, and most appropriate modulation. As a rule, 


his music is neither strained nor affected, and in his better works the 
striving after even small effect is natural, and never interrupts the graceful 
flow of the music. If in every work of his we fail to find the depth and 
sentiment of Le Macon, Le Domino Noir, and Fra Diavolo, we are at least 
recompensed by his never-failing knowledge of stage effect and dramatic 
interest. In the Lac des Fees, the libretto of which is founded on the 
fairy tale by the German poet Musaus, Auber has essayed to enter upon 
the field of purely romantic opera, the success of which, commencing from its 
birth, had incited him to make an attempt in this direction. Notwithstand- 
ing that this composition contains many glimpses of beauty, the romance of 
Weber and Schubert lay beyond his power, and in some instances the work 
becomes laboured and dry. In such works as Fra Diavolo, when Auber 
follows his natural gift, influenced by no desire of imitation, we find more 
romance, though of a French and realistic character, than he exhibits when 
imitating German romantic opera. In 1842 the master was appointed 
director of the Conservatoire as successor to Cherubini, who had occupied 
the post for almost half a century. In this position he proved himself 
of the utmost value, and even at the age of eighty had not missed 
a single examination or distribution of prizes. Napoleon III., in 1857, 
created him court chapel-master. The list of Auber's best known operas 
includes La Nii'ge, 1823 ; L'Ambassadrice, 1836 ; L' Enfant Prodigue, 1850 ; 
and the last of nearly half a hundred, Beves tf Amour, 1869. 

Scarcely less important than Auber, in the history of the comic and 
comic romantic opera, is Halevy, of whose works written for the grand 
opera, viz., La Juive, La Magicienne, and La Heine de Chypre, we have 
already spoken. As a master of opera comique he gained renown with the 
one-act piece, L' Artisan, produced in Paris in 1827. His first essay for 
the opera Italien, entitled Clari, produced in 1829, was a work of indifferent 
merit, and only received favour through the persistent efforts of Malibran. 
Le Dilettante (V Avignon and Les Souvenir de Lafleur, performed in the 
Theatre Feydeau, gained a lasting success by their intrinsic worth. It was 
in L> Eclair and Les Mousquetaires de la Eeine, produced eleven years later, 
that Halevy exhibited his real worth, which obtained for him a place 
amongst the most prominent masters of the opera comique. In 1850 the 
master composed La Tempesla, a comic romantic work for the London 
Italian Opera, in which, about a year later, Henriette Sontag made her 


re-appearance at Paris, after many years of retirement from the stage. 
This work, and Le Val d' Andorra, composed in 1848, although containing 
many instances of inspiration, exhibit on the whole a decided decline of the 
master's productive power. Halevy, who may be designated as one of the 
most scientific of French musicians, was an erudite scholar and an inde- 
fatigable worker. In 1833 he succeeded Fetis as professor of composition 
at the Conservatoire. Three years later he was created a "Membre de 
1'Institut" in the place of Reicha. He became vice-president of the 
Paris Academy of Fine Arts in 1844, and in 1854 he accepted the post 
of recorder to the same institution, and in this quality he has presented 
the world with masterpieces of reasoning in his minutes, criticisms, 
and advice. He was chosen to represent Paris in the Assembly in 
1848, an honour conferred on no musician before him, and only met 
with since in the case of Verdi, who was returned to the Italian Par- 
liament in 1860. 

Adolphe Charles Adam was born in Paris in 1803. 'It was originally 
intended that he should become a scientist, but his love for music made 
him oppose the wishes of his parents. His first attempts consisted of 
occasional pieces of Vaudeville music, and it was not until 1829 that he 
succeeded in gaining a performance of his Pierre et Catherine, an operetta 
in one act, at the Opera Comique. After the production of several similar 
works he came to London to superintend the performances of his ballet 
of Faust, with which he achieved considerable success. He gained little 
renown in Paris until 1833-4, when his Proscrit and Le Chalet were 
received with favour. In 1838 his Postilion de Longjumeau was received 
with great eclat in Paris, and he gained celebrity throughout Europe. In 
no succeeding work did he achieve such happy results. Of his later operas 
the most successful were Le Brasseur de Preston, La Heine d'un Jour, and 
La Poupee de Nuremberg, with which he tried to improve the style of the 
Parisian opera bouffe, founded by Offenbach in 1855. Adam, as a rule, 
wrote quickly and without effort, but his music was for the most part su- 
perficial ; in his best works, however, we find much gracefulness, good taste, 
and humour. This composer, who was created a " Membre de PInstitut 
de France," died in 1856. By adding Hippolyte Chelard, born at Paris 
in 1789, we shall complete the list of French comic romantic opera com- 
posers to the middle of the nineteenth century, for Gounod, Maillart, Delibes, 


Thomas, Bizet, and Massenet belong strictly to the present period, with 
which we shall deal in a subsequent chapter. Chelard produced an opera 
in 1830, La Table el Logement, performed in Germany under the title 
of Der Student. Into his Macbeth, produced in Paris and Munich, he 
introduced the romantic element favoured by Boieldieu and Herold. He 
died at Weimar as chapel-master in 1861. That the French comic romantic 
opera found favour in other countries of Europe is proved by the adoption 
of its form by Donizetti in his Figlia del Ref/gimento, by Flotow in 
Martha, and by Ignatz Briill in his Golden Cross. 

We have now to call attention to a new feature of musical art which 
was developed independently of the French stage from 1750 to 1840 j and 
in connection with which we shall meet with several masters whom we have 
discussed as composers of French opera. This period is represented by a body 
of prominent French orchestral and chamber-music composers, and violin 
and pianoforte virtuosi, and is signalised by the growth of elevated style. 
Besides those virtuosi, who united artistic purpose to technical perfection, 
there were many who, although gaining great celebrity in Paris, possessed 
no artistic quality but mere mechanical skill. It is of the latter class that 
we shall treat in the present section. The influx of virtuosi into Paris was 
commenced by the Italians, and their example being followed by artists 
of other countries, the French capital was crowded during the latter part of 
the eighteenth and earlier portion of the present century with singers, 
pianists, and violinists of almost every European nationality, who hoped 
to make here the fortunes they could never realise in their own country. 
Among the most prominent of these were Fran9ois Hiinten, born in 
1793 at Coblentz, where he died in 1878, and Henry Herz, born at Vienna 
in 1806. Hiinten resided in Paris from 1819 to 1837, and Herz from 
1816 to 1874. Both pianists were pupils of the Paris Conservatoire, of 
which institution Herz was afterwards created a professor. For many 
years they enjoyed great renown as performers and prolific composers of 
pianoforte music. Such celebrity was easily obtained, as the semi-educated 
always welcome superficial productions as being understood without effort. 
Their innumerable compositions and arrangements are, like the majority of 
the productions of this class, out of date, and even their concertos for the 
piano and orchestra are almost entirely forgotten. 

Though musicians of this class can now interest us but slightly, those 


men who have aided the development of the national instrumental music, 
and consequently that of the orchestra, deserve special notice. The last 
important violin virtuoso and composer of the period of Rameau was Jean 
Marie Leclair, born at Lyons in 1697. Ferdinand David has published, in 
his " High School of Violin Playing, " two of this master's violin sonatas, 
which cannot fail to prove his importance as a composer. He wrote several 
" Concerti Grossi " for three violins, alto, violoncello, and organ ; overtures, 
trios, and sonatas. Of the latter his wife engraved one with her own hands. 
Leclair was assassinated at night jn one of the streets of Paris in 1764, the 
cause of the crime being jealousy. The next violin virtuosi whom we shall 
discuss approach closer to our own period. The first of these is Pierre 
Gavines, the founder of the modern violin school. He was born at 
Bordeaux in 1726, and died at Paris jn 1800. This artist, who was 
designated by Viotti "the Tartini of the French," was self-taught. If 
we judge by his concertos, sonatas, and studies (entitled matinees), Gavines 
must have possessed considerable power as a virtuoso, the technical difficulty 
of these works being extremely great. Gossec, who succeeds chronologi- 
cally, has already been mentioned as a master of the French opera schools 
of the eighteenth century. This master occupies a position among the early 
orchestra composers by no means unimportant. This is proved by his twenty- 
nine symphonies, of which three are for wind instruments alone. Several 
of his compositions belonging to this class have been performed at the 
Paris Concerts Spirituels. Gossec's string quartetts, duets for violins, and 
serenades were much in favour among his contemporaries.* The interest 
engendered by orchestral music had gradually inculcated a taste for the 
performances of virtuosi. Amongst those assembled in Paris at this period, 
the violoncellist Louis Duport (17421819) stood pre-eminent, composing 
many sonatas, variations, and duos. He was appointed chief soloist by 
the Emperor Napoleon. His instrument, a magnificent Stradivarius, was 
bought by Franchomme for 25,000 francs. 

Rodolphe Kreutzer, born at Versailles in 1766, was as important a 
violinist as his contemporary Duport was violoncellist. In 1769 Beethoven 
heard him while on a concert tour through the Netherlands, Italy, and 
Germany, and dedicated to him his violin sonata, Op. 47, thus helping 

* It is supposed that Gossec was the first to introduce the clarinet into his orchestral 


to hand his name down to posterity. Kreutzer's " Quaraute Etudes, ou 
Caprices " for the violin are accepted as classical even at the present day, and 
much beauty is to be found in his double concertos, concertos, and string- 
quartetts. He died at Geneva in 1831. 

The elder Jadin is still more important as an instrumental and opera 
composer, and has left a great number of orchestral and chamber composi- 
tions, consisting chiefly of symphonies, overtures, quintetts, and string- 
quartetts. Hyacinthe Jadin (1769 1802), a younger brother of the last- 
named composer, was a professor of the Conservatoire. He emulated his 
brother in his works, of which many chamber compositions still remain. 
Reicha, who is next on the list, has written no less than twenty string- 
quartetts, twenty - four quintetts for flute, oboe, clarinet, horn, and 
bassoon ; six quartetts for flute, violin, viola, and violoncello ; and 
very many chamber compositions. Rcicha's contemporaries were Baillot 
and Rode, two of the most gifted of French violinists. These virtuosi, 
like their compatriot Kreutzer, were disciples of the famous violin 
school founded by the great Italian master Viotti. Before the ap- 
pearance of Viotti, who, with short interruptions, resided in Paris from 
1782 to 1822, France possessed a number of violinists whose school can 
be identified with that of Gavines ; Kreutzer, however, with Fran9ois 
Baillot (17711842) and Pierre Rode (17741830), through their re- 
lation to Viotti, helped in the fusion of the violin schools of modern Italy 
and France. Like Kreutzer, Rode was happy in attracting the notice of 
Beethoven while on a concert tour through Austria, the result being that 
the great master dedicated to. him his romance, Op. 50. Amongst Rode's 
still prized compositions we will enumerate his thirteen concertos; four 
" Quatuors Brillants," in which the first violin is solo ; four string-quar- 
tetts, twenty-four " Caprices/' twelve " Etudes/' and " Themes Varies " 
with orchestra. A work of great value is the " Methode de Violon, par 
Rode, Baillot et Kreutzer, redigee par Baillot." Rode was appointed in 
1800 solo violinist in the private chapel of the First Consul, with a salary 
of 10,000 francs. In 1803 he accompanied his friend Boieldieu to St. 
Petersburg. Of his works the "Etudes/' "I/ Art du Violon" (1835, 
Paris), 24 preludes, 9 concertos for the violin, 15 string trios, and three 
string-quartetts are still in great request among violinists. As litterateur 
Baillot gained his greatest success with his " Notice sur Gretry " and 



"Notice sur Viotti/' published in Paris in 1814, and again in 1825. 
Though Rode enchanted his audience with his exquisite bowing and the 
perfect purity of his intonation, Baillot exhibited an unequalled grandeur of 
conception in rendering his own works and those of other composers. Both 

.| , liilliil'I'i 


Fig. 280. Teresa and Mai-ia Milanollo. 

these masters were unsurpassed as quartett performers. Though no vir- 
tuoso, George Onslow, born in 1784, was an important composer of French 
chamber- music. He was of English descent, but being born at Clermont- 
Ferrand in the Puy-de-D6me, and passing his life entirely in France, 
Onslow cannot but have been influenced by his surroundings, and must, 
therefore, be accepted as a French composer. It has been asserted that 
the composer was not born at Clermont, but that he bought an estate there 
when very young. Halevy, however, when delivering a funeral oration at 



the Institut, lauded Onslow as a gifted Frenchman. Onslow followed by 
preference the classical examples of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. He 
has, therefore, left many excellent works which are still in vogue in 
Germany. Not only was he a thorough and refined musician, but his 
works exhibit deep sentiment ; his quintetts for string instruments and his 
pianoforte sonatas for four hands are very beautiful, especially the sonata 

Fig. 281. Malibijin Garcia. 

in F minor, Op. 22. Of his string-quartetts several remain, which have 
lost none of their interest through the lapse of time. Later in life Onslow 
began to write carelessly, and his works were never on a level with those 
produced during the first half of his career. In 1842 the composer was 
chosen to succeed Cherubini as " Membre de Tlnstitut de France." He 
now wrote three comic operas which, though performed in Paris, met with 
but a succes d'estime. Onslow died at Clermont-Ferrand in 1852. The 
next famous violinists were the sisters Teresa and Maria Milanollo. These 
sisters were born in Piedmont in 1827 and 1832 respectively. Though they 
commenced their career in Italy, it was not until they visited Paris that 
they gained a world-wide fame. It was here, too, that Maria, the younger 


of the sisters, died in 1848. At the present day, when the musical world 
possesses such a performer as Neruda, the sisters Milanollo, excellent as 
was their performance, would hardly have created such a sensation as they 
did at that period, when the appearance of two female violinists constituted 
a new feature of the concert-room. As the violin school of Paris was 
formed through the influence of the Italian Viotti, so was the Paris school 
of vocalists established by the Spaniards Manuel Garcia, father and son. 
Under their influence, from 1828 to 1850, this school threatened to sur- 
pass that of Italy. Manuel Garcia, the son, is to be credited with the 
invention of a mirror for examination of the larynx,* this ingenious con- 
trivance being named after the inventor. The elder Garcia transmitted 
his incomparable method to his youngest daughter as well as to his son. 
This daughter, Pauline Viardot Garcia, is undoubtedly the most gifted 
female vocalist and teacher of singing. Pauline's elder sister was the cele- 
brated Maria Felicita Malibran, born at Paris in 1808, and who died at 
Manchester in 1836. Malibran possessed a splendid contralto voice, 'in 
addition to which she was enabled, by her unusual range, to render suc- 
cessfully high mezzo-soprano parts. On her first appearance in 1824 at Paris, 
she completely electrified her audience. From 1827 to 1832 she performed 
with great success in Paris, London, and Italy. Her chief roles were from 
the operas of Rossini, such as Arsace in Semiramide, Tancredi, and Rosina 
in II Barbiere. She was especially successful as Palmira in Meyerbeer's 
Crociato, and in Beethoven's Fidelio. In 1836 she again married, her 
second husband being the celebrated violinist Charles Auguste de Beriot 
This Belgian virtuoso was born at Leuven in 1802, and died in 1870 as 
professor at the Brussels Conservatoire. Malibran was one of the best 
pianists of her period, and composed many charming and original songs, 
romances, nocturnes, and canzonets. Manuel Garcia (pere) was followed 
by the French master Auguste Panseron, born at Paris in 1796. Pan- 
seron was undoubtedly influenced by his Spanish predecessor, though not 
sufficiently so to destroy his own individuality. His " Solfeggios " and 
' Methode de Vocalisation " are still of great value. We shall now return 
to the French instrumentalists and virtuosi. Louis Drouet (17921873) 
was solo flautist to the court of the first Napoleon. Vivier, the celebrated 
horn-player, was born in 1821. He enjoyed great reputation as a wit, 

* This is usually known in England as the " Laryngoscope." F. A. G. O. 


Henri Bertini (1798 1876), who enjoyed great reputation as a pianist and 
composer, came to Paris at the age of six. His studies are in general use at 
the present day. Though Italian by birth, he must be reckoned amongst 
the masters of the French school, owing to his long residence in Paris, and 
his connection with the French pianists. We have already discussed the 
influence of Chopin and Liszt, as virtuosi and composers, on the Parisian 
masters of pianoforte performance and composition. Simultaneously with, 
and even before, Liszt and Chopin, Pierre Joseph Guillaume Zimmermann 
(17851853), born at Paris, and Frederick Kalkbrenner (17841849), 
born at Cassel, greatly influenced the French pianoforte school. These 
masters both died in Paris. Of the pupils of Kalkbrenner the most 
important were Stamatz, the master of Saint-Saens, and Madame Pleyel ; 
Zimmermann's most noteworthy pupils were Alkan, Dejazet, Prudent, 
Marmontel, Lacombe, and Ambroise Thomas. Kalkbrenner introduced 
Logier's " Chiroplast " or hand-guide, which was intended to keep the 
fingers free from any influence of the fore-arm when practising scales and 
exercises, and the wrist from that of the upper arm while playing sixths 
and octaves. Zimmermann employed the method of teaching set down in 
his "Encyclopedic du Pianiste." 

We must now glance retrospectively at the development of the science 
of music among the French during the period in which the two species of 
opera began to flourish. The two first names which we must consider 
belong to the last century, and are those of Villoteau and Laborde. Ben- 
jamin de Laborde, a lord-in-waiting of Louis XV., born in 1734, was 
guillotined at Paris in 1794. He was celebrated as an historian 
and theorist. The most important of his works was his " Essai sur la 
Musique Ancienne et Moderne/" published in four volumes in 1780. 
Guillaume Villoteau was born in the Department of the Orne in 1759, and 
died in Paris in 1839. He commenced his career as a choir-boy, and 
eventually became tenor at the Cathedrals of Le Mans, La Rochelle, and 
Paris; and after the Revolution he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne. His 
essays gained for him such notoriety that he was appointed a member of 
the commission of scientists which followed Napoleon's army to Egypt. 
Villoteau's valuable work on the music cf the Oriental nations was pub- 
lished at the expense of the State under the title of " Descriptions de 
1'Egyptc," which embodied, among others, treatises on " Les Diverses 
s s s 


Especes d'Instruments de Musique que 1'on reraarque parrai les Sculptures 
qui decorent les Antiques Monuments de 1'Egypte ; " and " Description 
Historique, Technique, et Litteraire des Instruments de Musique des 
Orientaux." Amongst his many other works on the theory of music, we 
must mention as the most important the " Memoire sur la Possibilite et 
1'Utilite d'une Theorie Exacte des Principes Naturels de la Musique/' pub- 
lished 1807. Proceeding in chronological order, we meet next with Alexandre 
Choron, who was born in Normandy in 1772, and died at Paris in 1834. 
By Fetis, Choron was designated as the most profound of French theorists. 
Of his works the most important are the " Dictionnaire Historique/' written 
in conjunction with Fayolle, and published in two volumes in 1810 ; Prin- 
cipes de Composition des ^coles de Pltalie/' a second edition of which 
appeared in 1816 ; " Methode Elementaire de Musique et de Plain-Chant/' 
published in 1811 ; "Liber Choralis Tribus Vocibus ad usum Collegii Sancti 
Ludovici," published in 1824 ; and a " Manuel Complet de Musique Vocale 
et Instrumentale, ou Encyclopedic Musicale," written in collaboration 
with La Fage, and published in eight volumes in 1836. The last of 
these scientists is Catel (17731830). Of his works the " Traite d'Har- 
monie," which has been used for many years at the Conservatoire of Paris, 
is without doubt the most important. 

The opinion of the French that the importance of Rossini, Meyerbeer, 
and even of Gluck, Cherubini, and Spontini, rests solely on their relation 
with the grand French opera, must be regarded as one of those pardonable 
errors which soon creep into the mind of a nation which is anxious to 
assert its pre-eminence in the world's history by the possession of the 
greatest names in art. Gluck and Spontini not only belonged to the grand 
opera, but, as we have proved before, were its founders ; yet like Rossini, 
Meyerbeer, and the versatile Cherubini, their relation to the French opera 
represents only one phase of their artistic activity ; they belonged to their 
own nation and the entire musical world more than to the grand opera, 
owing to their artistic individuality and national character. In order to do 
justice to these masters, we have already devoted two chapters to the dis- 
cussion of the respective merits of Gluck and Meyerbeer, and are entitling 
the following chapter " Cherubini, Spontini, and Rossini." 




IN a former chapter we proved the Italians to be the representatives of 
the musical Zopf, and, as such, the leaders and model of entire Europe, 
by which this period was considered to be the climax of musical art. That 
the Italians had not already completed the performance of their mission 
is proved by the appearance of the names of Cherubini, Spontini, and 
RossiiiL_at the close of the eighteenth and commencement of the nine- 
teenth century. This ought to suffice for a proof to those biassed 
phraseologists and musical pharisees who have for an entire generation 
deplored the decline of Italian music during the last century and a 
half. In addition to the three great masters we have Mercadante, Bellini, 
and Donizetti^ the most important of the remaining Italian tone-poets, 
who prove that the nineteenth century produced a rich after-crop of the 
genius prevalent in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Operas such as 
II Giuramento, Norma, Lucrezra Borgia, La Favorita, La Sonnambula, Don 
Pasquale, L'Elisire d'Amore y La Figlia del lieggimento, and many other 
works, prove that the reactionary classicists or romanticists contradict 
historical truth when they declare such works as extinct. These operas 
have not disappeared totally from European nor American stages ; and 
even had they disappeared occasionally, their resuscitation proved always 
a great and joyful surprise to the public, who found in them, even after a 
lapse of fifty years, a marvellous fertility of invention, beauty, and charm- 
ing melody, allied to dramatic passion and musical grace and humour. 
This favourable reception cannot fail to increase the ire of those composers 
whose stilted attempts at artistic profundity cause the withdrawal of their 
operas after the usual three performances. 

As we have stated elsewhere, Chembini and Spontini came as young 
men to Paris, where the former, with the exception of a few journeys, re- 
mained to the close of his life, and where Spontini resided for a number of 
years. Yet the influence which was to direct the mind and style of these men 
cannot be accepted as French, but rather as German. None can reproach 
us, however, with having underrated the influence exercised over these 
masters by the intelligence of the Parisian population, the national music, 
s s s 2 



such as that of Gretry, Mehul, Isouard, and Boieldieu, and the historical 
importance attached to that period of the existence of the French capital, 
as, it must be remembered, the composers were respectively twenty-six and 
twenty-nine years of age when they entered Paris, and had received their 
musical education entirely in their own country. In the French capital 
the masters were influenced by the operas of Gluck, and also in part by 

Fig. 282. M. L. Cherubini. 

the symphonies and overtures of Haydn and Mozart, of whose chamber 
music, besides, Cherubini made a close study. Although they could not 
escape the beneficial influence of the French school, the result was by no 
means equal to that produced upon them by the classical school of German 
music, which was continually advancing westwards. This influence was after- 
wards increased by Cherubim's sojourn in Vienna, and Spontini's residence 
m Berlin, as the masters then came into contact with the representatives of 
the art. As we have not here to discuss the connection existing between 
the composers of MedSe and the Yettak and the French school, we shall 


pass in review their lives, for the purpose of portraying completely the 
events attendant on the development of their artistic activity. Maria 
Luigi Cherubini was born September 4-th, 1760, in the Via Fiesolana, at 
Florence. .Strange to relate, the master erroneously quoted the 8th of Sep- 
tember as the day of his birth, but this was corrected by the register of 
the church in which he was baptised. His father was " Maestro al 
cembalo/' whose duty in the orchestra was to accompany the recitative on 
the piano, an institution which lasted until the middle of the present 
century. Cherubini therefore received the elements of his musical education 
at home. At the age of eighteen his talent attracted the attention of the 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, afterwards Emperor Leopold II. of Austria, an 
eminent patron and lover of music. The duke sent him as a pupil to 
Sarti, a learned musician. Under this indefatigable master Cherubini 
received a profound schooling in the strict style, and there can be no doubt 
that it was to him that he owed his thorough mastery of polyphonic 
writing. When advanced in years, he expressed his gratitude in the 
following terms : " It is to Sard's advice and example that I owe my 
education in counterpoint, both in sacred and dramatic composition." Until 
1779 Cherubini composed nothing but sacred music. A year later, his 
first opera, entitled Fabio, was performed, and during the next five years 
six operas were performed with success in different Italian towns. The 
Venetians said, with reference to his name, " Toccante meno al suo nome 
dalla dolcezza di suoi canti," referring to the peculiar charm of purity of 
melody in his operas, which, however, still bore slight traces of the influence 
of the. contemporaneous Neapolitan school. These early successes spread 
his fame to such an extent that in 1784 he received an invitation to 
London. Here he composed an opera in two acts, La Finta Principcssa, 
which was tolerably well received ; but the second work, Ginlio Salino, met 
with a complete fiasco, being abused not only by the critics, but by the 
public. Mortified at this failure, Cherubini in 1786 returned to Paris, 
and thence, after a short stay, to Italy. In 1787 he produced at Turin an 
opera entitled Iphigenia in Aulide, the last of his works written in the then 
prevailing style. He now visited Paris, as he thought en passant. How- 
ever, meeting_his countryman Viotti, the violin virtuoso and composer, the 
close friendship he formed with him induced him to remain there. We 
have already discussed the principal events of his stay in the French capital. 


Before composing the Medee, Cherubini wrote Demopkon, 1788; Lodoiska, 
1791; and EHse, on le Voyage dit Mont St. Bernard, 1794, which contains 
many traits of truly tragic grandeur. Between the Medee and the Porteur 
d'Eau he composed L'Hdtellerie Portugais. After the Porteur d'Eau, 
he wrote Anacreon, 1803, and Achille a Scyros, 1804. His first work 
written for the Grand Opera was Demophon, and although in it he had 
attempted to adopt the French declamation, it was not very successful. 
With the exception of the Porteur d'Eau, which was written for the 
Theatre Feydeau, the above-named works were performed at the Theatre 
de la Foire St. Germain, founded by Leonard, the hairdresser to Marie 
Antoinette, and of which Cherubini was conductor from 1789 to 1792. 
During the Revolution the master lost his position. In 1793 he married 
Cecile Tourette, the daughter of a former royal chamber musician. On his 
visit, in 1805, to Vienna, which we have mentioned before, he was accom- 
panied by his wife and daughter. In the Austrian capital he was received 
like a son by the patriarchal Haydn, whom he approached with the most pro- 
found veneration. He also met Beethoven here, but his relations to Haydn 
were of a more familiar character. At the death of the latter master he 
composed a funeral cantata, which was performed at Paris, at the Con- 
servatoire, with great celebration. The respect he bore .for his revered 
friend may be estimated by the fact that when asked his reason for not 
dedicating the Porteur d'Eau to Haydn, he replied, " The work was not 
worthy of such honour/' Yet this grand work has been an object of 
admiration to all great men and artists from the date of its production to 
the present time. After the 200th representation of this work, which soon 
arrived, Gretry headed a committee of French musicians, who wished to 
express to the composer their respectful congratulations. Goethe praises 
the work in his celebrated correspondence with Eckermann ; the score is 
said to have had a settled place of honour on Beethoven's writing-table ; 
Karl Maria von Weber called it " divine^ music ; " Robert Schumann describes 
it as a masterly and intellectual work, whose composer, the refined and 
learned Italian, in his strict independence of thought, he compares to Italy's 
greatest poet, Dante. 

It is strange that of Cherubini's Abencerages, which contains so much 
beauty, nothing is 'popular but the brilliant and romantic overture, that 
has become a favourite with all the orchestras of France and Germany. 


Two of the most characteristic items of this opera are the tribunal scene, 
with its powerful choruses, and the Finale. At the age of seventy-three 
the master's intellect was still youthful and vigorous, and he wrote jili 
Baba, an opera in which all the effects of modern orchestration are dis- 
plnyed, anticipating those produced by Berlioz, Wagner, and Liszt. The 
overture of this work forms an entire symphonic tone-picture, and with 
those of the Medee, Lodoiska, Faniska, Anacreon, Alencerages, and Porteur 
d'Ean, constitutes a constellation sufficient in itself alone to immortalise 
the name of Chcrubini. 

This master was as prominent among the writers of sacred music as 
among those of opera and orchestral works. He rose far above the 
generality of sacred composers, both French and Italian, belonging to the 
eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, and his sacred works may be fairly said 
to rival those of his Italian precursors Palestrina, Gabrieli, Lotti, and 
Scarlatti, as well as of the greatest German masters in this branch of the 
tonal art, Bach, Mozart, and Beethoven. It is interesting to notice the 
causes which led him for a number of years to confine himself to writing 
music entirely for the Church. Vexed by the neglect of Napoleon and the 
entire Parisian public, which could not understand his works with ease, with 
the exception of the Portenr d'Eau, and which respected him more than it 
admired him, Cherubini deserted his art and devoted himself, in company 
with his learned friend Desfontaines, to the study of botany. He left Paris 
in 1808, accompanied by his pupil Auber, having accepted an invitation from 
the Prince de Chimay to visit him at his chateau. The botanical studies 
which he eagerly prosecuted in the parks attached to the chateau led 
him more than once to dissertations with his host on the philosophy of 
nature. It was by mere accident that the composer returned to the pursuit 
of his former art. The townsmen of Chimay wished to celebrate the Feast 
of St. Cecilia, with the performance of a mass. They were unsuccessful, 
however, in finding a work suited to their restricted means of production, 
and having petitioned Cherubini to compose one for them, had been 
brusquely refused. One day the master, returning from his usual day's 
boianising, entered the salon of the princess, and seated himself at the 
table where his herbarium had its place. Here by some chance was lying 
a quire of manuscript music-paper, and the composer, almost unwittingly, 
began writing, heedless of the assembled company, who forbore noticing 


his action. The immediate result of this was a " Kyrie " in F major for 
three voices, to which he added later on a complete mass in the same key. 
Such were the circumstances attendant on Cherubini's resumption of his 
art, which tended to the increased wealth of Church music. Amongst his 
sacred compositions we must draw special attention to his grand mass in A, 
written in celehration of the coronation of Charles X. ; a mass in C major; 
an Ave Maria ; an occasional credo a capella ; and his two Requiems, of 
which the first, in C minor, is for a mixed choir and orchestra, the second, 
in D, for male voices only with orchestral accompaniment. The absence of 
female voices in the latter work has been regarded as a concession to the 
Church dignitaries of the Restoration, who, influenced by the bigotry of 
former periods, wished to exclude female voices from all Church music. It 
may be asserted, however, that it was through the preference of the 
composer himself, for the darker colouring, as more suitable to the sombre 
character of a Requiem. Beethoven was so impressed by the master's first 
(C minor) Requiem, which bears traces of Mozart's influence, that he was 
influenced by it while writing his Missa Solennis, which was not produced 
till a much later period. Cherubim's great Requiem must be reckoned 
as one of the grandest creations of modern art. The master has 
determined his line of action ; there is no hesitation. Everything in 
this grand poem exists. The listener is carried away, and becomes in 
spirit a co-actor in the terrible drama which is unrolled before him. 
What mastery does the composer display over the strict choral style ! 
how bold an innovator in the realms of orchestration ! Until the climax, 
the crash of the tam-tam, and the terrible blast of the trombones, depicting 
the destruction of the world, the composer has confined himself to the use 
of the viola in the place of the violin, the subdued colouring thus produced 
representing effectually the night of death; then how effective are the shrieks 
of the violins in the " Dies Irse/' resembling the wild flickerings of a sea of 
flame. The grandeur and passion displayed in this creation remind us in- 
voluntarily of that wonderful work of the great Florentine painter Michael 
Angelo, the "Last Judgment." The Requiem was performed for the first 
time on January 21st, 1816, in the Cathedral of St. Denis. Amongst its 

: ^ o 

numerous performances following we must notice specially that on the occa- 
sion of the interment of Boieldieu in October, 1834. Cherubini's second 
Requiem, in D, composed in 1836, was intended specially for the celebration 


of his own burial. As a reward for the Coronation Mass, the composer was 
created Officer of the Legion of Honour by Charles X. ; and afterwards pro- 
moted to a higher rank. In 1822 the master rose from the rank of professor 
and inspector of the Conservatoire at Paris to that of director, a post which 
he was destined to retain for twenty years, although sixty-two years of age 
on his acceptance of it. At the Conservatoire he taught many French masters 
of note, including Auber, Halevy, Adam, Carafa, and Fetis. Mendelssohn 
and Hiller both sought him at Paris to gain his opinion of their works, 
and Rossini entertained great reverence for him. Mehul may be reckoned 
as having been one of his closest friends. In fact Cherubini enjoyed the 
respect of both French and German masters, and composers of all nations 
sought his advice. The veneration in which the Italian master was held 
among his pupils may be gathered from the fact that Auber, when visited 
by the author, promised to show him the most valuable of his possessions, 
and carefully unlocking a case he produced a coffer whence he took a score, 
which as far as the author remembers was that of Cherubini's great mass. 
Cherubini was possessed of a high mental culture, which was allied with 
refined humour and biting irony. Though conscious of his own merit he 
was naturally modest. On one occasion when he found his own name on 
the programme next to that of Beethoven he exclaimed, " I shall appear but 
as a boy next to the great German." On another occasion, however, having 
been requested to attend a performance of a symphony of a composer of 
whose talent he had formed a very low estimate, he answered, " Why 
should I go and hear how one is not to compose." His pupil Halevy, 
having invited him to a dress rehearsal of one of his operas, sat next to 
him during the whole of the first act, anxiously expecting some opinion 
from him. Cherubini maintained a strict silence ; but on Halevy's inquiry 
as to the reason of his silence, he replied, " Why have you not told me 
anything?" Berlioz once expressed an opinion in the presence of Cheru- 
bini that he did not love fugue ; the Italian master rejoined, " The fugue 
loves you just as little," implying that the younger master's training had 
not been altogether strict. Cherubini died on March 15th, 1842, at the 
age of eighty-two, deeply regretted by the musical world. His funeral 
was public, and was attended by all the prominent men of Paris. One of 
the best portraits of the great master was that painted by Ingres, the 
celebrated French artist. 



If Cherubim is specially characterised by idealism, Spontini's most 
prominent feature is realism. We use the term realism here in that high 
sense in which it has been employed with reference to art by Goethe. 
Gaspare Luigi Pacifico Spontini was born on November 14th, 1774, at 
Majolati, a hamlet situated near Jesi, then belonging to the pontificate. 
His father, a man of humble position, was most ambitious with regard to 

Fig. 283. G. L. P. Spontini. 

his children, and would not allow Gasparo to adopt music as a profession. 
The boy was sent to his uncle Joseph Spontini, a priest at Jesi, in order to be 
educated for the Roman Catholic Church. He ran away from his guardian, 
but returned, and his uncle, at length recognising his great talent, ceased 
to oppose his adoption of music as a profession. Consequently in 1791 he 
entered the Conservatorio Delia Pieta, at Naples, where he became a pupil 
of Sala and Tritto. He soon gained celebrity by his insertions in the 
operas of earlier masters. This induced Sigismondi, then director of the 
Argentine Theatre at Rome, 1796, to persuade him to leave the Conserva- 


torio clandestinely, and follow him to Rome, where he should compose an 
opera for production at his theatre. This work, entitled / I'ltn/if/li delle 
Donne, met with a success so striking that his escape from the Conserva- 
torio was forgiven, through the intercession of Piccini, who made him one 
of his favourite pupils. Several operas which the young composer wrote 
for Rome, Florence, and Naples caused his invitation in 1800 to Palermo, 
where the Neapolitan court had fled before the advancing French. Here 
he fell in love with an Italian princess, thus compromising his position. 
This fact, in conjunction with the unhappy state of his country, compelled 
him to establish himself at Paris in 1803. In the previous chapter we 
have called attention to the powerful influence of Gluck's master- works over 
Spontini; it was so powerful as to make him resign his musical position, and 
develop rapidly his great talent. We left him, no striving beginner, but 
a composer of world- wide celebration. In Paris he married the daughter 


of Sebastian Erard, the wealthy and renowned pianoforte manufacturer. 
His wife proved most devoted, and with true admiration for her husband's 
gifts she remained a fond partner of his triumphs and trials. When 
in 1814 King Frederick William III. of Prussia entered Paris at the 
head of the allies, he not only heard Spontini's operas there, but was 
much impressed with the composer's individuality. This induced him 
to invite Spontini to Berlin in 1819, appointing him " General Musik- 
Director," court composer, and conductor of the Royal Opera at Berlin. 
His income in the Prussian capital was 6,000 dollars (Fetis states the sum 
to be 10,000 dollars, but this is incorrect). The power given to him by 
order of the king was immense. The following is copied from the instruc- 
tions, dated September 26th, 1821, under the royal signature : 

" Spontini has the exclusive right with respect to the performance of 
operas, &c., of 

" (a) Assigning the roles. 

" (b) The ordering and direction of rehearsals. 

" (c) The power of excising ineffective vocal pieces, and introducing 

" (d) The scenic arrangements so far as the effect is connected with the 
music, his orders to be strictly carried out by the stage manager and his 
subordinates, such as the scene-shifters, wardrobe-keepers, scene-painters, 


" (e) The appointment of a conductor of rehearsals and performances 
in his own absence. 

" (/) The choice of understudies for the principal characters." 
We may say in addition that to Spontini belonged almost the sole 
right of accepting and refusing operas for performance; and very great 
power respecting the imposition of fines on the members of the opera com- 
pany. On June 28th, 1820, Spontini commenced his career as conductor 
with his own opera Ferdinand Cortez. The royal orchestra soon had reason 
to be proud of its conductor. A member of this body wrote : " The piano 
desired by Spontini resembles the pianissimo of a quartett, the forte vies 
with the loudest thunder. Between these extremes occur his unparalleled 
crescendo and decrescendo. He pays the greatest attention to light and 
shade. Through the great number of rehearsals, occasionally amounting 
to eighty, the performers gain a most complete acquaintance with his 
operas, and the result is an incomparable ensemble. I was thunderstruck 
when I performed for the first time in one of those operas ; it was not 
playing, it was hard work. Spontini entered the orchestra like a king, 
assumed command like a general, and looking about him with that piercing 
glance, he noted the heavy battery, as he calls the contrabassi and violon- 
celli, and gave the signal to begin. Like a pillar of bronze he stood at 
his desk, moving only his forearm a very model of a conductor. The 
orchestra, from the leader to the drummer, sat in fear of the master, but 
followed his baton with enthusiasm to the last note. Then with the words 
'Ick danke/ he left the orchestra." It will be seen that Spontini was 
always imperfect in his pronunciation of German. We will add to this 
letter of one of Spontini's orchestra a few more items concerning his rule 
in the orchestra. He insisted on uniform bowing on the part of the string 
performers, even in the most insignificant passages, gaining by such 
means extraordinary refinement. With his sforzandos he produced remark- 
able effects. Eckert mentions one in Gluck's aria in F, from Armida, in 
which the heroine conjures up fury and hatred from the nether world, 
remarking that the effect resembled a series of stabs with a dagger. After 
the last rehearsal of a grand opera, Spontini left the company with the 
words " Au revoir, messieurs, au champ de bataille." When in rehearsal 
a grand crescendo was necessary, he would call upon the orchestra as a 
general upon his troops, " Allez ! en avant, martelez." 


We have ventured to dilate at length upon Spontini's characteristic 
peculiarities as a conductor, for though conducting is subordinate to com- 
position, we hoped by this means to complete our portrait of the master, 
whose ambitious spirit, like that of his emperor, would brook no contra- 
diction, and steered towards a settled purpose with a determination to 
overthrow every obstacle. Thus the dissensions which occurred later in his 
career could not but be of a most serious nature. Spontini's reception in 
Berlin augured most favourably for his future; his Cortez and Vestale 
were received with enthusiasm ; and even Olymj&aL, which met with but 
small success in Paris, became the means for an extraordinary ovation to 
the composer. After the performance of the last-named opera, the master 
was literally covered with flowers and laudatory verses, which were 
showered upon him by the enthusiastic audience. But their excitement 
rose to the utmost when the maestro attempted, in broken German, to 
address his thanks to the public. In 1822 his Nurmahal was performed 
with the same success, on this occasion showers of eulogistic German verses 
and Italian sonnets being thrown from the roof upon the audience. This 
public ardour at length abated. In 1824 the king commissioned Spontini 
to compose an opera Alcidor in celebration of the wedding of the Crown 
Prince with Elizabeth of Bavaria. With this opera began the decline of 
public favour : the composer was reproached with noisy instrumentation, 
and a number of tuned anvils which were employed in the opera formed 
the subject of much abuse, and were regarded as meretricious means of 
concealing poverty of invention. No less cold was the reception of his 
opera Agnes von Hohenstauffen, which was produced in 1829, and the 
libretto of which was from the pen of Raupach, a then popular writer. 
Although it cannot be denied that the three operas which Spontini com- 
posed at Berlin, viz., Nurmahal, Alcidor, and Agnes von Hohenstauffen, 
stand, on the whole, considerably below the level of the three Paris 
operas, Vest ale, Cortez , and Olympia; yet it was not the decrease of 
artistic power of the tone-poet, but rather the position that he assumed 
in the musical world of the Prussian capital that brought about this de- 
velopment of public animosity. Unlike Cherubini, the maestro did not 
favour contemporary works, but with the immense power with which he 
had been invested by the king, and which he employed for his personal 
interest, he placed his own works entirely in the foreground, excluding, 


with the exception of the operas of Gluck and Mozart, all German pro- 
ductions. This could not but wound the national sentiment, and was 
without doubt the cause of the opposition which ensued. As early as 1821 
the seeds of dissension between Spontini's supporters, the court and the 
majority of the aristocracy, and the German party, which consisted of the 
civic classes and the people, were sown by the first performances of Weber's 
Freischatz. The first representation of this work was given on the 18th of 
June, the anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo, in which Spontini's idol, 
Napoleon, had been overthrown by the allied Powers. The admirers of the 
Italian composer did all that lay in their power to prevent the success of the 
German opera ; but the majority of the people, who loved Weber's music 
i.e., the composition of Korner's songs of liberty and Preciosa were so 
moved by the fresh and national character of the FreiscMtz that the work 
met with a fabulous success. Spontini's vanity was wounded to the quick, 
and his resistance to German national music became more and more energetic, 
widening continually the breach between his supporters and those of the 
German master. At length, feeling the power of the national sentiment, 
Spontini invited Spohr and Weber to conduct the first performances of 
their operas, Jessonda and Euryanthe, but this must be recognised as a 
diplomatic move rather than as a token of acknowledgment. The press 
united with the public; and when, angered by the challenges of the 
Italian, Ludwig Rellstab, the most important of Berlin critics, discussed the 
question whether a composer like Spontini, who was known in Berlin only 
as a compounder of such vapid compositions as Lallah Rookh, Nurmakal, 
and Alcidor, could be accepted as the creator of Vestale and Cortez, a fact 
which he seriously doubted, a deplorable crisis occurred. At first Spontini 
seemed to triumph. He brought an action against Rellstab for libel, as 
well as for pre-arranging a scandalous scene to take place in the opera 
house, the result being that the journalist was sentenced to be imprisoned for 
fourteen days. This did not, however, mitigate the opposition to the 
maestro, for in the eyes of the people Rellstab, who, by-the-by, had been 
soured by his imprisonment, had been made a martyr for the German cause. 
Count Bruhl, the director of the royal theatres, whose influence had been 
considerably lessened by the power with which Spontini had been in- 
vested, gladly seized the opportunity for revenge by joining the ranks of the 
popular party. William IV., on ascending the throne, appointed a com- 


mission to arrange matters to the satisfaction of both parties ; but before 
this committee could arrive at any decision the -master ventured to declare 
that the sacred promise of two Prussian kings would be compromised were 
they to decide against him. This was regarded as a threat, and therefore as 
contempt of a commission appointed by His Majesty, and an investigation 
ensuing according to the criminal code, Spontini was sentenced to imprison- 
ment in a royal fortress for nine months. The king, respecting the artist 
and excusing the man, overruled the judgment, and in 1841 freed the com- 
poser from his functions, allowing him his full income and the maintenance 
of his titles, and still permitted him to exert his pen on behalf of the Royal 
Opera, giving him at the same time the privilege of conducting his own 
works. Spontini, however, felt that his position in Berlin was untenable, 
and therefore relinquished all engagements. He could not fail to see that 
he had sinned more against the public than they against him. He even 
acknowledged this in 1842, at the farewell banquet at Leipzig, saying : 
" I leave Berlin with a heavy heart, but one full of gratitude. The 
insults which have been directed against me by individuals, and which 
I have long pardoned with all my heart, fail to make me ungrateful to 
the city which for twenty-three years has afforded me protection, esteem, 
and love. Berlin will ever remain in my mind the noblest and most sacred 
memory of my life, and I shall continue to love and bless it until my 
death. I leave Berlin as the singer of ' Jerusalem Delivered ' left the court 
of Ferrara. Tasso could not have loved his Leonora more than I have my 
Prussian king." Spontini occasionally visited Berlin, but never again 
resided there for any length of time. In 1838 he visited his birthplace, 
but stayed there only for a short time. On leaving he went to Paris, where 
he met with a cool reception. His compatriot Rossini divided with Meyer- 
beer almost exclusively the laurels which the French capital could bestow. 
It appeared as if the creator of the Vestale had outlived his span, and 
that the rising generation had no desire to become acquainted with him. 
The majority were indifferent to his being created "Conte di Sant* 
Andrea " by the Pope, or his membei-ship of the Paris Institute, or of 
the Senate of the Berlin Academy of Arts. Nor could his breast, 
crowded with orders and decorations received at the hands of emperors 
and kings, recompense him for the carelessness with which the public now 
regarded their once highly-revered composer. But there was yet solace in 


store for the master, for just when he was suffering from the indolent 
respect as shown by the inhabitants of the imperial city to a past greatness, 
and when the Italian fatherland scarcely knew the name of its great son, 
the immortal portion of his works was revived in Germany. The conten- 
tion had been forgotten, and the Vestale and Cortez commenced life anew 
on the German opera stage. In 1 844 Spontini was invited to Dresden to 
conduct his operas; and in 1847 the committee of the Rhenish Musical 
Festival invited him to Cologne. Here the aged master enjoyed the satis- 
faction of conducting some of the splendid scenas and choruses from the 
Vestale and Olympia, for the benefit of thousands of hearers, whose en- 
thusiasm was manifested in a storm of almost interminable applause. 
Shortly before his death the Italian master experienced a longing to re- visit 
his southern home, and on his passage through Rome received an enthusi- 
astic reception at the house of Laudsberg, a clever German musician, whose 
house formed the rendezvous of all artists at Rome. His last days were 
spent at Majolati, his birthplace, to the inhabitants 'of which place, and to 
the institutions of the neighbouring hamlet of Jesi, he left a considerable 
portion of the large fortune he had amassed. In his last moments his mind 
was occupied with the memory of the Vestale, and this name is said to have 
been on his lips at the moment he died. It seemed as if he were being 
received, on his entrance to a new existence, by a band of his noblest 
creations. He died at Majolati on January 24th, 1851. 

Spontini's dramatic creations are impressed with the noblest and most 
heroic elements, to which he added the most serious, passionate expression at 
will. He was imbued with the spirit of tragedy, and the representation 
of grand tragic conflicts, with imposing massive and orchestral effect, had 
become a second nature with him. He never descended, however, to the 
employment of hollow theatrical pathos. He could with a simple solo affect 
the hearer, and enchant him with all the grace of chaste beauty, the 
Vestale furnishing splendid examples of this power. Spontini has depicted 
the grandeur and majesty of Rome in as classical and plastic a manner as 
that in which Gluck had achieved the portrayal of the beauty and nobility 
of the Grecian era. Whereas Gluck, following the example of the Greek 
tragedians, describes the internal emotions of individual heroes, Spontini 
employs as a theme the action of conflicting masses. The latter had been 
preceded in the representation of Roman character by Mozart. 


The Titus of Mozart compared to Spontini's Vestale may be fitly 
likened to a picture replete with harmony standing in juxtaposition to a 
group of marble statuary, such as would be found on the temple of Jupiter 
Capitolinus. It must be remembered, however, that Titus was but a hastily 
composed opera, whilst the Vestale was the outcome of a great love and con- 
sequently ardent study of the subject. In the heroine we possess a crea- 
tion whose ideal purity alone would be sufficient to gain for the opera every 
sympathy. The dramatic action and the conflicting passions of the persona 
with which Spontini dealt are far more exciting and more serious than 
those of Mozart's heroes. The manner in which the Italian master portrays 
the sorrowful abnegation on the part of the priestess, in whose heart the 
fire 6f love at length bursts into passion, leading to a terrible combat between 
duty and love, forms at the close of the second act one of the grandest con- 
ceptions to be found not only in the region of opera, but of the entire 
drama. Although the Vestale should, like all great works, be judged in its 
entirety, we cannot refrain from calling attention to the chief and most 
noble features of this creation ; they include the choruses of the priestesses, 
the grand duet between the Vestal virgin and Licinius, the triumphal march, 
the affecting Finale to the second act, and the funeral march, to the sound 
of which Julia is led to death by the priests and populace. The lamenta- 
tion with which she takes leave of her youthful existence bears strong 
resemblance to a similar outburst occurring in Antigone. Spontini' s second 
immortal opera, Cortez, partly lacks the youthful vigour, the flow of 
melody, and that seeming facility of production so prominent in the 
Vestale. It exhibits increased artistic reflection, but we miss in it the 
intense human emotion which affects layman and artist alike. Neverthe- 
less this work still maintains its position as one of the prominent art-pro- 
ductions of the period ; and when we consider the masterly manner in which 
Spontini in the Yestale has delineated the Roman character, we cannot 
fail to be astonished at the objectivity he displays in his treatment of 
Cortez, a subject so entirely different. The chief feature of the latter work 
is the juxtaposition of the adventurous chivalry common to the Spaniards 
of the sixteenth century, with tht childlike naivete and religious fanaticism 
shown by the uncultured Mexicans. In representing these items Spontini 
has succeeded in a manner unsurpassed. In the grand Finale of the 
second act the composer ventures on an entirely new field. The hero 
T T T 


Cortez quells the revolt of his attendant warriors, who long for the return 
to their distant home, by destroying with fire the very ships which con- 
veyed them to the Mexican shores, thus severing all connection between 
the newly discovered world and the native country of the adventurers. 
When the master undertook the task of painting in music this historical 
tradition, he added a hitherto unknown expression to the musical art. 
Ever increasing in intensity, in this Finale we find the most varied emotions 
which at length unite into a complete whole. The vigour of the songs of 
the men and the seductive dances of the maidens, the home-sickness of the 
Spaniards, their revolt, and the contempt of death exhibited by their leader, 
are worked into an harmonious and perfect entirety. He who has enjoyed 
the good fortune of seeing a performance of this work, with such a tenor 
as Tichatscheck in the title-role, supported by choruses and orchestra as 
at Dresden, cannot fail to have been carried away by enthusiasm, and must 
have felt that Spontini had represented in music the noblest spirit of 
the Napoleonic age as well as if in marble or bronze. No less vividly 
does the composer depict the demand of the priests for human sacrifice and 
the fanatical fury of their religious dances. The orchestration seems to reflect 
something of the warm breath of the south and the tropical heat of Mexico. 
The trio of the condemned Spaniards makes the listener almost long for the 
distant home, which in their contempt of death they despair of seeing again. 
It will scarcely seem rational at the first glance to place Rossini on a 
level with Cherubini and Spontini, who the former with his severe grandeur 
and chaste beauty, the latter with the energy and boldness of his com- 
position stand above the majority of their effeminate contemporaries. It 
cannot be denied that the self-criticism, artistic earnestness, depth of 
musical expression, and serious conception of the age exhibited by Cheru- 
bini and Spontini, are partly wanting in the works of the third great 
Italian. Rossini was not inferior, however, in the natural gifts which had 

9 -9 O 

been so lavishly bestowed on the former two masters, and he has proved, 
moreover, in Tell and II Barbiere, that when in earnest he was equal to 
them in artistic power. We have already said that Cherubini and Spontini 
rose far above the level of their contemporaries, and we think it but just 
to apply the same remark to Rossini ; in fact, we may say that his two 
above-named operas are as far removed from the standing of his former 


works as he himself is from the level of his contemporaries. 


The fact that Cherubim, Spontini, and Rossini stand together above 
their contemporaries does not form the sole link connecting this triumvirate. 
Another feature common to the three composers, one which characterises 
them not only in the musical history of Italy but in that of the entire 
universe, is the powerful influence exercised over them by the great masters 
of the German Genius epoch. We have already devoted a section to the 
discussion of the influence of the German Genius epoch on Italy and France ; 
we now assert that this influence was nowhere so powerful as in the case 
of Cherubini, Spontini, and Rossini. As the former two masters owed 
their great position in the history of music to Gluck, Haydn, and Mozart 
Spontini more especially to the first so was Rossini's position assured by 
Tell and II Barbiere, which were written under the influence of Haydn 
and Mozart, whose works he adored. Each of these masters owes his best 
creations and their continued success to the love and enthusiasm with which 
h has studied the model offered by the works of the great masters of the 
German Genius epoch, on whom, in their vanity, their Italian contem- 
poraries had turned their backs, the result being that their works have been 
long forgotten, whereas those of their three great compatriots are still per- 
formed. We must add that we find in Cherubini, Spontini, and Rossini 
(as regards the latter only as the creator of II Barbiere and Tell) com- 
posers of works which replaced the vapid " concert-operas " of Sacchini, 
Paisiello, Zingarelli, and Paer with creations containing dramatic life and 
truth, substituting for the degenerated duets and the conventional passages 
of thirds and sixths, ensembles polyphonic in form. The employment of 
this polyphonic form was extended even to the orchestra, which, in the hands 
of their countrymen, had been lowered to a mean accompaniment. With 
this began the emancipation of the orchestra, and the introduction into 
Italy of musical colouring. 

Gioachino__Rossini did not appear in his early years as the great 
master we have considered above. He was but a composer of those 
national Italian melodic operas which seemed for some time to the inhabi- 
tants of Europe to be the resuscitation of the great Italian musical 
supremacy. He was born on February 29th, 1792, at Pesaro, in the 
Romagna. His father, besides fulfilling the duties of an inspector of meat, 
was a performer on the horn ; his mother was a singer in an insignificant 
travelling opera troupe. It may be supposed, therefore, that the lad 
T T T 2 


received some musical impressions when young. His possession of a fine 
voice when a boy caused him to be sent to Bologna, to study under Tesei at 
the Lyceum ; and he afterwards received lessons in composition from Mattei, 
a pupil of Padre Martini, 1807. A year previously the boy, then fourteen 
years of age, had, owing to his remarkable gift, been elected conductor of 
the Academia dei Concordie, and had produced successfully Haydn's Seasons, 
a work even at that period one of his favourites. Unfortunately, Mattel 
was a dry, pedantic scholar, and little able to interest his gifted pupil in 
the study of the fugue, fugal style, or double counterpoint ; therefore 
Rossini, with his usual lax disposition, accepted as serious the contemptuous 
satire of his master, who declared that simple counterpoint would be quite 
sufficient for any one who, like him, aspired no higher than the composition 
of operas and profane music. The youth borrowed from the celebrated 
library of the Lyceum the works of Haydn and Mozart. It being the old 
Italian custom to rest con tent with the possession of the parts, young Rossini 
composed the scores for his own benefit. He thus scored a number of 
string quartetts of these great masters. This marked preference for German 
music obtained for the youthful composer the name of "II Tedeschino/' 
In 1810 Rossini's first comic opera, in one act, entitled La Cambiale di 
Matrimonio, was produced at the San Mose Theatre, at Venice. This work 
was followed, a year later, by another opera buffa, L'Equivoco Stravagante. 
Of his next three operas, composed in 181 2, for Venice, Ferrara, and Milan, 
one only achieved a great success ; we refer to La Pietra del Paragons. 
The success of this work was altogether eclipsed by that of Tancredi, 
performed in 1813 at the Fenice Theatre, at Venice. The extraordinary 
excitement caused by the first production of this work raised Rossini at 
once to the head of the operatic composers of Italv. 

In Tancredi we meet all the defects as well as the beauties which 
distinguished the unclatsical Rossini of that period, whose works ruled all 
European opera stages, from the Rossini the composer of II Barbiere and 
Tell. The title-role of Tancredi was written for a contralto voice. The 
characters in this work were by no means dramatically treated ; the parts 
appear to have been intended for concert singers wishing to exhibit their 


power of vocalisation. Instead of musical expression depicting the action 
on the stage, we find mere striving for vocal effect. Even in the most 
tragic moments the music is only composed of pleasing melodies and facile 


rhythms. Nothing can afford a better proof of this than the celebrated aria, 
" Di tanti palpiti." We find in Tancredi features which distinguish it, and 
all Rossini's subsequent works, from the conventional opera as produced by 
his predecessors and contemporaries ; the stiff aria, with its fatiguing 
ritornelli and endless repetitions, assumes, under the hand of this master, 
something of the form of the melodious canzone, the rondo, and the tempo 
di marcia ; the secco recitative is reduced and adorned with graceful fiori- 
turi ; harmony and modulation are no longer restricted to the tonic, 
dominant, and their parallel keys ; and the orchestra exhibits, even if 
modestly, some attempts at independence. With Tancredi and Otello 
Rossini commenced the substitution of the second related minor key for the 
usual dominant; for example, he goes from F major to A minor; he intro- 
duces his celebrated crescendi into the strelto. The latter effect had been 
already attempted by Jomelli, but without the same success. At the same 
time Rossini introduced the commonplace triplet passages for the violin, 
consisting only of an arpeggio chord as accompaniment to the singer ; and 
tins' cantilena, which seems merely calculated to provide the vocalist with 
a foundation on which to improvise solfeggi and variations. We are con- 
soled, however, with occasional sweetness and freshness of melodic invention, 
such as no other Neapolitan could create. Rossini carefully avoided the 
tedious length and consequent dulness which occur in the opera seria of 
his older contemporaries. Tancredi was compcsed when Rossini was twenty- 
one years of age, and between that age and that of thirty the composer 
produced thirty operatic works, all of which have, in common with 
Tancredi, defects and beauties. The best known of these works are 
L'llaliana in Algeri, 1813; II Tttrco in Italia, 1814; Elisabetta, 1815; 
Otello, 1816; Cenerentola, 1817; La Gazza Ladra, 1817; II Califfo di 
Bagdad, 1818 ; La Donna del Lago, 1819 ; Maometto, 1820 ; Semiramide, 
1823; Le Siege de Corinthe, 1826; Mo'ise, 1827; and Le Comte Ory, 
1828. Rossini, who never missed an opportunity for joking at the 
expense of himself as well as of others, said, in reference to most of these 
operas, that if you had heard one you had heard them all, so typical and 
conventional are the persona, situations, and musical manner. Their con- 
ventionalism, however, is far removed from that of the later masters of 
the Neapolitan school. The above-named operas have given rise to the 
designation of Rossini as the composer of the European reaction which 


took place after the Revolution, the Consulate, the Empire, and the over- 
throw. W. H. Riehl says : " Rossini's world-wide fame dates from the 
Vienna Congress. The wearied nations were in need of rest, and the Italian 
composer provided them with charming lullabies. Tired of the stilted 
pathos of the Napoleonic school, on the stage as well as in daily life, the 
source of entertaining art from which oblivion could be drunk was eagerly 
sought. Where was art more entertaining than in the operas of Rossini ? 
The heroes had played their parts ; their duties were replaced by diplomacy, 
and certainly Rossini was the finest diplomat to be found amongst artists. 
How excellently does his syren song suit a wearied race, anxious to read of 
travelling prima donnas and favourite dancers rather than the reports of 
battle and even victory. The Italians ascribed to Rossini's music a pleasant 
perfume ; perfume indeed was necessary to remove the scent of those past 
years of bloodshed/' 

Among the operas of Rossini which we have named above, and which 
have for the most part been forgotten, we must draw special attention to 
those which occupy an honourable position midway between the imm6rtal 
Barbiere and Tell and those works in which the composer shines merely as 
a gifted melodist. They include the Elisabetta, Semiramide, Otello, and 
Mo'ise. In the first of these works, Elisabetta, Regina d'Inghilterra, the 
composer exhibits unusual earnestness, and introduces into the secco reci- 
tativo an entirely new feature, viz., replacing the usual violoncello or piano 
accompaniment by that of the string quartett. In the third act of Otello 
we encounter not only refined musical beauty, decidedly above that of the 
average of his productions, but tragedy and pathos by which we cannot fail 
to be affected. As instances, we will quote the song of the gondolier, 
" Nessun maggior dolore/' the grand duet, and the plaintive romance sung 
with harp accompaniment by Desdemona. The opera Hose, which had been 
re-arranged for the grand Paris opera under the title of Mo'ise, contains, 
besides the celebrated " Prayer/' several touching scenes. The same may 
be said of Semiramide, the overture of which enjoys great popularity. 

II Barbiere di Seviglia contains not only isolated instances but one 
continued flow of beauty. Nowhere are any defects visible, the work never 
flags; it is a masterpiece, assuming the rank in the opera buffa that 
Tell occupies in the repertoire of the grand opera. In a previous chapter we 
designated as the " Comic Romantic Opera" that species of French opera 


known as the " Opera Comique," on account of the latter title inadequately 
expressing the diverse elements contained in this form of composition. 
The Earlier e, however, would necessitate no alteration of the title of its 
species, it being entirely restricted to the limits of the old Italian opera 
buffa, which, beginning with Logroscino and Pergolese, only reached its 
ideal at a hundred years from its birth with the work of Rossini. This 
classical work, which stands so high above the similar productions of the 
master, was composed in thirteen days, a fact all the more remarkable when 
we consider that not one of the parts exhibits signs of haste or mere 
musical craft. II Burbiere not only reflects the humour and refined taste 
of the composer, but even seems to breathe the voluptuous climate of the 
country of its birth. The master in many of his serious operas overlooks 
the dramatic requirements of the work ; for instance, he leads to death a 
condemned victim to the accompaniment of a cheerful melody, whereas he 
puts into the mouth of one who is happy a plaintive ditty. In the Barbie re, 
however, he adheres conscientiously to the fitting dramatic characteristics. 
This is visible in the melody of the gracefully entwined voices of the 
ensembles, in the rhythm which is replete with irresistible humour, in the 
modulation and harmonic treatment, and the choice and delicate instru- 
mentation of the entire work. Indeed, the work might have been inspired 
by the graces, so well balanced are its parts ; nowhere is it laboured or 
dull, and in no instance does it trespass on the borders of frivolity. The 
characters of Dr. Bartolo and Basilio, which in the early opera buffa would 
have been grotesque and extravagant, are depicted with a refined irony 
truly Shakespearian. The barber, instead of being a shrewd and designing 
servant alone, is fashioned into a genial Gil Bias. Almaviva and Rosina 
might be well compared to a Romeo and Juliet of comedy. It seems 
incredible that this creation was, on the first night of its performance at 
Rome, February 5th, 1816, hissed and hooted. This occurred through the 
influence of the adherents of Paisiello, who were indignant at the subject 
being selected by Rossini, as it had already been composed by their favourite. 
The opera was conducted on the first night by the composer, who quitted 
the theatre immediately after the performance. His disappointed friends 
calling at his house later on, intending to console him, found him in bed 
and asleep. The following evening the opera was not conducted by the 
composer, who remained at home, and who was astonished by a crowd 


assembling- under his windows after the performance shouting " Evviva il 
maestro/' in atonement for the injustice which they had shown on the 
previous evening. In the year 1815 Rossini had entered into an agree- 
ment with Barbaja, an enterprising impresario at Naples, who had perceived 
what a source of wealth would be open to him through the talent of the 
gifted composer. By this contract Barbaja had the sole right of producing 
the master's operas, supplying him with libretti and performers, an agree- 
ment which suited the taste of the indolent maestro. The impresario soon 
reaped the profits of his speculation, and though- providing the composer 
with but a petty honorarium, supplied him with such lavish cuisine and cellar 
that, having been accustomed to moderate circumstances, the master soon 
developed into a gourmand, and in after-years surprised his Parisian friends 
with his love for and knowledge of the culinary art. The operas Mo&e t . 
La Donna del Lago, and Maometto, performed 1818 1820 at Naples, 
owed a great part of their success to the rendering given by the prima 
donna Mademoiselle Colbran. We cannot be surprised that this vocalist 
charmed the young composer, and in 1822 became his wife. In the 
summer of the same year the newly married composer visited Vienna 
for the purpose of fulfilling a new engagement procured by Barbaja. 
During the Congress at Verona, Rossini was recalled to Italy by Prince 
Metternich, who wrote to him that " Orpheus must not be missing where 
diplomats were busy in restoring harmony between princes, people, and 
cabinets/' The master, whose vanity was flattered, obeyed the call, and it 
was not. until afterwards that he recognised in the actions of the prince 
merely the working-out of a scheme to maintain the Austrian supremacy in 
Italy. It was out of revenge for this that Rossini composed his 

Tell. The coolness with which the Semiramide was received in Venice 
wounded the composer so deeply that he decided to leave his country for 
ever. In 182.4 he received an invitation from the Italian Opera in 
London, where King George IV. and the aristocracy showered laurels and 
gold upon him. In a few months he realised 180,000 francs, which, in 
addition to his previously acquired fortune, made him a wealthy man. On 
his journey to London, Rossini had visited Paris, where the cheerful 
atmosphere and his flattering reception had already inspired him with the 
desire of residing. This plan was realised on the composer's return, as we 
have mentioned in a previous chapter. 


We will now consider the later years of this master. Whilst Bach, 
Handel, Gluck, and Haydn composed their grandest works when advanced 
in years, Meyerbeer wrote the Huguenots at the age of forty-five, and the 
two great Italians Spontini and Cherubini composed, the one his Olympia 
at the age of forty-five, the other the Porteur d' Eau, Anacreon, Abencerages, 
Ali Baba, and his two Requiems between the ages of forty and seventy, 
Rossini completed his career as a composer on arriving at the age of thirty- 
seven. When we remember that the master, enjoying the full power of 
his intellect, lived beyond the span of a lifetime after the composition of 
Tell, this fact will appear incredible. It is true that in 1832 Rossini 
began the Stabat Mater, a work more fitted for the stage than the church, 
notwithstanding its charming melodies, and to this he added his " Soirees 
Musicale," and " Solfeggio per soprano, per rendere la voce agile," and the 
new instrumentation of a short mass composed in his earliest days, never- 
theless these works appear trifles when compared to the magnitude and 
number of his compositions prior to this age, and we have to face a period 
of unproductiveness extending over forty years, and for which we can supply 
no psychological explanation. The only proposition which appears in the 
slightest degree satisfactory is that after the poor success attending the 
first performance in Paris of Tell, and the loss of one of his dearest friends, 
a reaction took place, causing the master to desert for ever the arena of his 
triumphs. It could not fail to wound the master deeply when he con- 
sidered that the second of the works destined to bring his fame down to 
posterity was received with more coolness than had been shown at the first 
performance of // Barbiere. How could the composer help despising the 
public who were indifferent to his greatest works, while showing favour to 
those creations of which he himself had but slight opinion ? Had the 
master been a Cherubini, he would have proudly disdained the judgment of 
the public, and remained firm in the assurance of the purity of his inten- 
tions. But, being of a nature much less energetic than that of his com- 
patriot, and having been spoilt by previous adulation, the failure of Tell 
made him quit Paris in 1836 to return to his birthplace and revisit the 
scenes of his childhood. After some time he left Pesaro for Bologna, where he 
resided in solitude apparently unmoved by the great success achieved by Tell 
in Northern Germany, and afterwards in Paris. In 1841 he was visited by 
Fetis, who experienced uneasiness at the master's appearance and humour. 



Rossini seemed satiated with and indifferent to fame and success. He was 
thoroughly wearied of the world, and disgusted with mankind ; he had no 
longer any faith in art nor in himself, and echoed the sentiment of the 
preacher that "all is vanity." The master evinced such a dislike for music 

Fig. 284. Gioachino Rossini. 
(Pointed by H. Grevedon, 1828.) 

that not a note could be played in the house in which he resided. While 
at Bologna he occupied himself with fishing and pig farming, the latter it 
has been supposed as an outburst of irony and contempt. By degrees this 
misanthropy was dispelled, and in 1853 the composer once more returned to 
Paris. In the French capital he was received with open arms ; a street, 
theatre, and cafe were named after him. His hospitable dwelling on the 
Boulevard des Italiens was the rendezvous of all the representatives of 
intellect, art, and science. He died on November 13, 1868, and was 


followed to the grave by half Paris. Cherubini was too individual to form 
a school, Spontini did so only in respect of the grand opera in France, but 
Rossini, versed in all the mechanical contrivances of his art, and not above 
striving for effect, with such a knowledge of writing parts flattering to the 
vocalists, could not fail to form a large school, especially in favour with his 
Italian contemporaries. After his first success he was surrounded by a 
group of imitators, including Mercadante and the now forgotten Generali, 
Tadolini, and Pacini. Influenced by the facility with which Rossini's 
works had driven from the stage the respected creations of the older 
masters, such as Sacchini, Anfossi, Paisiello, Zingarelli, Cimarosa, Paer, 
and Simon Mayr, who had entirely adopted their style, Italian composers 
followed eagerly in his footsteps, though not possessed of his gifts. 
Saverio Mercadante, the most gifted of Rossini's disciples, and the only one 
whose works are not entirely forgotten, was born near Bari in 1795. The 
best of the sixty operas composed by this master are Elisa e Claudio and // 
Giuramento. The latter work not only contains powerful dramatic en- 
sembles and soli, but differs from Rossiui's school more than any other of 
his works, as it contains passages which remind us of Meyerbeer and the 
Rienzi of Richard Wagner. For this reason the Giuramento appears more 
modern than either Tancredi or Otello. This master, who lived until 1870, 
might be accused of imitating the more modern masters, were we not aware 
that the opera in question had been produced in 1837. The second in 
importance of Rossini's disciples was Vincenzo Bellini, who was born at 
Catania, in Sicily, in 1801, and died in Paris in 1835. This composer, like 
Rossini, was endowed with the gift of spontaneous melody. He, however, 
differed from his predecessor in many respects. Rossini was more versatile 
than his follower, and had as much dramatic pathos as humour. Bellini, on 
the contrary, never composed a comic opera, a fact all the more surprising 
when we consider that it was customary with Italian composers to begin 
their career with the creation of an opera buffa. The cause of this was 
undoubtedly the composer's dreamy nature and inclination for melancholy 
sentiment. It was owing to this elegiac character that Bellini became the 
favourite of his period, and was admired so greatly by his nation. The 
friends of liberty, and the opponents of foreign oppression, had been 
ardently hoping that with the July Revolution a complete political and 
national regeneration of Europe would take place. They were, however, 


doomed to disappointment, for a brutal reaction took place everywhere, 
affecting the Italians more powerfully than any other nation. This 
led on the one hand to hatred and desire for revenge, on the other to 
melancholy and effeminacy. No Italian composer represented so thoroughly 
in his music the latter mood. Vincenzo entered the Conservatoire at 
Naples when eighteen years of age, 1819. His first real success was 
obtained at Milan with the opera II Pirala, the libretto of which was by 
Felice Romani. The chief roles of this work were rendered by Lalande, 
Rubini, and Tamburini. II Pirata was followed in 1828, at Milan, by 
La Straniera, which in turn was succeeded by / Capuleti ed i Montecchi, 
1831, and La Sonnambula. These works carried the fame of the composer 
throughout Europe. In 1832 the young master reached the climax of his 
renown with the production of Norina. the libretto of which was supplied by 
his friend Romani. This work ranks higher than any other of Bellini's 
operas, and wants but little to obtain the attribute of " classic." It has 
been surmised that, like Rossini, who represented his patriotic sentiments 
in Tell, Bellini has masked the Italians under the form of the Druids in 
Norma, The overture to this opera is undoubtedly superior to those pre- 
ceding the other dramatic works of this composer. Its motivi are more 
fully developed, and are characteristically orchestrated. The well-known 
chorus and march of the Druids, and the Finale of the first act, never fail 
to produce striking effects. The grand trio and the ensembles, with the 
exception of the trivial duet in thirds allotted to Norma and Adalgisa, show 
what Bellini might have achieved had he possessed more energy and gained 
further experience with a longer life. 

Bellini, whose music so easily degenerates into the effeminate and 
melancholy, has most happily avoided all false sentiment in Norma's 
" Casta Diva" and grand aria, in the latter of which he exhibits a tragic 
expression and nobility of sentiment equalled only by the chorus of Druids 
in the second act. The latter number can almost be said to bear traces of 
the influence of Beethoven's moonlight sonata, and the entire work seems 
influenced by the music of Spontini and the German composers. Norma 
was followed by Beatrice di Tenda, which appears almost to have been the 
composer's farewell to his country on going to Paris. In the French 
capital the master composed / Puritani, in 1834, for the Italian opera, having 
previously made a serious study of the style of the grand French opera to 


which this work adheres. It was the composer's last opera, for he died in 
1835. The pleasing- amiability of Bellini's character is powerfully reflected 
in the music of his operas, which are, therefore, in great favour among 
prima donnas, who prefer his simple cantilenas to Rossini's arias replete 
with brilliant passages. The most renowned interpreters of Bellini's vocal 
music include Pasta, Grisi, Viardot Garcia, Jenny Lind, Biirde-Ney, 
Schroeder-Devrient, Johanna Wagner, Artot, Patti, and Nilsson. The 
chief male vocalists celebrated for their performance of Bellini's operas are 
Tamburini and Rubini. 

Bellini, whose character was similar to that of Chopin, invested the 
cantilena with a breath of romance which differed from the realism of 
Rossini. Notwithstanding the superficial character of some of Bellini's 
compositions, the master cannot altogether be accused of that negligent 
writing according to routine which is so often encountered in the operas of 
Rossini, and which is the result of the Neapolitan dolcefar niente. The 
orchestration of those of Bellini's operas produced previous to Norma is 
considerably weaker than that which is found in most of Rossini's com- 
positions. Bellini in the commencement of his career endeavoured to make 
the vocalist the medium by which to express the emotion and sentiment of 
the opera, employing the orchestra as a mere means of accompaniment, 
thus rendering the wind instruments practically superfluous, the string 
quartett fully supplying the requirements of such an accompaniment. In 
.A'on/za -and the Puritani, the second in importance of this master's operas, 
we find a more fully developed orchestration, and one which would bear 
comparison with that of Rossini's Tell, Barbiere, Siege de Corinthe, and 
Se in ir amide. 

The last great talent belonging to the school of Rossini is Gaetano 
Donizetti, born at Bergamo, in Lombardy, in 1797, where he died in 1848. 
This composer, though not so gifted as Rossini, was decidedly more ver- 
satile than his contemporary Bellini, and exerted his talent in every branch 
of opera with the exception of the Romantic, although he outlived Weber, 
the founder of that class of composition, by twenty-two years. Apart from 
the tuition received by this master from the hands of Simon Mayr, he was 
undoubtedly influenced by the German school, as can be plainly seen in 
La I-'ti ror if <i, the most important of his operatic works. Donixctti's com- 
position was neither as natural nor flowing as that of Rossini or Bellini, 


his works are more the result of reflection than are those of the latter 
masters, and the variety of his subjects, local colouring, and strained effect, 
prove him to he an adherent of the eclectic school. In consequence of this 
method of speculation, the greater number of the master's seventy Italian 
and French operas are at the present day forgotten, but there are some in 
which his natural gift and reflection are so evenly balanced that they have 
remained favourites on every opera stage to the present day. Amongst his 
comic operas, La Figlia del Reggimento and L'Elisire d'Amore are still per- 
formed with success. Both these operas contain much genuine humour, 
skilful musicianship, and dramatic interest. La Figlia, written about 1841, 
bears strong evidence of its birth in the French capital ; but L'Elisire 
d'Amore, written in 1832, is of a thorough Italian character, and its spark- 
ling humour calls to mind the happiest efforts of Rossini. 

We must now distinguish between Donizetti's important serious operas 
and those of less interest. The musical development of La Favorita is the 
result of serious reflections, its ensembles and recitatives are characterised by 
powerful dramatic expression, and most parts are replete with musical charm. 
There are other numbers, however, which detract seriously from the value 
of the entire work. 

The works which obtained for Donizetti the greater portion of his 
renown were Lucrezia Borgia,, produced at Milan, 1834 ; Lucia di Lammer- 
moor, performed in 1835 at Naples ; and Don Pasquale, which appeared in 
1843 at Vienna. These works contain much beauty of expression, and are 
replete with melodious invention. Belisario, in which the composer has 
emulated Rossini's Guillanme Tell, exhibits a lack of power, self-criticism, 
and artistic earnestness. Lucrezia Borgia is, without doubt, a work 
superior to that we have named above, owing chiefly to the serious spirit in 
which the composer has treated the subject. The weak character of such 
operas as Belisario, Anna Bolena, Maria Stuarda, Linda di Chamounix, and 
Marino Faliero, notwithstanding their great success, have gained for their 
composer the soubriquet of rt Donizetti-dudelsac." The master has not been 
altogether fairly judged. On the one hand he has been exalted, on the 
other debased to the utmost. But his admirers have too often been led 
astray by the doubtful taste of the period, whereas his detractors have failed 
to acknowledge the master's great gifts. Donizetti's last opera, written 
for Naples, was Catarina Cornaro, 1844, which was composed but a little 


while before the first attacks of his illness, which eventually proved mental. 
The master visited his birthplace, where a cure was attempted, but the 
malady had gained too great a hold, and the composer lived there for the 
last two years of his life under the hallucination that he was dead, and 
greeted every visitor with the remark that "poor Donizetti is dead." 

Turning from this sad picture, we will now deal with the remainder of 
those masters who belong to that period which is marked by the great 
names of Cherubini, Spontini, and Rossini. Antonio Zingarelli was born 
in 1752 at Naples, where he died in 1837. This composer, like Paer, was 
one of the last of the Neapolitan opera composers belonging to the period 
of the decline. Zingarelli was a great favourite of Napoleon, who pointed 
to him as a model whom Cherubini should follow, much to the disgust of 
that great master. The success of this composer's operas, which was fur- 
thered by such vocalists as Marchesi, Crescentini, Rubinelli. Catalani, and 
Grassini, shows us into what Italian music would have degenerated, in the 
end of the eighteenth and commencement of the nineteenth century, had 
not Cherubini, Spontini, and Rossini arisen to rescue the art from its 
gradual decay. Pietro Raimondi, born at Rome in 1780, was one of Italy's 
greatest contrapuntists of the nineteenth century. His extraordinary pro- 
ficiency in polyphonic combinations too often induced him to indulge in the 
mere display of theoretical knowledge. For instance, he published at 
Ricordi, in Milan, four four-part fugues which can be performed as a six- 
teen-part work, and six four-part fugues which can be made into one 
twenty-four-part work. His inclination for contrapuntal and polyphonic 
exhibition led him to compose a sixty-four-part fugue for sixteen four- 
part choirs. This work was followed by a triple Biblical drama, Potifaro, 
Giuseppe, and Giacobbe. These three parts were performed consecutively^ 
at the Argentina Theatre at Rome, on August 7th, 1852, and again, simul- 
taneously, on the following day. Raimondi also composed many oratorios, 
masses, requiems, operas, and ballets, in addition to the composition of the 
entire psalter in the Palestrina style. Francesco Morlacchi and Niccolo 
Vaccai were two of the last composers of the almost extinct Neapolitan 
opera school. They differed from their colleagues, inasmuch as they were 
strongly influenced by the spirit of modern times, the works of Spontini 
and the grand French opera. This caiised them to write in more than 
one style, and they therefore enjoyed two separate periods of activity. 


Morlacchi, born in 1784 and died in 1841, was ajmpil of Zingarelli. 
Amongst other works, he composed a cantata in celebration of Napoleon's 
coronation as King of Italy. He was appointed court chapel-master to 
the King of Saxony, and was a companion of Karl Maria von Weber and 
lleissiger while at Dresden. He was the last of the Italian chapel-masters 
who had so long officiated in the Saxon capital. Niccolo Vaccai (1790 
1848) has gained greater renown than his compatriot as a composer, and' 
was, moreover, a celebrated teacher of singing. His " Metodo Practico di 
Canto Italiano per Camera " is accepted as a classical work, and his twelve 
" Ariette per Camera, per 1'Insegnamento del bel Canto Italiano " are still 
much used in tuition. The great number of operas and sacred compositions 
of Morlacchi and Vaccai are now forgotten, and even if revived they could 
at the present time possess no other than an historical interest. We shall 
complete our list with the names of the brothers Luigi and Federigo Ricci. 
These brothers lived during the years 1805 1859 and 1809 1877 respec- 
tively. Their operas, both serious and comic, were performed with great 
success until the middle of the present century on the stages of Italy, 
Trieste, St. Petersburg, and Paris. These works were based on the prin- 
ciples of the old Neapolitan school, but bear traces of the evident influence 
of Rossini. The greatest success was achieved by the comic opera Cris^ino 
e la Comarq, the joint production of the two brothers, which was per- 
formed at Venice in 1850. 

That period of development of Italian music which is rendered famous 
by such names as Cherubini, Spontini, and Rossini was characterised by 
the upgrowth of a great number of remarkable instrumental and vocal 
virtuosi. Foremost amongst the female vocalists was the celebrated 
Angelica Catalan!. This singer was born in 1779 at Sinigaglia. She was 
educated at the Convent of Santa Lucia at Rome, where her voice attracted 
much attention, to the great profit of the institution. It was a powerful 
soprano of extraordinary compass and exquisite charm, and she soon 
developed that facility of execution, united with a grand style, that has 
made her recognised as the greatest singer perhaps of all times. Catalani 
first appeared in Zingarelli's Clitemnestra, and Niccolini's Baccanali di 
Roma, and her wonderful voice, beauty, and dramatic talent obtained for 
her an unusual success. All Europe soon resounded with her fame, and 
she visited Rome, Naples, Florence, Venice, Trieste, Lisbon, Madrid, Paris, 


and London, meeting- everywhere with a success unparalleled in the history 
of the art. In England she remained from 1807 to 1814, receiving a fixed 
salary of 96,000 francs per season. Like Madame de Stae'l, Catalani in- 
curred the displeasure of Napoleon by preferring in 1806 an engagement 
in London to one in Paris. She only returned to the French capital after 
the fall of Napoleon in 1814, and was by Louis XVIII. created directress 
of the Italian Opera, with an annual income of 160,000 francs. On the 
return of Bonaparte from Elba she again left Paris, whither she returned 
after his overthrow and exile to St. Helena. Her last performance in 
public was at Berlin, in 1827, at the conclusion of a tour throughout 
Northern Germany. She died in Paris in 1849. 

We have alluded before to the importance of Pasta in the success 
of the performances of Rossini's and Bellini's operas. Giuditta Pasta 
was born at Como in 1798, where she died in 1865. She achieved her 
greatest success in roles requiring passionate expression and dramatic 
action. Her voice was a magnificent soprano* of unusual compass. She 
was followed by the sisters Giuditta and Giulia Grisi. Giuditta Grisi 
was born in 1805 and died in 1840 ; it was for this singer that Bellini 
wrote the mezzo-soprano part in his / Capuleli ed i Montecchi. Her sister 
Giulia was born in 1811 and died in 1869; she possessed a high soprano 
voice, for which Bellini wrote the part of Juliet in I Capuleti ed i 
Montecchi. This sister was especially famous as Donna Anna in Mozart's 
Don Giovanni. Fanny Persiani was born at Rome in 1812, and died at 
Passy, near Paris, in 1867. She was the favourite for many years at the 
Italian Opera both in London and Paris, and in Venice rivalled Malibran. 
One of the most celebrated contraltos, who possessed also the range of a 
mezzo-soprano, was the gifted Marietta Alboni, born in the Romagna in 
1823. The character of Orsini in Donizetti's Lucrezia Borgia was com- 
posed especially for this artiste. We have already referred to Antonio 
Tamburini ; this incomparable bass was born in 1800 and died in 1867, 
and with Giovanni Rubini, a brilliant tenor (1795 1854), united with 
Lablache, Persiani, Grisi, and Viardot Garcia in forming in Paris, during 
the years 1832 1841, an ensemble which placed the Italian opera stage 
above all stages of Europe. 

* Rather mezzo-soprano, as her lower notes were somewhat contralto in quality. F. A. G. O. 
U U U 



We took leave of Italian instrumental music with the mention of Sam- 
martini and Boccherini. Sammartini was the precursor of Haydn in 
instrumental composition, and the teacher of Gluck. Twenty-four of this 
master's symphonies were published in Paris, and twelve trios, for two 

Fig. 285. 

violins and bass, were published in London and Amsterdam. Boccherini 
was celebrated as a composer of chamber music, and not undeservedly so, 
for some of his most prominent works are often performed at the present 
day. His compositions include ninety-one string quartetts and 125 
string quintetts. Between these masters and Cherubim and Spontini we 
find no composer of instrumental music whose works can be compared with 
the former or the latter, either in respect of artistic earnestness, grandeur 


of form, or brilliancy of colouring. The period of activity of these 
masters was rendered famous by the existence of a number of classical 
virtuosi, some of whom even preceded this epoch. The first of these was 
Gaetano Brunetti, a pupil of Boccherini, celebrated for his execution on 
the violin. Brunetti was of more importance as a virtuoso than as a com- 
poser, as is proved by his manuscript compositions both for orchestra 
and chamber. He was born at Pisa in 1753, and went to Madrid to 
reside when still a youth. The siege and capture by Napoleon of this city 
in 1808 so affected the master that he died there. Of still greater im- 
portance is Giovanni Battista Yiotti, the founder in Italy of modern violin 
playing. He was born in 1753 near Vercelli, and died in London in 1824. 
On his first concert tours throughout Europe, during which he visited 
Paris, London, Berlin, and St. Petersburg, he created great excitement. In 
1782 Viotti was accompanist to the Queen Marie Antoinette, and solo 
performer of the Paris " Concerts Spirituels." The success gained by a 
young and insignificant violinist, together with the indifference shown by 
the public at one of his concerts, caused such annoyance to Viotti that for 
a number of years he refrained from appearing in public, and played only 
to a circle of friends and connoisseurs. For some time he assumed the 
directorship of the Theatre Feydeau, but was ruined by the Revolution, and 
quitted Paris for England. On his return to Paris, Cherubini and Rode 
persuaded him to resume his performances as soloist at the Conservatoire, 
and it was found that, far from having lost any of his power, he had 
improved to such an extent that he was at once acknowledged to be the 
greatest of European violinists. Viotti's grand style caused the formation 
of a school, which was followed by all the most prominent violinists of 
Italy and of the French capital. Amongst his compositions there are 
twenty-nine violin concertos of the first order, and many quartette, trios, 
duets, and sonatas of minor importance. Viotti was followed by Niccolo 
Pagnnini, born at Genoa in 1784. As a child Paganini performed on the 
mandoline and guitar, but soon adopted the violin, which was destined to 
make his name immortal. Of a violent and untamed nature, Paganini ran 
away from home when still a boy, and in gambling lost all his possessions, 
including his beloved violin. The extraordinary effect produced by his 
fascinating performances on the people of Italy until the year 1827 was 
repeated in France and Germany. So great was the excitement caused by 
v u u 2 



his performance that in many bigoted places he was credited with magic 
and an alliance with the Evil One. Paganini was self-taught, and it was 
not until he had obtained an almost perfect mastery over his instrument 
that he began to notice and acquire the methods of other virtuosi, which he 
imitated with the greatest facility. He therefore exhibited in his perform- 
ance his own power, combined with the technical peculiarities of others. 

To a grand tone he united the most 
touching expression. He employed 
unheard-of double stops, and intro- 
duced remarkable effects, such as the 
imitation of the flageolet, and pizzi- 
catos performed with either hand. He 
could continue his performance with 
the loss of one or even two strings, so 
perfectly indeed that the difference 
was scarcely perceptible to the connois- 
seur. He tuned his instrument accord- 
ing to the effect he desired to produce, 
following a method of his own, and even 
possessed the power of accomplishing 
it while playing. Thus this mysterious 
man, whose genius was not unmixed 
with trickery, who could move to tears 
his audience and at the next moment 
startle them with the maddest tricks, 
who could imitate all other virtuosi 

and yet possessed an independent style, and who resembled nobody 
and excelled all, stands unique in the history of practical music. Of 
the works published under his name only a moderate number can be 
regarded as composed by him. Of those we must mention the concertos 
in E flat major and B minor, the latter of which is known as "a la 
Clochette;" twenty-four "Capricci per violino solo/' which have been 
arranged for the piano by Schumann and Liszt ; twelve " Sonate per 
violino e chitarra; three " Gran quartetti a violino, viola, chitarra e violon- 
cello;" his "MoJ^perpetuo," his variations on Rossini's "Di tanti palpiti," 
and his sixty variations on the "Carnival of Venice." These works are for 

Fig. 286. Paganini. 



the most part characterised by a fantastic vein, a capricious form, and 
piquancy of expression. One of the most prominent of his pupils was 
Giovanni Battista Polledro (1781 1853), who, although celebrated as a 
performer and a composer of some importance, can bear no comparison with 
his master. 

There can be no more convincing proof of the power of a school such as 
was created by the masters to whom we have devoted this chapter than its 
influence over the art- productions of other countries, the position it has 
maintained in spite of the numerous 
styles of most different character, and 
the esteem in which it is held by 
masters of all other schools. The 
influence of Rossini on the composi- 
tion of the period emanated from the 
operas Barbiere and Tell. Although 
as a composer he maintained his 
nationality, there can be no doubt 
but that in the above operas Rossini 
was influenced by the works of Haydn, 
Mozart, Weber, Spontini, and Auber ; 
by the two latter especially in Tell. 
The power of the school formed by 
the Italian master can be no longer 
questioned when we consider that it 
produced such talents as Mercadante, Bellini, and Donizetti. The influence 
of the German opera composers on Cherubini and Spontini was more 
powerful as a whole than that which they exercised on Rossini ; for 
instance, the former idolised Haydn, and in return was declared by 
Beethoven his greatest contemporary ; and Weber, who had pronounced 
his Porteur d'Eau divine music, feared lest by inserting into Lodoixka a 
song specially composed for the prima donna, he should cause a blemish 
in the work. Spontini founded his style on the works of Gluck and 
Mozart, of whose operas he was the avowed champion, producing in 
Paris, for the first time, Don Giovanni, and in Berlin making a special 
feature of the works of Gluck, Handel, Haydn, Mozart, Cherubini, and 
Beethoven ; on the other hand, the maestro was revered by the most 

Fig. 287. Paganini. 


prominent representatives of the New Romantic School Berlioz and 
Wagner. Berlioz never tired of praising the Vestale, and remarked of 
the second act that it was a " gigantic crescendo/'' rising to a climax of 
dramatic passion and tragedy. In his " Grand Traite d'Instrumentation et 
d'Orchestration/' Berlioz speaks on every possible occasion with admiration 
of Spontini; and when Olympia failed to achieve a fitting success, he 
opposed the verdict of Fetis, and reproached the Parisian public for the 
cool reception they had given the opera. Richard Wagner * says : " With 
Spontini an important and precious art-period has gone to its grave. Let 
us bend low and with reverence before the grave of the creator of the 
Testate, Cortez, and Olympia." 

* See Richard Wagner's " Collected Works," published 1872, vol. v., p. 111. 


HE majority of the masters belonging to the epoch of the Great 
Talents, such as Weber, Schubert, Spohr, Mendelssohn, 
and Schumann, refrained from exaggeration in their com- 
positions as regards expression, sentiment, and instrumen- 
tation. Their manner was, as a rule, healthy and grand, 
and but rarely degenerated into the strained and unnatural. 

How different is the case with a great number of the important masters 
who form the New Romantic School, in whose works the contents and 
form are opposed, and the Idiosyncrasy and fancy of the composer replace 
the eternal laws of an art which has been developing for the space of a 
thousand years. 

It would be impossible for the art-historian to successfully investigate 
the causes of the changes in music without referring to the history of the 
sister arts which have influenced it, especially that of poetry. In so doing 
we must return to the Renaissance, which affected poetry, architecture, 
sculpture, and painting alike. 

Besides the Classical Renaissance, the author is convinced, after many 
years' study of the history of art, that there exists also a Renaissance of 
the Romantic. In order to understand the possibility of such an existence, 
we must consider of what a renaissance consists. We believe that the 
Renaissance at the beginning of the fifteenth century was in great part 
owing to the longing of the human race to regain that union with 
nature which the ascetic tendencies of the religion of the Middle Ages, 
with its contempt and even hatred of everything terrestrial, had severed. 
A reaction took place; man wished to enjoy the beauties of nature. 


He desired a new birth, hence the term ''Renaissance/' This Classical 
Renaissance is repeated in romantic natures, especially at a period when a 
barren' moral teaching and prosaic enlightenment cause in poetical natures 
a longing for the supernatural and an ideal solution of the mystery of 
man's existence. It is characteristic that both periods of Renaissance 
were interrupted in the midst of their progress by an entirely new art- 
epoch, imbued with a totally different spirit. Whilst the Renaissance is the 
result of a partiality towards the culture of a past period, the object of the 
intervening epoch is to connect that of the past with that of the new era. 
We shall style these particular epochs " connecting epochs." The first of 
these occurred in the Classical Renaissance sixteenth century ; and the 
second in the Romantic Renaissance eighteenth century. The first of 
these connecting epochs comprises ,the genius era of Italy, the second con- 
sists of that of Germany. Each of these epochs had the effect of bringing 
about the decline of its period. If we omit architecture, sculpture, and 
painting, the renaissance of which took place after 1420, we may state that 
the Classical Renaissance commenced when the development of mediseval 
culture reached its climax with Dante. It is undeniable that Dante, while 
passing through Hades in company with Virgil, and in contest between the 
Guelphs and the Ghibellines, no longer favours the Pope, but rather the 
German Emperor of Rome, a fact denoting an inclination towards the 
antique and classical ideal. This tendency becomes still more evident when 
we consider the works of Petrarch and Boccaccio, which prove also that 
poetry precedes its sister art. Music, the youngest of the arts, made but 
little progress before or during the connecting epoch of the sixteenth 
century, and in the seventeenth century was influenced greatly by the 
weak and mistaken conception of classical ideals then prevalent. Con- 
cerning the music-drama we must remember that this institution owed its 
origin in a great part to the plastic art and literature, and that the revolu- 
tion in Tuscan music was brought about rather by an external agency of 
the Classical than by an independent Renaissance. Consequently the efforts 
of the Florentines affected the tonal art in many ways, and their action 
reminds us almost of that of the Bayreuth music -drama, though they 
cannot lay claim to results equal to those produced by the Classical Renais- 
sance in architecture, sculpture, and painting, and from want of vitality 
degenerated into the Neapolitan opera, and thence into a musical Zopf. 


In church music, however, this period was signalised by uninterrupted 
progress, aided by the Catholic restoration and the practice of music among 
the Protestants. This progress, which had begun in the other arts at an 
earlier period, can by no means be attributed to a Classical Renaissance, 
but rather to the more complete expression of the medieval Christian ideal. 
Examples of this we find in the sacred compositions of Lotti, Astorga, 
Schiitz, Buxtehude, and others. We can hardly ascribe to the Classical 
Renaissance the isolated German opera essays of Schiitz, the secular 
canzonets of the Venetians, and their imitations by German masters of 
the seventeenth century, nor the musical " School-Comedies " which were 
then in favour with the Protestants of the North. A real Classical Renais- 
sance did not take place in Germany until the eighteenth century, and not 
before the commencement of the Genius, epoch ; as had been the case with 
the Italians, it happened during that epoch, and increased with such vigour 
that for the moment it threatened to eclipse poetry and painting. We 
can perceive this in the works of Gluck and Handel, its most prominent 
representatives, who united the pure Christian conception of the age to the 
Classical Renaissance, in which their example was followed by all the 
heroes of the Genius epoch. 

The development of the sister arts took place under totally different 
circumstances. The union of the medieval Christianity with the antique 
was brought about in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ; in painting by 
masters such as Bramante, Leonardo, Michael Angelo, Raphael, Titian, and 
Correggio j in poetry by Shakespeare, Cervantes, and Ariosto. This fusion 
was brought about unconsciously by the artists of the period, and formed 
the first of our " connecting epochs/' Without any actual period of transi- 
tion, if we ignore for the moment Ghiberti and Brunellesco, this " con- 
necting epoch " follows immediately upon the Classical Renaissance, 
which in poetry and the plastic art had begun ere this, and was in 
the full strength of its development. It was, without doubt, the neces- 
sary result of the first Renaissance. Painters such as Luca della Robbia, 
Masaccio, Benozzo, Gozzoli, and Mantegna, who began this era, and 
Perugino, Francia, Ghirlandajo, and Signorelli, who, approaching Michael 
Angelo and Raphael, brought it to a close, show that, notwithstanding 
the influence of the antique, there existed still a strong mediaeval Chris- 
tian type; in the mature works of Michael Angelo and Raphael we 


meet with a complete fusion of the antique and Christian ideal, the 
result of an objective conception of the world. 

With the decline of the Italian Genius epoch, a new era commenced 
in the history of the tonal art. This has already been styled by the 
author a period of contention between the antique and realistic, the 
Mediaeval Catholicity and the Romantic, These various elements existed 
in this period, defying amalgamation, and each striving for prominence. 
The Baroque and Zopf styles prove that the Classical Renaissance even 
in its decadence was the ruling element of the above-named epoch. The 
Romantic Renaissance, which had to struggle for existence, was the result 
of a restoration enthusiastically brought about by the Catholics, who 
employed as a handmaiden the sacred music of the Protestants. The 
Renaissance of the Romantic differs from the Rococo and Zopf in its 
characterising sentiment, and the nature of the subjects treated by it. 
Its influence can be perceived in the passionate sorrow of a " Crucifixus " by 
Lotti ; an entranced Madonna, the creation of Murillo ; Calderon's " Worship 
at the Cross," or his " Magi," a seeming prelude to Goethe's " Faust/' 
and Lope de Vega's woman-worship, or Tirso de Molino's tragedy Don 
Juan. The effect on art of the two contending Renaissances is seen in the 
realistic and antique tendency of the works of Cellini, Veronese, Caracci, 
Rubens, Holbein, Velasquez, Teniers, Ostade, Camoens, Corneille, Racine, 
Moliere, Lully, Pratorius, Monteverde, Peter Vischer, Andreas Schliiter, 
Van Dyck, Canaletto, and Poussin. On the other hand, the Christian and 
Catholic idealism is represented by Ammanati, Giulio Romano, Caravaggio, 
Rembrandt, Diirer, Murillo, Callot, Salvator Rosa, Calderon, Tasso, Angelas 
Silesius, Milton, Antonio Lotti, Heinrich Schxitz, Frescobaldi, Adam 
Kraft, Lorenzo Bernini, Ribera, Ruysdael, and Claude Lorrain. 

With the eighteenth century a new epoch appeared in the form of a 
fusion of the opposing elements of art-culture, which in France was but 
incomplete, for Voltaire, with his realism and witty sarcasm, was entirely 
opposed to Rousseau, whose " Heloise " is both Romantic and fantastic. 
These masters were instrumental in preparing a fusion of the opposing 
elements in Germany, which in poetry was brought about intentionally, 
whereas in music the youngest of the arts it occurs for the first time, 
and happened unconsciously. It is important that we should notice that 
the great poets of this epoch, opposing the vulgarising of the antique and 


the prosaic enlightenment of the period, no longer sought their inspirations 
in the classics, and favoured the fantastic Catholic Romance, and paganism 
or German Christianity, the source from which emanated the school of 
modern romance in poetry and music. Klopstock wrote not only his 
"Messiade," but also " Freia," " Baldur," and the " Hermann schlacht." 
.The circle formed around Klopstock, designated the " Hainbund," the 
members of which were styled " bards/' included not only the brothers 
Stolberg, converts to Roman Catholicism, but Burger, who in his 
" Balladen" introduced the tone of genuine romance into modern German 
poetry, as in " Leonora." The " storm and stress " period not only 
brought forth Klinge, by whom this epoch was so named, and who 
wrote a " Faust/' under the title of " Faust's Leben, Thaten und Hollen- 
fahrt," but also the passionate Lenz, and the young Goethe, whose " Erwin 
von Steinbach/' " Gotz von Berlichingen," " Werther's Leiden/' and 
earliest Faust scenes, together with his studies in necromancy, and the 
prevailing admiration of Shakespeare's romance, prove that the age was 
imbued more strongly with Christian Romance than with the Classical 
conception of the world. 

It is as important to notice that the contemporaries Handel and Bach, 
the first of whom, with his Protestant principles based on Classic form, and 
Bach, the perfecter of the mediaeval tonal art, began the fusion of the 
antique with the Christian conception of the world, as to remark that 
Mozart and Beethoven favoured the Romance, and therefore the musicians 
of the period returned with the last-named master to that mood which 
characterised Bach. 

Such different tendencies in two arts of the same epoch of genius, the 
fact that the poets are in the commencement Romantic and are finally 
Classic, whilst the tonal masters, with the single exception of Bach, begin as 
Classics and end as Romantic composers, had the most diverse effects upon 
both poets and musicians. 

Both "connecting epochs" were of some duration, and consequently 
the Renaissances in which they fell suffered degeneration. As the " con- 
necting epoch " of the eighteenth century interrupted the Renaissance of 
the Romantic, the art-period immediately following was Romantic, and as 
the second half of the Classical Renaissance had now come to an end, the 
Romantic element enjoyed sole power. 


These assertions are proved by history, for immediately following the 
German Genius epoch was a period of Romance, and one of such power 
that it produced two separate Romantic schools the one in modern German 
poetry, the other in modern German music. 

The style of the German Genius epoch of poetry and music entirely 
differed at the close of the period from that of the commencement. The 
poets, with the exception of Lessing, Winckelmann, Goethe, and Schiller, 
who maintained the Classical style, embraced the Romantic element in a 
most extravagant manner ; thus Ludwig Tieck, one of the founders of this 
school, in his " William Lovell," exhibits a contempt of the world almost 
bordering on nihilism. He says : " We must, above all, try to rid our- 
selves of the loving mawkishness and the agreeable platitudes of the 
Weimar school, viz., Goethe, Schiller, &c." Frederick Schlegel, another 
of the founders of this school, says : " The beginning of all poetry is the 
abolition of the process and laws of reasoning and calculation, and the 
restoration of that beautiful confusion of phantasy, the original chaos of 
human nature." Schlegel also says that true genius shows its lofty origin 
in leaving the common adherence to duty, morals, and propriety to the 
bigoted Philistines. With regard to the tonal art, circumstances differed 
greatly. The development of the musical Genius epoch, in which Beet- 
hoven may be said to have returned to Bach, enabled Romantic composers 
to follow their great predecessors without opposition. The Romantic vein 
of Mozart and Beethoven was followed up by Schubert and Weber. There- 
fore, unlike poetry, the tonal art was continued from the point at which it 
had been left by the great classics. The result was that the development 
of the two Romantic schools, viz., Poetry and Music, the disciples of which 
commenced by following Goethe and Beethoven respectively, took place in 
an entirely different manner. The school of the Romantic poets com- 
menced with chaotic tendencies, and had to clarify by degrees. The 
Romantic school of music began clear, naive, and popular, and later on 
became unnatural and subjective. As a proof of this, the school of litera- 
ture and poetry of a Frederick Schlegel, Tieck, Gentz, Zacb arias Werner, 
Holderlin, Novalis, and T. A. Hoffmann, must be compared with that of 
Gorres, Heinrich von Kleist, Brentano, Fouque, Armin, Chamisso, Eichen- 
dorff, Lenau, and Hauff ; or Spohr, Schumann, Chopin, and Robert Franz 
with their predecessors Weber, Schubert, and Marschner. 


When the poets of the Romantic connecting epoch had gained style, 
and satisfied their inclination for German pagan and Christian, and Catholic 
mediaeval subjects, and the musicians were becoming more subjective, in- 
dulging in hypersentimentality, under the impression that this was the 
special province of music, there occurred another reverse of the sister 
schools, which now turned towards revolution, nature, and nihilism. The 
result of this was a fusion of the terrestrial and the transcendental, which 
gave rise to a symbolising of the " glorification of the flesh/' a character- 
istic feature of the New Romantic School. The poets returned to their 
former state, as will be seen by comparing SchlegeFs "Lucinde" with 
Gutzkow's " Wally." The musicians, on the contrary, returned from 
optimism to pessimism, and a bitter contempt of the world or social 

In taking a comprehensive view of the nature, spirit, treatment of form, 
subject, and mood of the sister schools, we shall see that they are not only 
in harmony, but are actually identical. We cannot, therefore, gain a 
perfect understanding of the younger school of music in a shorter and more 
convincing manner than by comparing it with the school of poetry, both as 
regards moods and conceptions, and the innumerable analogies existing 
between them. We shall prove this by a few examples, not having room 
to treat the matter in a complete and exhaustive manner. With the ex- 
ception of Bach, in whose sacred works we find the full development of that 
world-estrangement which, in the Middle Ages, resulted in the birth 
of the element of Romance, we meet in the Genius epoch of music only 
two tone-masters who give expression to the Romantic. Mozart favours 
Romance in his Requiem, Don Giovanni, and Seraglio, Beethoven in the 
Missa Solennis, Fidelia, the three overtures to Leonora, the apotheosis in 
Egmont, his song-cycle, " An die feme Geliebte," his last string quartetts, 
and the ninth symphony. The Romantic appears in the secular works of 
these, the most powerful of tone-poets, as it does in the creations of Goethe 
and Schiller, as a separate feature of their artistic individuality. In the 
epoch of the Great Talents the masters were variously influenced by the 
spirit of Romance, which became a characteristic feature of the period. 
Even Felix Mendelssohn, the most decided classic of the era, could not 
escape the reigning influence. The masters of this epoch not only intro- 
duced Romance into their works, but wrote them under the influence of that 


powerful modern element as examples, we may mention Schubert, Karl 
Maria von Weber, Spohr, and Marschner. Schumann, as we have remarked 
before, enters into the New Romantic or "Young" German School, and can 
therefore be placed with justice on a level with Hector Berlioz and Richard 
Wagner. Schubert and Weber never considered themselves disciples of 
any Romantic School, nor did the masters Spohr and Marschner; and even 
in the case of Schumann this distinction is due rather to the influence of a 
number of adherents who in his name adopted a course directly inimical to 
the classics under the name or banner of the Romantic School. After 
Schumann the principles of Romance were accepted as the true musical 
doctrine of the future, and the term " music of the future " was adopted by 
both friends and opponents. In order to gain a correct conception of these 
principles, we must refer to the change which took place in German poetry 
a generation before under the title of u Young Germany." The growth of 
the Romantic art-principles was gradual, and may be traced in the works of 
Weber, Schubert, Marschner, and Lowe, which, notwithstanding the intro- 
duction of the new element, are of a thoroughly sound character, and 
though an increase of the power of the new principles is visible in the 
works of Spohr, Schumann, Mendelssohn, and Gade, it is as yet not 
excessive. Later we find a change similar to that which occurred, two 
centuries earlier, in the Tuscan School of music, the masters of the period 
declaring music to be at an end, and claiming for themselves and their 
disciples the creation of a new tonal art. A similar change characterises 
the Romance period of German poetry. For proof of this, the contents, 
language, and form of Kleist's " Prince von Homburg," and the " Geharn- 
ischte Sonette" of Ruckert, must be compared with that of a tragedy of 
Grabbe, or the political poems of Heine, Herwegh, and Tieck's, or Maler 
Muller's "Genoveva" with that of Hebbel. The historian and esthete 
regard such changes, which recur in every art with extraordinary regularity, 
with impartiality, recognising them as necessary to the development of the 
mind as the corresponding processes are beneficial to the welfare of the 

The resemblance of " Young Germany " as regards poetry, and in con- 
nection with music, will be more easily perceived by directing a glance at 
the special peculiarities which distinguish the poets and musicians of that 
period. In both we mark an inclination towards the German prima3val 


paganism, and the mediaeval conception of the world ; the memory of the 
crusades, the sagas, legends, and the reign of the minnesingers. These 
features occur in Tieck's and Wackenroder's " Bekenntnisse eines kunst- 
liebenden Klosterbruders," Novalis' (t Heinrich von Ofterdingen," Fouque's 
" Sigurd " and " Sangerkrieg auf der Wartburg," Weber's Euryantkc, 
based on chivalry and woman -worship, Spohr's Kreuzfahrer and Faust, 
and Schumann's Faust and Genoveva. It is interesting to note the 
adoption by the sister schools of a creed destined to overthrow the brilliant 
period of German poetry-music intervening between the Classical Renais- 
sance and the present. This faith, which Goethe, with the humour of a 
Mephisto, attributes to the representatives of philosophy and literature, in 
his character Baccalaureus, in the second part of Faust, may be taken as 
that of the musician of " Young Germany." It is characteristic of the 
sister schools to underrate their predecessors belonging to the Genius epoch, 
and to treat them with a certain degree of contempt. The brothers 
Schlegel, in 1797, directed their criticisms against Schiller and Lessing in 
this spirit ; Brentano criticised Herder in the same manner, and in the early 
half of the present century Heine and Herwegh attacked Goethe in verse 
and prose. Haydn was called a lackey, and was said to have been born an 
old man, and Mozart's Don Giovanni was designated by Brendel's musical 
journal in 1852, " a most defective musical drama/' As late as twenty-five 
years ago Handel has been stigmatised as the " elephant-footed Handel." 
Wagner, in his pamphlet entitled " Judaism in Music," attacked those of 
his contemporaries who were among the first to acknowledge his gifts, and 
his adherents continued to shower abuse in the same direction. Goethe had 
been attacked by Novalis, but the creations of the school which existed 
during the last connecting epoch were based on his works, just as those of 
the musical school had their foundation on the compositions of Beethoven. 
The style of Goethe selected for imitation was that which prevailed during 
the " storm and stress" period, and of Beethoven's creations the ninth 
symphony was chosen as a model. The works of these masters were 
regarded as stepping-stones connecting the later period with the preceding 
Genius epoch. There was one prevailing theme and mood adopted by the 
poets and musicians of the period. Novalis treats everywhere of the 
mediaeval Christian ideal, and Tieck and Wackenroder were enthusiasts for 
the early Christian painters Fiesple and Diirer. Tieck, indeed, in his novel 


" Sternbald," and his tragedy " Life and Death of St. Genevieve," dis- 
plays an inclination towards Roman Catholicism. A similar tendency 
prompted Schumann to compose Genoveva and Faust, Liszt to write his 
St. Elizabeth, his " Dante Symphony" and " Legend of St. Francis/' and 
Wagner to add to the list of the music-dramas his Lohengrin and Parsifal, 
in which he introduces the Knights of the Holy Grail. In addition to this 
inclination towards mediaeval subjects, each of the masters exhibited a 
hatred of Judaism, which almost equalled that of the Middle Ages, and 
which found an outlet in literature. The German Romantic poets, such as 
Gorres, Clemens Brentano, and De la Motte Fouque, show an inclination 
for Roman Catholicism, and Frederick von Schlegel, Adam Miiller, and 
Zacharias Werner apostatised and joined the Roman Catholic Church. 
Liszt entered the brotherhood of the Franciscans, and Wagner, having 
portrayed the pagan mythology in his G otter clammerung, treats the Last 
Supper in his Parsifal in a mediaeval mood. This period of Roman 
Catholicism was followed by one of spiritualism. Justinus Kerner was a 
pretended spirit-raiser, and for three years sheltered in his house the 
" Prophetess of Prevorst," and in 1824 published a history of that cele- 
brated somnambulist. Clemens Brentano entered a Westphalian cloister to 
study the utterings of the nun Katharina Emmerich, on whose body marks 
corresponding to the wounds of Christ had appeared. Liszt, when a youth, 
was almost induced by his religious enthusiasm to enter into the priesthood ; 
but ended by adopting the " nouveau Christianisine," established by the 
Marquis of St. Simon. The followers of this doctrine denounced the Papal 
reign, but yet did not embrace Protestantism. They purposed founding a 
socialistic community, and desired the abolition of the marriage ceremony. 
These fantastic traits influenced the art of the Romance period, proof of 
which may be found by an inspection of the works of Ludwig Tieck and 
T. A. Hoffmann, and studying characters such as Kleist's Kathchen von 
Heilbronn and Wagner's Senta and Elsa. Further proof is to be found in 
the ecstatic creations of Novalis, who, like Tieck, enters fully into Jakob 
Bohme's mysticism. 

The sympathy between the sister schools is further evidenced by the 
fact that many of the adherents of both turned from the orthodox to the 
radical, or starting with heterodox opinions, ended by becoming ardent 
supporters of the accepted faith. Thus Hector Berlioz and Zacharias 


Werner were in the commencement radicals, and finally became orthodox. 
Berlioz left heterodoxy for the mediaeval Catholicism in his Faust, Requiem, 
" Te Deum," and L'Enfance du Christ. Heinrich Heine was at first 
romantic, and afterwards revolutionary; Richard Wagner in Rienzi was 
republican, and in Tannhiiuser, Lohengrin and the Meister singer orthodox ; 
in Tristan and Ring des Nibelungen he favoured the pessimism of Schop- 
penhauer, and in Parsifal returned to Catholicism. 

Another point of similarity between the twin schools is to be found in 
the assertion of the author's idiosyncrasy, its position as the basis of all 
his conceptions, and the limit beyond which no other can be allowed to 
pass. Novalis, with an almost effeminate spirit, says : " We dream of 
journeys through the universe is not the universe within us ? The mys- 
terious road leads but to our innermost soul ; we are eternity. The outer 
world throws nought but shadows on this realm of light." Who could 
arise as the champion of this school but the philosopher Fichte, the ideal 
of Frederick Schlegel? This savant made "I" in contradistinction to 
the " world " the foundation of all reasoning. It is but natural that a 
musician who adhered to the tenets of a Schoppenhauer, whose pessimistic 
principles represent but one side of a philosophical conception of the world, 
could not fail to be as subjective as Fichte. The preference of the sister 
schools for the vague and undefined must be accepted as a "connect- 
ing link : " fancy was to roam unfettered, reality to be replaced with a 
world of dreams. The opposition of truth to the visionary world of these 
schools led to that dissension in the mind the apparent end of which is 
world-sorrow (" Weltschmerz "). This sentiment has been identified with 
art by the modern supporters of romance, and finds its sequel almost 
always in contempt of the world. The vague longing for the impossible 
peculiar to the " Weltschmerz " philosophy, and the subject's over-indul- 
gence of his idiosyncrasy, frequently taking the form of a Narcissus- 
like gazing into the mirror of imaginary joys and sorrows, leads to the 
development of irony or weariness. In a Hamlet it results in scepticism, 
in a Faust it ends in nihilism. The action of such different and yet closely 
united sentiments explains the reason for the dislike of the disciples of this 
school for what is clearly developed in form in classical art, and preference 
for the undefined night with its mysterious world of stars to the brightness 
of day. Of these inclinations we shall now quote a few examples, such as 
v v v 


Tieck's " Mondbeglanzte Zaubernaeht " and "Phantasus;" Novalis' Hein- 
rich von Ofterdingen and " Hymnen an die Nacht ; " Karl Maria von 
Weber's aria from Der FreiscMtz, " Wie nahte mir der Schlummer," and 
Mermaid song in Oberon: Robert Schumann's chorus from the Peri, " Schlaf ' 
nun und ruh' in Traumen voll Duft," and " Nachtstiicken ; " Schumann's 
version for chorus and orchestra of Hebbel's " Nachtliede ; " Richard 
Wagner's " Abendstern " from Tannhauser, " Athmest du nicht mit mir 
<lie siissen Diifte," and the love-scene from Tristan und Isolde ; Chopin's 
"Nocturnes;" Eichendorff's and Schumann's " Phantastische Nacht;" 
Jean Paul's " Nur in der Ruhe der Nacht gliiht und glanzt die Sehnsucht 
und die Liebe hell ; " and Wagner's duet in Tristan und Isolde, " Dem Tag, 
<lem tiickischen Tage, dem hartesten Feinde, Hass und Klage." Instances 
are to be found even before Jean Paul, the precursor of this school ; 
Calderon says : " What is life ? Madness. What is it but an empty 
bubble ? A poem, scarcely a shadow. Little can happiness give us, for 
life is but a dream, and the dreams e'en but a dream." In this there is as 
much of modern romance as in Tieck, T. A. Hoffmann, Lenau, and Hebbel. 
The sentiment of this pious Roman Catholic Spaniard proves that all 
romance, with its yearning for the unknown, dates from the Middle 

A characteristic feature of both schools is the love of flowers and the 
symbolic use. Jean Paul says : " Flowers are arabesques adorning the 
throne of heaven." Ruckert's " Westdstliche Rosen " and " Blaue Lilie 
der Welt ; " Ernst Schulze's " Bezauberte Rose ; " Wolfgang Miiller's 
41 Rose von Jericho ; " Moritz Horn and Robert Schumann's " Der Rose 
Pilgerfahrt ; " the well-known aria from Spohr's Azor and Zemir, " Rose, 
wie bist du reizend und mild ; " Schubert's " Sah ein Knab' ein Roslein 
stehn ; " Novalis' " Bliithenstaub " and " Blaue Blume der Romantik ; " 
Heine's "Du bist wie eine Blume,'' ff Die-Blauen Veilchenaugen schaun 
aus dem Grase hervor," and " Lotos Blume ; " and Schumann and Heine's 
" Ich will meine Seele tauchen in den Kelch der Lilie hinein," are but a 
few instances of flower- worship, and the list of poems on the same subject 
might be continued ad injinitum. Another trait is the admiration of the 
charms exhibited by water, both beautiful and terrible, and the peopling 
of that element with imaginary nymphs and genii. This appreciation of 
the beauties of nature is expressed in the Lorelei of Clemens Brentano, 


Heine, Eichendorff, Mendelssohn, Geibel, Schumann, and Liszt ; in Fouque's 
I 'inline, Weber's Meer made/ten, Wagner's R/teinloc/iieru, Mendelssohn 
and Grainmann's Melusine. Romance when compared with the classical 
appears effeminate, and its commencement, brought about by the trou- 
badours and minnesingers of mediaeval Provence, is rooted in the woman- 
worship which distinguished the period. This " cult " is followed in 
Weber's Enryanthe, Novalis' 1 Lei ti rich von Ofterdingen, Wagner's Wolfram 
von Eschenbach, Ta/ui/idtiser, and Walther Stolzing, and Chamisso and 
Schumann's " Frauenliebe und Leben." It is this woman -worship which 
produces the ecstatic happiness depicted in the characters of Kathchen von 
Heilbronn, Senta, and Elsa. 

The motto of the New Romantic School seems to be taken from Goethe's 
" Faust/' " Das ewig Weibliche zieht uns hinan/' though it is not always 
employed in the lofty sense adopted by that king of poets. Another mark 
of the schools of Romance is the glorification of the Virgin Mary, as met 
with in Balde's " Marienliede," Tieck and Wackenroder's " Mariencult/' 
Novalis' " Ich sehe dich in tausend Bildern, Maria/' and in secular music 
such as Faust, which has been set by so many Romantic musicians, and 
Franz Schubert's " Ave Maria." So in Wagner's Taiiuhciuser, tne principal 
character exclaims, " Mein Heil ruht in Maria." Many other types are 
.also in favour with the Romantic Schools, such as Mignon, written by 
Goethe and set by Schubert, Schumann, Liszt, Rubinstein, and Thomas ; 
the well-known Melusine, who was selected by Schwind the painter ; 
Zuleika has been selected by Goethe, Hafiz, Bodeustedt, Schubert, and 
Mendelssohn ; St. Elizabeth has been chosen by Wagner, Liszt, and 
Schwind ; Tieck, Hebbel, Maler, Miiller, and Robert Schumann have 
been inspired by Genoveva; Gounod and Berlioz by Juliet; Burger 
and Raff have made Leonora the theme of their inspirations. Moore 
and Schumann have celebrated in poetry and music respectively the 
wanderings of the Peri ; Marguerite has been adopted as a subject by 
Goethe, Liszt, Berlioz, Schumann, and Gounod; and Lorelei has pro- 
vided a theme for many poets and musicians. We have already noticed 
as a feature of the Romantic Schools that, longing for the transcen- 
dental, they look with regret on a past paradise, that of the golden age, 
and yearn for happiness of the future. This is directly opposed to the 
principles of classical art, which, as a rule, deals with the present. In the 
v v v 2 


Middle Ages this desire for the celestial promoted the adoption of the 
principles "of asceticism, that is, the employment of unnecessarily rigorous 
devotional exercises, and we may venture to assert that the aspiring 
Gothic steeples were raised by the same desire, as symbolical of the intense 
longing for the divine. It was this spirit also which prompted the Crusades, 
and the craving for the unknown found an outlet in the undertaking of 
lengthy voyages of discovery. The same principles signalise the present 
period of Renaissance, bringing with them a fondness for the fantastic. 
This statement will be proved by an inspection of Berlioz's " Childe 
Harold/' Meyerbeer's Robert le Diable, T. A. Hoffmann's fantastic tales 
after the manner of Callot, Jean Paul's " Titan," and the occasional works 
of Achim von Arnim, Brentano, Chamisso, Byron, Yictor Hugo, Richard 
Wagner, and Schumann. The worship of the purely beautiful, divested of 
its bizarre surroundings, is to be found in Beethoven's " Liederkreis an 
die feme Geliebte," in Agatha's prayer from the FreiscMtz, in the vocal 
quartett from Oberon, in Hebbel's and Schumann's " Nachtlied," in the 
scene of the Last Supper from Wagner's Parsifal, Elsa's lament at the 
departure of Lohengrin, and Novalis' outburst of grief at the death of his 
beloved, calling to mind involuntarily Dante and Beatrice, a union of the 
present with the past Renaissance. Dante's influence can be traced even 
in the works of Berlioz, Schumann, Liszt, and Wagner. 

Both schools of Romance have sought subjects in the range of the older 
Persian poetry and the idealistic philosophy of the Hindoos, and this longing 
for the strange and foreign causes the outline of the poet's creation to become 
undefined. Goethe even has entered on this field in his " Westostlichen 
Divan," but this is the only instance. His precursors and followers are 
distinguished by more fanciful and subjective expression, and their manner 
degenerates into fantastic rhyming. Riickert, in his " Oestlichen Rosen," 
imitates the " Westostlichen Divan " of Goethe. In his " Ghasel " the 
poet has devoted special pains to secure euphonious phrasing. Prince 
Piickler derived the matter of his later poems from his travels in the East ; 
so did Michael Beer, in his " Paria ; " Schefer, in " Hafiz in Hellas ; " 
and Byron, in "Childe Harold," " Sardanapalus," " The Corsair," and 
the " Giaour." Heine longs for the roses of Schiraz, the lotus, and the 
river Ganges, and laments his being a Persian poet born in Germany. Fre- 
derick Schlegel, the champion of romance, writing on the language, religion, 


and philosophy of the Hindoos, says we must seek in the Orient for genuine 
romance. We meet a similar preference for the poetry of the East. Weber 
exhibits this tendency in Oberon, Schubert and Mendelssohn in their " Zuleika 
Liede/' Meyerbeer in L'Africaine, Felicien David in Le Desert, Spohr in 
Jessouda and the Crusaders, Schumann in his Paradise and Peri, Rubinstein 
in his opera Feramors and many songs, and Goldmark in the Queen of Sheba. 
It is incumbent on us to notice the merits possessed by the Romantic poets 
and composers alike, inasmuch as the poets discovered fresh fields on which 
to base their subjects, mythology and the saga world, and the morals and 
customs of foreign lands, thus not only enriching poetry, literature, and 
philosophy, but also painting and the plastic art. Scarcely less important 
are their new discoveries for the advancement of music. Richard Wagner 
has, for the first time, bestowed on music a tongue with which to proclaim 
the old German Christian conception of the world. Schumann breathes in 
musical tones the description of a celestial sphere, and Meyerbeer gives 
tongue to religious fanaticism. The merits of the Romantic School of 
music are not restricted to this ; it has overcome the barrier which seemed 
to exist for centuries between the tonal art and its sisters. If in the efforts 
of the New Romantic School to bring about a closer connection between the 
sister arts we find several erroneous assumptions, we may rest assured that 
they will be rectified, and the prevalence of extended culture can but 
open to the musician an increased horizon, and will prove a lasting gain to 
art. Musicians who lack this advantage, and merely rely on the exercise 
of their musical craft, will be henceforth pronounced mere mechanics. 

We have already referred to a number of works dealing with the 
beauties of the East. This feature in the sister schools, of searching for 
subjects in the manners and customs of foreign climates, must be accepted 
as being closely related to that trait which causes the schools of the present 
day to overthrow all barriers separating the sister arts, and employ the 
character of one art for producing the effects of another. This is a special 
feature of the Lyrical Romantic poets, such as Tieck, Schlegel, Novalis, 
Brcntano, Riickert, and Heine, who appear to aspire to the musical element 
as the most important item of their art, exhibiting much deference for 
rhythm and peculiar tonal effects, such as alliteration and assonance, 
appertaining to music rather than to poetry. The musicians of the New 
R unantic School, on the contrary, essay to renounce all flowing melody and 


the beautiful periods of the classical art-form, searching for a " speaking 
music/'' and not content with this, attempt to convey in tones positive ideas 
and represent particular persons and localities. Their printed programmes, 
however, prove distinctly that in the music alone they have failed to express 
clearly the actions of their characters and the description of localities. The 
numerous mistakes which have occurred show the impossibility of describing 
the music in words ; for instance, a piece of programme music without its 
programme will convey a different signification to every hearer, and even 
a laconically-worded explanation will lead to serious errors. A. B. Marx, 
referring to Beethoven's sonata, Op. 81, bearing the title " Les Adieux, 
I/ Absence, et Le Retour," says : " This sonata is a portrayal of soul-felt 
sentiment. We expect the parting of lovers, the loneliness caused by 
separation, and the joyous return." In the manuscript, however, we find 
above the first movement the words, " Farewell at the departure of his 
Imperial Highness Archduke Rudolph, May 4th, 1809." Over the Finale 
is written, " The return of his Imperial Highness the Archduke Rudolph, 
on January 30th, 1810." In a later orchestral work, the " Nirvana," we 
find that the composer has gone so far as to attempt the expression of 
philosophy by the orchestra. Wagner, who in his Nilelungen founded 
the " speaking music," employs in his poetry the assonance and alliteration 
to be found in the works of Schlegel, who preceded him by fifty years. 
" Speaking music " and tl musical poetry " overstep the barrier between the 
sister arts, expression in tones and words. Some representatives of the 
Modern Schools of Romance have not even shrunk from overthrowing the 
barriers of conventionality in life, and have applied their nihilistic principles 
to every-day life. F. Schlegel even wished to subvert the fundamental laws 
of art, and in his declaration of the principles of the Romantic School says : 
" The essence of Romantic poetry is its infinitude it alone is endless, and 
it alone is free. Its first acknowledged law -is that the poet's will suffers no 
restraint. The beautiful is separated from the true and moral, and yet 
maintains equal rights." (Probably it is in this spirit that he asks, in the 
Atkenaum : " What objection can there be to a manage en gnat re ?") Yet 
these writers wish to impose their principles as the only recognised law. As 
Wagner, in his Gottcrdammemng, attempts to fuse Schoppenhauer's philo- 
sophy with the tonal art, so Schlegel proposed a union of philosophy and 
poetry, and indeed, in his remark that in Romantic poetry " all works shall 


be one work, all arts one art/' he anticipates Wagner's " Kunstwerk der 
Zukunft/' in which the author proposes that poetry, music, painting, and 
sculpture should be united in forming 1 a complete art-work. We agree, inas- 
much as this proposal must be accepted as purely ideal, and can never be 
carried into practice, at least to such an extent as to bring about a complete 
equality in the various arts. This is impossible, and all attempts could 
result in nought but the monstrous. A true perception of the real relation 
between the arts/one based on their ideal unity and relative identity, will 
alone teach when to enforce strict separation of action and when to encou- 
rage unity. We find that the poets and musicians of the New Romantic 
School have for generations clung to the same sagas and mythical or semi- 
mythical heroes. Faust has been treated by the poets Goethe, Klinger, 
Lenau, Heine, and Grabbe; the musicians Berlioz, Spohr, Schumann, 
Gounod, Liszt, and Wagner (the last-named in his Fa its t overture and Faust 
programme to Beethoven's " Choral Symphony"). The minstrel contest at 
Wartburg and the Siegfried saga from the Edda were poetically treated by 
De la Motte Fouque, and both in poetry and music by Richard Wagner. 
Venus and Tannhauser were treated long before Wagner by Tieck and 
Heine; Don Giovanni by the founder of Romantic Opera, Mozart; by 
Lenau in his unfinished " Don Juan ; " and Byron, the most advanced of 
the New Romantic School. Manfred has been employed as a theme by 
Byron and Schumann ; Mazeppa by Byron and Liszt. The Corsair, Childe 
Harold, and Sardanapalus have been celebrated in verse and music respec- 
tively by Byron and Berlioz. Geibel and Hebbel both employed the 
Nibelungen as a theme long before Wagner, whose Flying Dutchman, 
Saga of the Grail, Lohengrin, Tristan and Isolde, and Hans Sachs, had 
served for subjects to Tieck, Gorres, Heinrich Heine, and Immermann. 
Well may we aftirm that there is no subject which has not been used in 
both schools of Romance. After merely glancing at the wealth of subject- 
matter, although all exhibit some slight similarity, we cannot fail to notice 
how much there is of novelty, beauty, and originality amongst the real and 
important talents. We cannot help remarking the number of by-ways by 
which those Romantic masters, who adopted as their motto the sentence 
" car tel est notre plaisir," were led from the path of the proportionate, 
natural, and healthy, into that of incongruity, sentiment, and artificiality. 
The subjectivity of these masters was further supported by that doctrine of 


the New Romantic School, which declared that all transmitted forms were 
worn out or else had been smuggled into art by the pedants under the 
guise of a Zopf, and could at best be regarded only as arithmetical examples 
which retarded the free flight of genius. This dogma, accompanied by 
an affected display of nationalism, occasionally developing from vigour to 
rudeness, as well as by a fondness for ancient German paganism, caused 
Goethe, the most objective of critics, to exclaim in anger, " Romantic 
is sickness, classic is health. " The poet spoke in the same strain in 
his periodical Kunst und Alterthum, writing under the title " Ueber die 
christlich-patriotisch-neu-deutsche Kunst." Goethe, who besides his love 
of the classical possessed so deep a vein of Romance, wished only to express 
his conviction that the hysterical utterances, the veto on " all discipline of 
thought," and the heterogeneous mixture of inorganic styles which cha- 
racterised the Romantic in German literature, formed the best proof of 
the feebleness of that style. No better instance of the pessimism of the 
Romantic School can be cited than that found in the lines written by Jean 
Paul in the album of the grandson of Goethe. They run thus : " Man is 
allowed but two and a half minutes one to smile, one to- sigh, and but 
half to love ; in the midst of this he dies." Such unhealthy exaggeration 
could not fail to rouse Goethe, who wrote in the same book the following 
lines : 

" Sixty minutes hath an hour, 

More than thousands hath a day, 
Look ye what gigantic power 

He who works may thus display." 

If the New Romantic School of literature had not since half a century 
lost all healthy perception of the natural upgrowth of art as taught by 
history, they would have known that a vital art-form was never the result 
of the teaching of a certain master or a special school, but is inevitably 
brought about by the working of the most opposite agents throughout the 

jurse of centuries ; in music this is proved by the forms of canon, fugue, 
suite, overture, sonata, and symphony, which are adopted by all musical 

itions. Had those litterateurs who belonged to the time of Goethe, the 
teacher of nature's progress which is based on organic development and the 
hater of all hasty progress, followed the dictum of that master, they would 


have perceived that the result of investigation in aesthetics and art- 
philosophy is the knowledge that the first element of all artistic develop- 
ment is not the form and the second the contents, but the reverse. In art 
it has always been the idea that brought about the construction of the 
form. Those who would abolish all the existing and accepted musical forms 
ignore the achievements of the mental culture which has developed for many 
centuries past. This is specially applicable to music, which, unlike painting 
and sculpture, does not seek its models from nature. Architecture, like 
music, finds no model in nature, and its forms are the creations of fancy, 
yet its tenacity to certain forms may well serve as a lesson to musicians, 
for the composer possesses a great advantage over the architect by the 
fact that music is movement, architecture rest. How superficial is the in- 
vestigation of art-forms by the New Romantic School forms which can 
be filled with worthy contents by all but the impotent is proved by the 
fact that they have pointed to examples in which lack of talent and musical 
artificiality have degenerated to mere stencilling. Besides the talents there 
are many parasites of the Romantic School, to whom the attack on the 
established forms proves a boon, for they are spared the dangerous trial of 
employing those forms, which when indifferently filled at once proclaim the 
incapacity of the composer. 

We have given the Romantic School credit for a considerable number 


of real talents, many of whom are possessed of genuine artistic objec- 
tivity, and are masters of form. Those possessing the latter quality, 
however, are exceptions. The champions of this school, and the greater 
number of their blind followers, declare its doctrines of freedom in 
form infallible. If the efforts of the New Romantic School of music 
continue in the same direction there can be no question but that the 
school will soon become antiquated and then obsolete ; this progress being 
merely a question of time. This has been the destiny of poetry, the sister 
art, whose New Romantic School has ceased to exist. We fear that this 
climax is imminent, as, being of the nature of a new art-principle, i.e., both 
intolerant and aggressive, it will proceed to an extreme where Nature her- 
self will exclaim, " hold enough," thus bringing about a turn and an un- 
avoidable counter-stream. Till then we do not expect the fanatic supporters 
of this school to awake from their dreamy self-deception. The fact is that 
so great a talent us Wagner must, of necessity, be surrounded and followed 


by a number of adherents who have been unable to imitate him with any 
success. But the master who, with phenomenal power and energy, roused 
the enthusiasm of all belonging- to his period was unique, and was a fitting- 
end to the development of the Romantic in poetry and music. Such a com- 
poser could exist but once. All who have copied have failed, and will ever 
continue to do so ; we have sufficient proof of this in the works of his most 
ardent disciples, the "Hagbarth und Signe" of Mihalovich and "Helianthus" 
of Goldschmidt. The followers of Wagner, who himself in the second period 
of his activity approached closely to the limits of musical expression, can 
but copy their ideal, and that without the merit of originality which must 
be ascribed to the great master. They can but appear what Wagner really 
was, and in their attempt to " out- Wagner Wagner " are lost in chaos. If 
we have proved that the musicians of the New Komantic School will continue 
their course to its end, as did the poets who preceded them by fifty years, 
we may be certain that the school of Wagner and Berlioz will share the 
fate which attended its sister school. If the history of any religious, 
political, or social fraternity, even before the close of its development, can 
be compared with that of the career of a preceding school founded on the 
same conception of the world, we can safely prognosticate for it a like end- 
ing, as it had a similar commencement ; this is an occasion on which we can 
employ our power of prophecy. If we can apply this to religious, political, 
or social bodies, which are greatly influenced by external causes, how truth- 
fully can we say the same of art and science, which are farther beyond 
the reach of external influence. Both schools were rooted in the people 
of Germany, and the historical development of both occupied less than a 
century (17981885). Within this period the elder exercised all the more 
influence on the younger, as the poets of the middle and last periods 
were contemporaries of the earliest and midway composers of the school of 
music, and the musicians employed as subject-matter almost exclusively 
the creations of the poets who in spirit were so closely related to them. 
In both schools we find the same virtues and the same faults; on the 
one hand they must be credited with a justifiable opposition to the de- 
generation of art into a mere handicraft and artificial imitation, on the 
other hand they must be accused of unmeasured self-praise and deception, 
which causes them to believe that the art-development of a few thousand 
years has been compelled to wait for their labours to raise it to a climax. 


They are guilty of another misconception, which is, that the theory which 
declares the upgrowth of art to have taken place by eternal laws for so 
long a period may be regarded as erroneous, and that they themselves were 
the discoverers of true art. The Romantic School of poets has proved to 
us how fatal are such errors. Holderlin and Lenau died insane, Kleist 
committed suicide, and Jean Paul, Novalis, Achim von Arnim, Brentano, 
Fouque, and Tieck, who were, during their period, exalted at the expense of 
the classical writers, and who formed the object of feminine hero-worship, 
are, notwithstanding their evident talent, now almost consigned to oblivion. 
The creations of tho musician possess more vitality than do those of the 
poet, since in music the composer can leave the world of reality and soar 
into the realms of fantasy, whereas the poet is restricted to logic and con- 
ceptions of truth ; the former employs tone with its variety of orchestral 
and vocal colouring, but the poet is confined to the positive use of words. 

Among the Romantic poets and musicians there was a display of much 
talent, yet Jean Paul, Tieck, Novalis, Kleist, Holderlin, Brentano, Arnim, 
T. A. Hoffmann, Chamisso, Lenau, Eichendorff, Immermann, Heine, Hauff, 
Gutzkow, Laube, Freiligrath, and Herwegh, who, in their period, were 
styled " Young Germany," are now old ; whereas the great masters Herder, 
Lcssing, Schiller, and Goethe, who were then considered antiquated, are 
now making manifest their eternal youth. The fate of the latest Romantic 
composers will be, in fifty years, similar to that of their compeers in poetry. 
We might say, with justice, that whilst the talents of the present period, 
who have been raised to the position of suns and fixed stars, may decline 
into stars of a minor rank, the great masters of the German Genius epoch, 
Bach, Handel, Gluck, Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, will rightfully assume 
their dignity of planets. 



WE have seen that the German Romantic Schools of music and poetry in 
the early part of the nineteenth century were free from foreign influence. 
In our own period, however, when the New Romantic Schools developed, we 


find external influence, the English and French agents of which had been 
biassed by the older school of German Romance. The two men through 
whose fiery imagination Germany received the reflection of its own intensi- 
fied romance were Byron and Berlioz. It was necessary that Byron should 
have influenced the school of Romantic poetry before Hector Berlioz could 
sway the younger sister school with his romantic influence. Byron was un- 
doubtedly influenced by Goethe's romantic poems, " Werther," " Faust," 
and " Tasso." He not only analysed and treated of Goethe's ' ' Faust," but 
had been a very Faust, even as he had enacted the part of Don Juan. 
Goethe points to the fact that the demon -in Byron's "The Deformed 
Transformed'-' could be but the result of his Mephistopheles. Byron's 
unbounded regard for the poet-king is shown in his enthusiastic letters, and 
the dedication to him of " Sardanapalus." Goethe reciprocated the senti- 
ment, as is seen in the apotheosis of the English poet in " Helena." Sir 
Walter Scott, after the death of Byron, wrote to tell Goethe how the latter 
poet felt the honour which had been conferred on him by a poet on whom, 
all men looked with veneration. Even Mozart was not without influence 
on him, as is proved by the latter's " Don Juan." In such works as " Cain 
and Abel," " Heaven and Earth," and " The Last Judgment," we see 
Byron's inclination for subjects belonging to mediaeval romance. His 
influence on the new German Romantic School is to be seen at its best in 
the works of Heine, Lenau, Laube, Herwegh, and Hebbel, who not only 
vie with him in poetic gift, but exhibit the characteristics of the "storm and 
stress " period which was brought about by the general discontent and spirit 
of pessimism to be found at every fresh epoch of development among the 
adherents of romance as the result of subjectivity and the claim for 
the rights of the individual in the face of the established order of things. 
Through the agency of the above-named followers Byron indirectly in- 
fluenced a number of prominent musicians, who composed their poems and 
employed their subjects, and by his own creations he directly swayed Berlioz, 
Schumann, and Liszt. As Byron influenced the poetry of romance, so did 
Berlioz rule German musical art. The points of similarity between the 
French composer and the English poet are many. Like Byron, he was 
passionate, and judged his entire surrounding solely from the standpoint 
of his feverish subjectivity. Their pessimistic conceptions were the same. 
The outbursts of volcanic nature were strange alike in both men. Berlioz's 


existence, like that of Byron, was an uninterrupted chain of struggles, 
failures, and sorrows, finally developing into bitterness and irony, which 
caused, in their artistic activity, a leaning towards gloomy and demoniacal 
subjects. Berlioz, however, was less the creator of his own sorrows, since 
he was naturally of a more generous nature.* 

Hector Berlioz was born on December 14, 1803, at Cote-Saint-Andre, a 
small town in the department of the Isere. His father, who was a medical 
man, wished him to follow the same profession. Hector's impressionable 
nature is seen by the fact that at the age of twelve he had studied the entire 
" Mneid," and conceived a violent attachment for a young lady of eighteen. 
Her ridicule failed to cure him, but caused him to hide himself for days, 
" suffering and dumb like a wounded bird " in bush and field. The memory of 
this attachment never left him, and when he met the object of his passion 
after an interval of forty-nine years, a married woman with white hair, it 
was still evident. When nineteen years of age, Hector, to whom music had 
already become the passion of his life, left for Paris, to continue his medical 
studies. For a considerable period he pursued his vocation, but when he 
found in the library of the Conservatoire the operatic scores of Gluck, he 
could no longer restrain himself, and declared to his parents his determina- 
tion to become a musician. His enraged mother cursed him, and his father 
withdrew all help. In order to teep from starvation, he entered the 
chorus of the Gymnase Theatre. He soon attracted the notice of Lesueur 
and Reicha, who became his teachers in musical theory ; but as the strict 
style offered no attraction to him he left the Conservatoire in 1825, and 
studied composition by himself, t 

In 1825 Berlioz studied the literature of Victor Hugo, Alexandre 
Dumas (pere), and Alfred De Vigny, who were all influenced by the 
German school, wrote the two overtures to Les Francs Juges, and Scott's 
// "(/ rcrley, and sketched his fantastic symphony, the " Episode de la Vie 

* Edmond Hippcau, in his " Berlioz Intime, d'aprcs des documents nouveaux," points to 
many mistakes in Berlioz's " Memoires," published in Paris in 1870, and of which a second 
edition appeared in 1881. We have taken for our authority, in a great part, the memoirs of 
Berlioz, and doubt but few of his dates. 

t We have already referred to the disagreements between Berlioz and Cherubini, and 
may assume that much that Berlioz says of him is tainted with prejudice. Hippeau is 
doubtless right when he refers to the impossibility of fixing precisely the dates connected 
with the quarrels of Berlioz and Cherubini. 


d'un Artiste." About the same time he composed eight scenes of Goethe's 
l<\int, a subject which he had deeply studied, publishing the score at 
his own expense. Not satisfied with the work, however, he bought up 
all the copies, and afterwards used some of the matter in his Damnation 
de Faust, which was performed in 1846 at Paris. Berlioz now fell in love 
with Henrietta Suiithson. This lady was a talented member of an English 
troupe, and the composer having witnessed her performance of Ophelia and 
Desdemona, made overtures, which were however refused. The disappoint- 
ment of the master was so deep that his friends feared his committing 
suicide, and on one occasion Liszt and Chopin spent a night roaming 
over the plains of Saint-Ouen, whither he had gone in a fit of madness. 
The composer returned to the Conservatoire in 1826, and four years later 
gained the first prix de Rome with his cantata Sardanapalus, the libretto 
of which was founded on Byron's poem of the same name. He now 
became reconciled to his parents, and in 1831 left for Rome, where he re- 
sided at the Villa de Medici, in the society of several French artists, headed 
by Horace Vernet, the celebrated painter. Here he composed the overtures 
to Rob Roy and King Lear, the " Scenes aux Champs " for his " Sym- 
phonic Fantastique," " Chant de Bonheur," " La Captive," from Victor 
Hugo's " Orientales," and the music to a religious poem by Thomas Moore. 
During his residence at Rome Berlioz was subject to fits of melancholy, 
and would often, like Salvator Rosa, with gun or guitar, wander far among 
the valleys of the Abruzzi, unmolested by the banditti whom he encountered. 
It was during these rambles that the composer gathered those ideas which 
afterwards found expression in his symphony " Childe Harold/' the subject 
of which was taken from Byron's poem. In 1832 he returned suddenly to 
Paris before the expiration of the prescribed period. He chanced again 
to see the English actress as Juliet in Shakespeare's tragedy, and it is 
said that after the performance he exclaimed, "Cette femme j'epouserai 
et sur ce drame j'ecrirai ma plus vaste symphonic ! " This actress soon 
after heard Berlioz's " Lelio," which was performed at one of his concerts, 
by which she was so impressed that she accepted the composer, and in 
1833 they were married. It was after this that the master composed 
his choral symphony "Romeo et Juliette," which was published in 1839. 
Madame Berlioz was obliged to leave the stage owing to an accident, which 
resulted in a broken leg. They were visited with much trouble, until in 1837 

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I thank you, Sir, for having taken the trouble to re-translate in verse the Shep- 
herds' Chorus of my Biblical excerpt. I regret much more than you that I received 
your work post festzim (as you call it) ; and it is a curious fete with which my translators 
have honoured me up to the present. 

As you offer me ao gracefully your assistance against them, I shall take the liberty 
to forward you from Paris a last proof of Faust, and to request you to look it over. 
You will oblige me much by being severe in your correction. 

Give my kindest regards to Liszt. The concert remuius fixed for Saturday. \Ve 
rehearse to-night, and again to-morrow. Remember me cordially to Remeny, who is, I 
know, kneeling to me; and that he m;iy rise as quickly as possible, I send him a volley 
of brass on his Hony theme. 

Always yours devotedly, 


LEIPZIG, 6 DectmJtfr, 1853. 


Paganini made the composer a present of 20,000 frs. The marriage, how- 
ever, was never a happy one, and in 1840 the trouble culminated in a 
divorce. On the death of his first wife in 1854 Berlioz married a second 
time, the subject of his choice being Mdlle. Rezio, a young vocalist. 
The master's symphony " Childe Harold " was performed in 1 8-'J 1 ; and in 
1840, on the occasion of the erection of the July Column, his " Sinfonie 
Funebre et Triomphale " was given. The complete failure of his opera 
Benvenuto Cellini, which had been performed at Paris in 1838, caused 
a severe attack of melancholy, and the composer, during the winter of 
]842 1843, sought refuge in Germany.* Here he entered upon a concert 
tour, hoping to gain for his music that appreciation which was denied him 
in Paris. The composer was well received, and at Stutgardt, Dresden, 
Berlin, and Brunswick created a furore. Although his gift of imagination 
and his remarkable scoring were acknowledged, he was accused of employing 
his talent for the purpose of giving voice to capricious fancy, and ignoring 
euphony in favour of the merely characteristic. 

In 1845 Berlioz undertook a second concert tour through Vienna, 
Prague, Pesth, and Breslau, and two years later to Russia. In 1 848 and 
1851 the master visited London, and during the two years following he 
went, for the third time, to Germany, at the invitation of Liszt. The 
principal object of his visit was to see Liszt at Weimar. This master 
had been ardently engaged in preparing a reception for his friend's 
works, and had arranged the celebration of a " Berlioz " week. It was 
owing to his efforts also that the first part of Berlioz's trilogy, L'Enfance 
flu Christ, composed in 1854, was performed at Aix-la-Chapelle, at the 
Rhenish Musical Festival, where it achieved great success. In 1856 an 
antiphonal " Te Deum," with orchestra and organ accompaniment, produced 
in Paris, gained for the composer the honour of membership of " L'Aca- 
demie des Beaux-Arts/' In later years he received several decorations, 
including; that of " Officier de la Legion d'Honneur." Of his last works 

we must mention the comic opera Benedict and Beatrice, taken from 

* We cannot guarantee the correctness of all the dates in connection with the life of 
Berlioz, as, besides the variance between those of his own memoirs and those of Edmond 
llippcau, there are many discrepancies in the dates quoted by the master in his own writings. 
For instance, ho places the first performance of Ophelia in the years 1827 and 1830, ho dates 
liis first journey to Brussels and Germany in 18401841, whereas it really took place in 1842 
1843. His application for professorship at the Conservatoire he fixes at both 1833 and 1839. 


Shakespeare's Much Ado about Nothing, performed at Baden-Baden m 
1802, and at Weimar a year later. In the same year the composer pro- 
duced his grand opera Les Trojans in Paris, and, later on, an oratorio, 
entitled Le Temple Universel, written for the opening celebration of the 
Paris Exhibition in 1867. When the author, in the spring of the same 
year, paid a visit to Berlioz in Paris, the composer was so unwell as to be 
obliged to receive him in bed, but the state of his mind by no means pointed 
to a speedy end. At the news, however, of the death of his son abroad, 
he was seized with a fatal illness, and died on March 8th (or, as some say, 
March 9th), 1869. We have mentioned Berlioz at the commencement of 
this chapter as the real founder of the New Romantic School of music, a 
school exercising immense power on the musical world of the present, and 
to which Liszt, Chopin, Meyerbeer, and Richard Wagner belong. Berlioz 
was the resuscitator of programme music, which, however, had been known 
centuries before, and introduced the form of the symphonic poem and the 
leit-motiv, which he used in his orchestral works, as later on Wagner 
did in vocal composition. Thirty years before Wagner, Berlioz used, for his 
symphonic works, the instrumentation which the composer of the Ring 
des Nibelungen employed for dramatic purposes. Notwithstanding these 
points of similarity, Berlioz was little inclined to join in the idol-worship 
which was indulged in by Wagner's adherents. It may even be said that 
Berlioz was not just in his judgment of Wagner. After the first Wagner 
concert in Paris he wrote that the attention of the public during the per- 
formance of the overture to the Flying Dutchman " is wearied and flagging." 
He found but little originality in the melody of the Tannhauser March, 
which, in form, not to say accent, reminds us of a theme in Der Freischiitz. 
He declared that the violin passage accompanying the pilgrims' chorus in 
the overture to Tannhduser, which occurs one hundred and forty-two times, 
produced a most wearying impression. Of the charming wedding music in 
Lohengrin he says : " This march precedes a chorus which one is amazed to 
find here so small I might say childish, in its style. The effect was all 
the more unfavourable, as the first few bars remind us of a very poor 
selection from Boieldieu's ' Deux Nuits,' music which is heard in every 
vaudeville and known by every one in Paris." Speaking like Lessing, 
Berlioz said of Wagner's principles, that what was true had been known to 
all previous important masters, while that which was brought forward as 


new contained so little truth that " I could but seriously raise my hands 
and exclaim, non credo." Every man who is not a fanatical Wagnerian, 
particularly an historian, who must be honest, can but subscribe to this. Also 
must he agree with Berlioz, that " I firmly believe that beauty can never 
assume the form of ugliness, and that though the mission of music is not 
to please the ear alone, it was never intended to be disagreeable to it." 
The master added that there might be some who preferred to drink 
vitriol, but he favoured pure water, were it as insipid as an opera of 
Cimarosa. The author assigns the first place in the list of Berlioz's 
compositions to his Requiem, excerpts of which he had the good fortune 
to hear under the baton of the composer at the Leipzig Gewandhaus 
Concerts, where the French composer had been warmly received by 
Mendelssohn. The work is one of austere grandeur, written in the spirit 
of Dante. The author was of opinion that it crowned all the previous 
efforts of Berlioz, and was delighted to hear that the same opinion 
was entertained by the composer. Spontini's admiration seems to have 
been equally great, as he declared, on hearing the first performance in 
Paris, that the effect was equal to that produced by Michael Angelo's 
" Last Judgment." Among the instruments employed for the production 
of this work are sixteen kettle-drums, sixteen trombones, a like number of 
trumpets, four tam-tams, four ophicleides, two tubas, ten cymbals, twelve 
horns, four cornets, &c. These gigantic means would appear to denote 
a too realistic tendency, were we not aware that the motivi, without such 
a wealth of dynamic resources, would still produce a powerful effect. For 
instance, at the words, " Flammis acribus addietio," the B of the double 
basses, clashing with the C of the celli, while the violins depict the leaping 
of the flames, produces a wonderful effect. Another extraordinary work, 
though one exhibiting less unity, is Berlioz's fantastic symphony, " Episode 
de la vie d'un Artiste." The author heard this work for the first time 
under the direction of the composer, at Paris, on March 24, 1851, and his 
opinion was that with all the chaotic, formless, and inorganic matter, and 
working out, there is no trivial idea, but the hearer is kept continually in 
suspense. The orchestral effects, though strained and glaring at times, are 
often powerful and charming, characterised by spontaneity and originality. 
The listener seems to hear a newly-discovered orchestra; lacking but the 
direction of a Beethoven to be brought to the highest degree of perfection. 



The five parts were named respectively, "Reveries et Passions/' "Au Bal," 
" Aux Champs/' " Marche Funebre," " Dies Irae, un Burlesque/' The sym- 
phony " Harold en Italic/' is one of the master's more prominent works. It 
was written at the desire of Paganini, who wished for a symphonic concerto 
for the viola. From this the master constructed a symphony. The numerous 
beauties contained in this work are marred by the prescribed programme 
with which the composer was fettered ; nevertheless, the impression pro- 
duced is that of a true tonal poem, and the whole effect compensates us 
for the too realistic bells in the "Ave Maria" and the noisy " Orgie 
des Bandits/' which Hauptmann compares to a painting by " Hell 
Breughel." The part ascribed to the viola is as original as it is effec- 
tive. The overtures to King Lear and Les Francs Juges contain much 
beauty, as do also the greater works, La Damnation de Faust and " Romeo 
et Juliette," in the latter of which the scherzo, " Queen Mab," must 
be especially noticed. We must not omit to notice the charming and 
imaginative trilogy L'Enfance du Christ. The operas of .Berlioz, Benvenuto 
Cellini, Benedict and Beatrice, and Les .TrojgMS, cannot be accepted as 
genuine musical dramas, notwithstanding their many beauties, for this 
form requires artistic objectivity, which the dreamy nature of a subjective 
Berlioz could not attain to. We must direct attention to the master's 
celebrated and truly classical "Grand Traite d'Instrumentation et d'Or- 
chestration," published at Paris in 1844; and "Le Chef d'Orchestre," 
published in the same city ten years later, and which is still acknowledged 
to be the best and most instructive work of its kind. As a serious critic, 
and one most enthusiastic for his compeers, Berlioz must command respect. 
His appreciation of Gluck, Spontini, Beethoven, Weber, Meyerbeer, Liszt, 
and Mendelssohn was as sincere as it was just. As feuilletonist, our master 
was possessed of unusual gifts, a fact which is proved by the number of 
treatises, articles, and aphorisms published under the titles of " Soirees 
d'Orchestre," "Grotesques de la Musique," and "A Travers Chants," 
between the years 1853 and 1863.* The master's " Voyage Musicale en 
Allemagne et en Italie," published in two volumes in 1844, is a work of 
great interest. 

As Berlioz was the founder of the New Romantic School, so Richard 

* These works were, in 1864, translated into German by Richard Pohl, and published 
by Gustav Heinze, at Leipzig. 


Wagner may be styled its perfector, being its most prominent and truly chosen 
dramatist. At the commencement of the dramatic career which was destined 
to make him ere long so famous, Wagner clung to the old traditional opera, 
and as he himself says, he followed the most trodden paths those least 
characterised by a German spirit. He says in his autobiographical sketch, 
extending to 1842, that his first opera, Das Liebes Verbot, composed between 
1835 1836, and performed at Magdeburg, was the result of no pains 
in avoiding the French and Italian reminiscences then the fashion. The 
master's Rienzi, commenced in 1838, exhibits unusual progress in dramatic 
creation, and although the leaning towards French and Italian models is 
still displayed, it is confined to the leading masters of the grand French 
opera, represented at that period by Spontini, Meyerbeer, Rossini (Tell), and 
Auber (Masaniello) . In the eyes of the connoisseur, Wagner's Riemi is the 
turning-point, which contains in a great measure his special characteristics. 
Although this work is in parts too lengthy, and at times verges upon the 
commonplace, yet there are many traits which evidence a powerful musical 
dramatic gift. This is made manifest in several ensembles, and in the grand 
antiphonal chorus in the Finale of the third act ; the contrast between the 
tumultuous cries of the populace and the chorus of priests, at the end of 
the fourth act, forming dramatic effects of the highest character. Besides 
these examples of massive choral and orchestral effects we find solos of 
touching beauty. , Rienzi's song, " O laszt der Gnade Himmelslicht," and 
the prayer in the fifth act, with the female chorus of the messengers of 
peace, enchant us with their original and graceful melody. In his next 
opera, the Flying Dutchman, the master presents a totally different aspect. 
We specially retain the title opera, for Wagner until the Meistersinger 
trespasses still on the domain of early opera, from which we see a complete 
separation only in Tristan und Isolde. The Flying Dutchman was, like the 
FrcixcftiUz, treated in a popular manner. The subject of this opera is a 
legend well known to all seafaring nations, and it has been treated by 
the composer in a most striking manner. He has depicted in music the 
character of the spectral seaman and the local colouring of the story in a 
marvellous manner, and from the commencement of the stormy overture 
we are held in thrall by the powerful instrumentation. In this work we 
meet with that flow which Wagner's music occasionally lacks, and cannot 
fail to bo delighted with its originality and novelty. We must quote as 
w w w 2 


instances of especial beauty the vigorous sailor choruses, the song of the 
steersman, the duet between Daland and the Dutchman in the first act, the 
charming spinning chorus, the romance sung by Senta, and the cheerful 
festal chorus in the third aet. In Tannhamer, the fourth of Wagner's 
operas, the master has increased the power of the romantic vein which he 
struck in the Flying Dutchman, and has given to the local colouring a 
special religious impress by the introduction of St. Elizabeth of Thuringia, 
who, although not particularly identified, is suggested by her renunciation 
of the world, and Tannhauser's words, " St. Elizabeth pray for me ! " As 
is well known, Wagner was a poet and composed his own libretti ; in this 
opera he has employed two distinct folk-legends viz., that of Tannhauser 
and the Venusberg, and the contest of minnesingers on the Wartburg. 
Amongst the finest portions of this justly famed opera we must draw 
attention to the overture, Tannhiiuser's song in honour of Venus, the chorus 
of pilgrims, the septet at the end of the first act, Elizabeth's grand aria and 
duet with Tannhauser, the march and the thrilling Finale of the second 
act, Wolfram's song "The Star of Eve/' and the thrilling account of 
Tannhauser's pilgrimage to Rome ; in short, all that in form belongs to 
the older opera school is most effective. In Jjohengrin we also find that 
all the portions to which the opera owes its real success are in or nearly 
approaching the melodic form of the established system. Its greatest 
beauties are to be found in the novel introduction replacing the over- 
ture, Elsa's song, the Finale of the first act, the song " Euch Liif ten, die 
mein Klagen/' Ortrud's invocation in F sharp minor, the duet between 
Ortrud and Elsa, the male choruses and the procession in the second act, 
the introduction of the third act with its marriage chorus, the grand duet 
between Elsa and Lohengrin, and the magnificent orchestral summons of 
the warriors. We must here notice that in the introduction to this opera 
Wagner employed a new art-form, in which he leads the chief motive 
from pianissimo to the extreme of fortissimo, from which by degrees it 
descends to its former level, representing effectually and in a manner most 
poetical the progress of the Knight of the Grail. 

Wagner's Mei&Ux&inger occupies a position midway between that group 
of his operatic works which we have already discussed, and those musical 
dramatic works with which we are now about to deal. In this work 
Wagner has, according to his own words, treated "the dramatic language 

<^X<^tx4^VjC^< ' *^+l 



a CoiUcfion o/ 4{oyra^h,s o/ IfoDuau Sc/iolta at /' 


I have been BO occupied the kst few weeks that I have been obb'ged to delay the whole 
of my correspondence. I must therefore ask you to excuse my seeming neglect. You princi- 
pally wish to know my opinion whether TannJiauser or Lohengrin should be performed 
first. I decidedly say Tannhauser, and only after that can Lohengrin be played. I even 
insist that Lohengrin shall never be performed first, because the artists can only understand 
it when they have thoroughly studied Tannhauser. 

Will you kindly arrange all other matters with my old Mend W. Fischer of Dresden. 
I am delighted at your undertaking thia enterprise, and wish you every success. 

Believe me, dear Sir, 

Yours sincerely, 

ZtKiCH, May 3Qik, 1853. 


as the most essential part of the work/' and has made the music entirely 
subordinate to it, or to quote once more the words of the master, has " fitted his 
music to the thought expressed in language so imperceptibly that the latter 
is the dominant element/ 7 Nevertheless, in the Meistersinger we find parts 
in which, as in the early opera, music is the principal feature. Instances of 
this are to be found in the quintett in G flat major, which occurs in the 
third act and represents the original opera ensemble, the song and dance 
oil the apprentices, the overture, the chorale, the three songs of Walter 
von Stolzing, " Am stillen Heerd in Winterszeit/' " Fanget an ! So rief 
der Lenz in den Wald," and the last scene of the work, which, with 
instrumental introduction, choruses, procession, and prize-song, illustrates 
the leading features of the genuine opera finale. It is in our opinion on 
these portions of the work that the success of the Meistersinger is based. 
It is in Tristan und Isolde that the entire separation from traditional form 
takes place. Instead of closed and half -closed forms, dramatic ensembles, 
and recitatives alternated with song, we find declamation supported by 
music expressing the meaning of the words in truth a resuscitation of the 
early Florentine monody employed by Peri and Monteverde. This fact is 
most surprising, as the .progress of the great dramatic tone-poets, Gluck, 
Mozart, Beethoven, Weber, Spontini, Cherubini, Mehul, &c., was owing to 
their endeavours to free the music-drama from monody, and by the addition 
of polyphony to raise it into a complete form. \n Tristan and the Ring des 
Nibelungen W'agner practically excludes polyphony. In close connection 
with this we must note Wagner's adoption of the monothematic style in 
direct opposition to the poly thematic, as founded and cultivated by our 
i-hissical writers. In the music-drama the monothematic style can appear 
but as a leit-motiv, and although the master did not invent this principle he 
made it the important feature of his dramas belonging to the second period. 
Instead of a manifold musical painting of one and the same character, as 
attempted by the masters of the old opera form, Wagner adopts a single, 
stereotyped, and ever-recurring tone-phrase intended to designate a dramatic 
character. We meet in Lohengrin a leit-motiv which illustrates the words 
" Nie sollst du mich befragen," always associated with the presence of the 
hero. Even if a leit-motiv be harmonised or orchestrated in various ways, 
and yet cannot renounce its original outline, it can really represent but one 
phase in the life of a dramatic character, and is powerless to describe the 


entire sentiment, action, and existence of the character. Beethoven, to im- 
press us with the true character of his heroine in Fidelia, employs at 
least twenty entirely different themes, which are 'as powerful as and 
more richly developed than a leit-motiv of Wagner. The latter is the 
only important master, from the time of Gluck downwards, who has 
employed the monotheme, none having adopted stereotyped phrases by 
which to identify their dramatis persona, but allowing- them to develop 
in as many themes as are required, in imitation of real life, of which 
the drama is but a mirror. Such a procedure is identical with our exist- 
ence, which knows no halt, but is perpetually in action. This cannot be 
said of such a fixed formula as the leit-motiv, which precludes freedom 
and variety. Wagner also employs monothemes even when using several 
leit-motivi to distinguish special traits of character or actions of one person, 
for in such case we are treated to a repetition of one particular phrase, 
which replaces polythematic, and consequently ever-varying effect. His 
principle undeniably unites the monothematic character with the hyper- 
romantic, and carries it to its extreme. We must notice also that the 
muster docs not. always; employ a fully developed theme, but often a mere 
fraction of one. This must account for the absence of that refreshing 


variety which, especially in Tristan, is so painfully apparent. The pleasant 
diversity of form is replaced by the "eternal melody ; " and the established 
art-forms, such as recitative and song, solo and ensemble, rest and movement, 
are entirely wanting. It is wonderful indeed, and testifies truly to Wagner's 
gift, that even in Tristan, in which, for the first time, he applies his prin- 
ciples with iron determination, and stands aloof from the well established 
and beautiful forms of his art, he is enabled to arouse enthusiasm and 
affect us deeply with his dramatic power. For example, we must quote the 
second scene of the second act, in which Tristan and Isolde passionately 
declare mutual love. Such a fascinating power can but be the result of an 
immense talent. This scene, followed by the duet, "O sink' hernieder, 
Nacht der siebe," is undoubtedly the musical climax of the entire work. 
On the other hand Tristan und Isolde contains so much " speech music/' 
and notwithstanding the leit-motivi which connect bar to bar, so much dis- 
jointed matter, that Berlioz would have been justified in complaining of the 
" fatigue " which he experienced whilst listening to Tannhauser, and this is 
the reason no doubt that Tristan und Isolde has not gained favour on any 


stage equal to that obtained by Rienzi and the Meister singer, and still less 
that of the Flying Dutchman, Tannhauser, and Lohengrin. 

Though in Tristan und Isolde Wagner ignores almost entirely the 
accepted forms, iti the Ring des Nibelungen he has recognised them. In 
the Rheingold, in place of the resuscitated monody of the Florentines we 
find trios for the Rhine daughters, and even the leit-motivi appear in 
the form of fully developed subjects. In the trilogy Wagner further 
favours the established forms, as in Die Walkiire, the Walkiirenritt, the duet 
between Siegmund and Sieglinde, " Keinerging, Doch Einer Kam," 
Wotau's " Abschied und Feuerzauber," Siegfried's " Schmiedelied," the 
orchestral description of "Waldweben," the duet between Siegfried and 
Waldvoglein, the introduction to the first act of the Gotterdammerung, 
the chorus of the warriors, the song of the Rhine daughters, and the im- 
pressive funeral march. 

Wagner's return to the older forms is even more complete in Parsifal 
than it had been in the Ring des Nibelungen. In this, Wagner's last 
dramatic production, we find that power of music which can be expressed 
by polyphonic means alone. The orchestral introduction, the solo of 
Amfortas alternating with the chorus of knights of the Grail, and the 
chorus of boys from the dome of the chapel, furnish materials which, in 
the hands of so gifted a master, could not fail to result in a magnifi- 
cent tone-picture. The chorus of flower maidens, and, indeed, the entire 
Finale of the " Buhnenweih-festspiels," are polyphonic and in obedience 
to form. It must not be supposed that it was the seriousness of the 
subject-matter of Parsifal which led Wagner to return to the polyphonic 
form. For in works as serious, viz., the Ring des Nibelungen and Tristan 
und Isolde, there were many opportunities for the introduction of choral 
effect. Indeed, the gnomes of the Rheingold and the knight and esquire 
in the first act of Tristan und Isolde seem to claim their right of choral 
treatment, which the composer has denied them. We can plainly see then 
that it is by no means the subject-matter of Parsifal which induced the 
master to renounce the antiquated monodic treatment, but that it was 
rather the instinctive perception of the fact that such a style could not 
remain in existence experience gathered from his Tristan and Nibelungen 
trilogy. It was, without doubt, on the strength of this conviction that 
Wagner, with exceptional talent, was enabled to abandon his former style. 


We are of opinion that all monothematic treatment is the result of the 
exalted romance of the present day. We refer not only to Wagner, who, in 
the second period of his activity, eschewed ensembles, replacing them by 
monothematic treatment, but also the melologue, monodrama, the " Harold 
Symphony " (as regards the viola solo), and similar works of Berlioz. The 
enormous increase of solo songs and pianoforte pieces also points to the 
tendency of the present age subjectivity. 

If we investigate seriously the cause of the inclination to this feature 
which characterises the present school, we cannot fail to perceive that to 
composers other than Wagner, who was undoubtedly a born dramatist, a 
grand ensemble requires a certain amount of artistic objectivity, which 
allows too little play for purely individual sentiment. A body of people 
seems altogether unfitted to express a purely personal sentiment, conse- 
quently the chorus is rejected on' the plea of its requiring a theme of too 
objective a nature. Equally objectionable to the New Romantic School is 
an ensemble of soloists, each of whom expresses a purely personal idea, 
which necessitates an objective effort on the part of the composer. 

Even as a litterateur Wagner exhibits the same tendency. Thus, the 
master insists on the fusion of all arts, and declares that the thousand 
different items forming our existence and represented in art can only be 
seen in one condition, viz., that which is acceptable to his personal senti- 
ment, and which consequently he declares as the only one justified. As 
Wagner employs the leit-motiv and dramatic song which allows the per- 
sona to speak only in rotation, thereby typifying the monothematism in 
music, so in his " Art- Work of the Future " he advocates the fusion of all 
arts, thereby introducing the tendency of the Romantic School into the 
very field of thought and criticism. Instead of the endless variety whence 
art derives its wealth, the master has but one art, the drama ; he would 
dispense with epos and the lyric. The separate arts, whose sublime 
creations can be but the result of freedom, are to be fused into one .whole, 
the music-drama ; in which, notwithstanding all assurances of the ultimate 
freedom and equality of the arts, we learn from Wagner's drama that 
poetry and painting are subservient to music, whilst architecture and 
sculpture are to be ignored. The "Art-Work of the Future/' in fact, may 
be interpreted by the music-drama of Wagner, to suit which the archi- 
tect, according to the master himself, should plan nought but " Wagner 


Theatres;" the object of the sculptor should be to arrange groups, 
gestures, and dress of the performers ; the painter to restrict himself to 
scenic painting and selection of costumes ; the musician to repudiate the 
art-culture of a thousand years, and return to the " speech-music " which 
comprised the tonal art before the growth of polyphony and ensembles ; 
lastly, the poet is to overlook all rhythm and the forms of Greece, the 
Renaissance and modern poetry, in order to resuscitate alliteration and 
assonance. Wagner even counsels the abandonment of independent drama, 
and it requires no extraordinary perception to become aware that even science 
and religion find their fate in the " Art-Work of the Future," which the 
master would seem to pronounce the end and aim of the future.* We 
find an explanation of Wagner's underrating of the plastic art in favour oF~ 
poetry and music, and the manner in which the composer ignores the 
importance of Greek sculpture, which, like no other art, finds its existence 
in non-conventional beauty and truth, in the master's words, which imply 
that the ancient sculptors leave us the form of the modelled Greek " like a 
petrified memory, a mummy of Greece" (p. 162) ; and, further, that the 
unthought-of works, which may be the outcome of future periods, "will 
make the remains of Greek art an insignificant toy for foolish children " 
(p. 263). Wagner overlooks the fact that besides the drama there are other 
combinations of arts for example, at the performance of a Stabat Mater, 
a Requiem, a " Te Deum," &c., in a Roman Catholic cathedral, in which 
music, poetry, architecture, sculpture, and painting (the plastic arts being 
incomparably superior than when on the stage) unite in forming on the 
mind of the auditor an effect which, owing to the presence of religion, 
cannot fail to outweigh that produced by the drama. If any one inordi- 
nately favoured this church art, as Wagner does the dramatic, he might 
with equal justice demand the fusion of all arts into the form of church 
art, and yet this impossibility can be but the outcome of a supposition 
that the unity of art, which can be but ideal, may be positively realised. 
Such a conception of the fusion of all arts could only be a truth when the 
arts could bring forth equal effects. So long as one or two branches of art 
maintain a supremacy this fancied fusion is impossible. The result of a 

* See Wagner's " Collective Works," vol. iii., pp. 154, 166, 174, 175, 179, 180, 183, 287 ; 
and same volume, pp. 20, 21, 22, 32, 36, 41, 43, 102, 103, 115, 221, 125, 129, 130, 132, 138, 
.141, 152, 189, 195, 205, 206, &c. 


union of sciences would be identical. A union of art can be but ideal, and 
a conception of such an ideal is at present a necessity. The " Art-Work of 
the Future/' even though its sentiment be ideal, cannot endure, because 
the fanciful conception of the connection between the arts teaches that their 
fusion into a unity does not consist in the sacrifice of the independence of 
either of the four in favour of one of its sisters, but rather in the absolute 
coincidence of their essential qualities, that is in the identity of their 
elementary conditions, the laws of beauty, form, species, and style. 

We have already noticed the fact that with the opening of the Romantic 
School of Music, critical and not theoretical musical literature was intro- 
duced, whilst the Romantic School of Poetry commenced with literature en- 
tirely relating to the laws of their style. The first of the Romantic School 
who engaged in critical and testhetic literature, though within narrow limits, 
was Karl Maria von Weber. Spohr's writings are, as a rule, mere records of 
his personal opinion, and it is only in Berlioz and Schumann that we first 
find a prominent literary activity. Wagner's fertility exceeds everything 
hitherto attempted in this field, the result of his literary labours occupying 
no, less than nine volumes. The chief subjects selected by the master 
include " Ein Deutscher Musiker in Paris/' the libretti of his operas and 
musical dramas, with the exception of Parsifal, "Die Kunst und die 
Revolution," "Das Kunstwerk der Zukunst," "Kuust und Klima," "Oper 
und Drama," which occupies three volumes, " Das Judenthuni in der Musik," 
" Ueber das Dirigiren," "Beethoven," " Ueber die Bestimmung der Oper," 
and " Programmatische Erliiuterungen." There are also letters to the 
Mayor of Bologna, on the Stage ; to Hector Berlioz ; to Liszt, on his sym- 
phonic poems ; and an autobiographical sketch extending to the year 1842. 
It may be of interest to notice that W^agner wrote libretti not only for 
composition by himself, but for the use of others. He ceded to his friend 
Friedrich Kittl (1809 1868), a chapel-master at Prague, the libretti of the 
operas Die Franzosen vor Nizza and Bianca und Giuseppe, the first of which 
was performed with great success in the Bohemian capital in the year 1848. 
Alfred Meiszner in the " Geschichte meines Lebens," vol. ii., pp. 6 and 9, 
ascribes the success to the dramatic power of the libretto rather than to the 
composition. We, however, prefer Wagner as a musician to Wagner as a 
poet ; in the latter capacity he excels in choice of subject and dramatic 
treatment. We care least for his esthetic and art-philosophical writings, 


though they contain many happy ideas and valuable propositions. If the 
last-named works are to possess in the future a value more than merely his- 
torical, it must be ascribed to the fascinating influence of the writer's in- 
dividuality and his immense genius as a composer. The life of the master 
cannot fail to be of great interest, as during the last thirty years nothing 
has excited the musical world so powerfully as his works and doctrines. The 
cause of this is to be found in the fact that he possessed a nature imbued 
with an ideal fanaticism, and was so convinced of the truth of its principles, 
that he was ready to risk all for the sake of their propagation. Such extra- 
ordinary natures have at all times exercised great power over that mass of 
the general public whose opinions are unstable, and who are easily led by a 
temperament firm in its faith and ideas, and imposing in presence. Nothing 
is therefore more unjust than to represent the master, as many of Wagner's 
opponents have done, as one who by his art-principles worked but for him- 
self. Whatever advantage might accrue to himself was a secondary result, 
the propounding of his principles being the ruling motive. After this re- 
mark, which it is due to the master to make (it being his firm belief in his 
own principles which appear to us the most prominent feature of his cha- 
racter, and in which we see the clearest explanation of his intolerance 
towards those who disagreed in doctrine), we will turn to the discussion of 
Wagner's life. 

Richard Wagner was born on May 22nd, 1813, at Leipzig, of which 
city his father was a civil official. He lost his father in the year of his 
birth, and his mother married an actor and playwright, Geyer, who resided 
at Dresden. His stepfather appears to have discerned a musical talent in 
the child, but died before anything could be arranged for its development, 
Richard being scarce seven years of age. Two years later the boy entered 
the Kreuz-Schule, it being intended that he should study seriously. Of 
this period he wrote : " Nothing pleased me so much as the opera Der 
Freischiitz ; I used frequently to see Weber pass our house on the way home 
from rehearsal, and looked on him with reverence. A tutor, whose duty it 
was to explain the intricacies of Cornelius Nepos, instructed me in piano- 
forte playing, and scarcely had I mastered the first exercises when I began to 
practise secretly the overture to Freischiitz. When my master happened to 
hear me, he declared that I should never be anything. He was right, for 
through my whole life I have never learnt to play the piano/' At school 


Wagner already had attempted poetry. He afterwards commenced a tragic 
drama, which was a mixture of Hamlet and Lear. The plot was a grand 
one ; forty-two people died in the course of the play, and he adds humor- 
ously that he was forced to bring back the characters as ghosts, otherwise 
there were no persona to appear in the last act. In 1827 we find the 
embryo dramatist at the Nicolai School at Leipzig, where the Gewandhaus 
concerts interested him far more than did his studies. Beethoven's music 
to Egmont so pleased the boy that he was desirous of composing music to 
his own tragedy. Though after eight days' study of Logier's " Method of 
Thorough Bass " he lost confidence, yet in 1828 he decided on becoming 
a musician, but his family offered no encouragement. Like Berlioz, the 
enthusiast soon wearied of the dry study of musical theory. In 1830 
Wagner was sent to St. Thomas's School, but his studies were interrupted 
by'the July Revolution, by which he was strongly impressed. Heinrich 
Dorn, then chapel-master at Leipzig, interested himself in the young 
composer and produced an overture for the orchestra by him. This work, 
however, proved unsuccessful, and Wagner, again like Berlioz, found it 
necessary to resume the study of the principles of his art. The master now 
became a pupil of Weinlig, the well-known cantor of St. Thomas's Church, 
with whom he studied counterpoint, meanwhile attending lectures at the 
University on philosophy and esthetics. His first published work was a 
^sonata for the piano in B flat major (Breitkopf and Hartel, 1829). About 
that time also he composed a pianoforte fantasia in F sharp minor, a work 
of more sterling promise. In 1832 he wrote a symphony which was per- 
formed on the 10th of January, 1833, at one of the Gewandhaus concerts. 
If his earlier works lacked any of the characteristic peculiarities of the 
future composer, they displayed "a bold fresh energy of thought and 
naive motivi which arrested the attention of that well-known litterateur, 
Heinrich Laube, who expressed great hopes for his future. The score 
of this C major symphony was lost, but the orchestral parts were found 
in 1882 at Dresden, and enabled the composer to conduct this work 
at Venice at the Liceo Benedetto Marcello. In 1833 Wagner composed 
at WUrzburg a romantic opera, entitled Die Feen, after Gozzi's fairy tale, 
" Die Frau als Schlange." His wish that it should be performed at the 
Leipzig Theatre was not fulfilled. In the following year we find Wagner 
a champion of Young Germany, writing articles for Laube's " Zeitung 


fur die elegante welt." He was greatly influenced by this school and the 
study of works like " Ardinghello," " Wally," and " Jung Europa/' which 
advocated material enjoyment ; and which he declared to have diverted 
him from his previously favoured mysticism. While at Wurtzburg the 
master composed for his elder brother Albert, then stage-manager and 
tenor of the opera in that town, a Finale to an aria in Marschner's Vampire, 
writing both verses and music, of which latter there were one hundred 
and forty-two bars, in F minor. This composition shows how he was 
influenced by the Romantic School of Karl Maria von Weber.* We must 
now seize the opportunity to remark that Marschner holds an important 
position midway between Weber and Wagner, his Hans Heiling un- 
doubtedly influencing the latter's Flying Dutchman, and that, style alone 
excepted, as belonging to the Old Romantic School, he has written works, 
in subject more akin to the New School of Romance than even those of 
Wagner. In the Vampire there is a scene in which the attacked maiden 
screams from the wings, an incident as extravagant as which, we may 
safely affirm, is nowhere to be found in the works of Wagner. This scene 
proves also that there is no incident, however exaggerated, that a hyper- 
romantic mind will not essay to depict, after the manner of T. A. 

In 1834 Wagner became conductor of the Magdeburg Theatre, where 
his Liebesverbot (or " The Novice of Palermo "} , founded on Shakespeare's 
play of Measure for Measure, was performed in 1836 ; its lack of success, 
however, was owing to purely external circumstances. In the same year the 
composer married Minna Planer, an actress, and in 1837, after a short period 
at Konigsberg, was appointed " Musik-director," under Holtei, at Rigra^ 
Here he wrote the libretto of Rienzi, and composed the first two acts. This 
work being in the style of Meyerbeer, and intended for the Grand Opera at 
Paris, the master embarked with his wife in a small sailing vessel, and, 
after a tedious and dangerous voyage, during which they were almost driven 
on the coast of Norway, arrived at Boulogne. To this sea voyage we may 
attribute the realistic beauties of the Flying Dutchman. At Boulogne 
Wagner sought Meyerbeer, who was greatly interested with thescore~of 
Rienzi, and gave the composer introductory letters to the French capital. 

* A fac-simile of this composition is to be found in Tappert's " Richard Wagner, sein 
leben und seine Werke,'' Elberfeld, 1883. 


The influence of the popular master, however, was lessened by his absence, 
and Wagner was compelled to earn a livelihood by making arrangements 
for various instruments and contributing articles to the newspapers. 
Amongst others he arranged a pianoforte score of Halevy's La Heine de 
Chypre. It is undeniable that Wagner learnt much from the orchestral 
treatment of Berlioz. The two composers, however, did not become very 
intimate. Amongst those of Wagner's works which were composed in 
Paris, we find the Faust overture, written in 1840, and the Flying Dutchman, 
1841, an opera which was completed in seven weeks. He offered the 
Flying Dutchman to the opera managers of Leipzig and Munich, but it 
was not accepted. In the same year Meyerbeer, who was pleased with 
the talent of his compatriot, brought about the acceptance of Rienzi at 
Dresden, and a year later, that of the Flying Dutchman at Berlin. In 
1842 Wagner left Paris disappointed, and went to Dresden to hasten the 
production of Rienzi. On the 20th October of the same year, the opera 
was performed with immense success, and on January 2nd, in 3,843, the 
Flying Dutchman was performed for the first time, meeting with great 
success, and soon afterwards the composer received the appointment of court 
chapel-master in the Saxon capital. In the summer of the same year he 
wrote for the Saxon Male Chorus Festival a cantata, with orchestral 
accompaniment, entitled Das Liebesmahl der Apostel. In 1844 Wagner 
conducted the first performance of his opera, the Flying Dutchman, at the 
Royal Court Theatre, Berlin. This was followed, on October 19th, IS 15, 
by the production of Tannhduser, and, two years later, Rienzi was given 
at Berlin, under the baton of the composer. In Tannhduser Wagner has 
manifested his artistic faith in a characteristic manner for the first time, a 
fact acknowledged by the public. The author, who heard this opera in 
1847, was vividly impressed with it, as being a work which opened a fresh 
field in the realm of musical art. Robert Schumann wrote in his diary, in 
the same year, that the work exhibited glimpses of genius, and that 
Wagner would be the man of his period were he as melodious as he was in- 
tellectual. In 1848 Wagner, like other prominent men, became involved 
m the eddy of public discontent, and, during the Revolution, was compelled 
to fly from Dresden, as did his friend, the architect Semper. We meet him 
next in Paris, and soon after at Zurich, where he wrote and published 
the " Kunst und Revolution," 1849, " Das Kunstwerk der Zukunft/' and 


" Kunst und Klima," which were followed in the next year by his 
" Oper und Drama," a work in three volumes. In 1850 Liszt, who ex- 
hibited great friendship for and interest in the master, produced Lohengrin 
at Weimar, on August 28th, and urged him to write a new great work. 

Wagner now turned his attention to the story of the Ring^ de$ ..Nibe- 
lungen, which he wished to fashion into the libretto of a music- drama, but 
it assumed such proportions that the master was compelled to make out of 
it a trilogy with a prologue, the performance of which occupies four 
evenings. The subject of the opera is based rather upon the Northern 
Sagas and the Edda than upon the German of the Nibclungen Lied. The 
master began this work in 1853, and so energetic was he, that by the spring 
of 1857 the prologue Rheingold, and the first of the cycle, the Walkilren, 
and part of the second, Siegfried, were finished and scored. The first sketch 
of the Walkiirenritt, however, is dated 1852. Wagner was interrupted 
in the composition of this gigantic work in_lS, r )5 by a journey to London, 
where he conducted a scries of eight concerts given by the Philharmonic 
Society (whose invitation was sent at the instance of the translator of this 
work), and in 1857 by the composition of Tristan und Isolde, at which he 
worked at Zurich, in 1858 at Venice, and which he completed in the 
summer of the following year at Lucerne. In 1SGO lie went to Paris to 
conduct three concerts of his own compositions in the " Salle Yentadour/' 
and on March 13th, 1861, his Tannhauser was produced at the Grand 
Opera. Berlioz had already opposed the " music of the future," and now 
Wagner found a legion of envious composers, who hated the foreigner, who 
misunderstood his works, and who tried to bring about their failure by 
means of the press. The Jockey Club, whose members included the 
wealthiest members of Parisian society, lost no opportunity of interrupting 
the performances. The master in consequence refused to allow further 
performances. Till now he had been exiled from Germany for political 
reasons, but in May, 1S(51, a successful performance of Zo/^wyrmjtpok 
place in Vienna, which repaid him for his disappointments in Paris. In 
1852, while staying at Biberich, on the Rhine, he commenced the Meister- 
singer, after which he visited Prague and Berlin ; and Saxony now being 
open to him, he returned for the first time since his flight to Leipzig. 
During 1S63 he achieved many brilliant successes in Russia and Hungary, 
and in the following year King Ludwig of Bavaria called him to Munich, 



where, in 1865, Tristan und Isolde was performed at the Royal Court 
Theatre, the role of the hero being; rendered by Schnorr, the son of 
the celebrated painter. In 1868 the Meistersinger was performed for the 
first time and soon gained in Germany a popularity much greater than 
that of Tristan und Isolde. In 1871 Wagner addressed a circular to his 
friends for the purpose of collecting the sum of 900,000 marks, necessary 
for the production of his Ring des Nibelungen ; and for this purpose in 
most German cities a " Wagner Verein }> was formed. In the previous 
year the master had married Cosima von Billow, a daughter of Liszt. ^In 
1872 he left Switzerland for Bayreuth. where, a little while after, a Wagner 
Theatre was built on the Stuckberg, the plans being drawn up by Semper, 
and in the building of which many improvements suggested by the master 
were introduced. The foundation-stone was laid on May 22nd, 1872, on 
which occasion Beethoven's ninth symphony was performed. Four years 
afterwards the first performances of the Ring des Nibelungen were given, 
August 13th to 17th. A pilgrimage to Bayreuth was commenced from all 
parts of the world ; the Americans came not only from the United States 
but from California ; Englishmen not only from Great Britain but from 
the East and West Indies ; and even the French, who had not had time to 
forget the incident of 1870, were strongly represented; all parts of 
Germany sent auditors, and the youthful King of Bavaria, who had lent 
unusual support to the enterprise, was present at the performance with the 
Emperor of Germany, who had, by visiting Bayreuth, conferred an honour 
on Wagner experienced by no other German composer. The author, who 
was present at the third cycle, quotes the following from his pamphlet 
entitled " Musikdrama oder Oper ? Eine Beleuchtung der Baireuther 
Biihnenf estspiele." * The grandest effects of the trilogy are to be found 
in the third act of the Gotterddmmerung, and include the impressive 
orchestral introduction, followed by the charming song of the Rhine- 
daughter, " Frau Sonne sendet lichte Strahlen." All that follows forms a 
continuous chain of beauty, which might be increased were there more 
adherence to established forms. We refer to Siegfried's meetino- with the 


Rhine daughter ; the hunting scene, Siegfried's history, and the funeral 
march form a powerful ending to the trilogy. Parsifal was performed for 
the first time at Bayreuth on July 26th, 1882, and with it Wagner brought 

* Published by Robert Oppenlieim, Berlin, 1876. 


to a close his career as a musical dramatist. On Palm Sunday, 1884, the 
grand scene of the Last Supper from this work was performed at a concert 
at Dresden, and the author, who was present, could not fail to notice the 
impression it produced, not only on enthusiastic Wagner disciples, but on 
his enraged opponents, the staunch upholders of hyperclassical form. The 
composer in his later years was not entirely free from hodily ailments : he 
suffered from asthma, and passed the winter of 1882;^8JLat Venice, where 
he stayed at the Palace Vendramin, near the Grand Canal ; he rallied, but 
on February 13th the civilised world received the news of his death.* 
Wagner's peculiar tendencies may be said to have called forth a new class 
of singers, musicians, and litterateurs. We find, first, the Wagner singers, 
who, forsaking the melodic flow of the older aria, require that strongly 
accented declamatory intensity so necessary to the interpreters of Wagner's 
works, especially those of the second period. Among the female singers 
we must notice specially Reicherkindermann, incomparable as Briinhilde, 
who died on June 2nd, 1883 ; Amalie Materna, born in Styria, 1847, who 
assisted at the performances in 1876; Theresa Malter; Frau Milder, of 
Weimar ; Frau Vogel ; Herr Milder; and Herr Vogel, born 1845, who is 
undoubtedly the best Tristan; Schnorr von Carolsfold (1836 1865), to- 
whom we have referred as the son of the creator of the Nibelung frescoes 
which adorn the walls of the museum at Munich; Emil Scaria, born at 
Gratz in 1840, who made his debut at Vienna as St. Bris in the Huguenots ; 
Albert Niemann, born near Magdeburg, 1831. There are some performers 
other than " Wagner singers " who have excelled in the creations of this 
master. We refer to Mme. Schroeder- Devrient, who was perhaps the 
most magic Venus who ever appeared in Tannhauser ; Johanna Wagner, 
who was incomparable as Elizabeth, after receiving tuition in the parF from 
her uncle ; Joseph Tichatschek, one of the earliest of the master's friends 
at Dresden, an excellent Rienzi and Tannhauser ; Franz Bet /, who excelled 
as Wotan and Hans Sachs ; and Mitterwurzer, a worthy representative of 
Wolf ran. 

* The whole life and experience of the translator have led him to an estimate of Wagner 
in direct conflict -with that of Professor Naumann. To the translator Wagner represents the 
climax of the six great geniuses. The whole of their efforts find their completion in him. 
It is Wagner who makes the tonal art a language, understood by all ; his music is as if the 
tongue of the art were loosened, where before it was but lisping speech. To class Wagner 
with the "Talents" is an absolutely false judgment: he is a genius of the first order. 




There are also Wagner conductors, historians, and panegyrists. The 
best known of the first name include Hans Richter, Hans von Biilow, 
and Hermann Levi. Among the historians are Franz Brendel, with his 
" Grundziige der Geschichte der Musik"" (a fifth edition of which was 
published in 1861); and Carl F. Glasenapp, whose "Richard Wagner's 
Leben und Wirken" (published in two volumes in 1876) is well known. 
Of the panegyrists the most prominent are Friedrich Nietzche, Ludwig 

Fig. 288. Exterior of the Wagner Theatre at Bayreuth. 

Nohl, and Hans von Wolzogen. The principal theorist of the school 
is Karl Friedrich Weitzmann, born at Berlin in 1808, where he died 
in 1880. 

Our history of the New Romantic School would be incomplete without 
mention of Franz Liszt, who holds a position midway between Berlioz and 
Wagner, and who has been an intimate friend and admirer of both. This, 
however, has never prevented him from due acknowledgment of talent 
wherever perceived, although a leader of the "Young German" school. 
Though nobody has striven so ardently to establish the position of Berlioz 
and Wagner when still unacknowledged, yet Liszt, ever without prejudice, 
extolled the beauties of the works of Rossini, Bellini, Verdi, Meyerbeer, 
Auber, Mendelssohn, Chopin, and Schumann ; and whereas Wagner under- 



rated Meyerbeer, Liszt helped to render celebrated his operas by transcrib- 
ing parts of them. Liszt's admiration for the old masters is unbounded, 
according- to Goethe an unmistakable sign of a noble nature. As instances 
we can point to his transcriptions for the piano of the grandest fugues of 
Bach, the symphonies of Beethoven, and the songs of Schubert; his 
fantasias on Mozart's Don Giovanni, Meyerbeer's Huguenots and Robert 
le Liable, Mendelssohn's Midsummer Night's Dream, and the songs of 

Fig. 289 Interior of the Wagner Theatre at Bayreuth. 

Schumann, Mendelssohn, and Bellini's Pimtani. He has also paraphrased 
works of Wagner, Berlioz, and Saint-Saens. 

Liszt, as a virtuoso, had no equal in any branch but Paganini, whom he 
even excelled in sentiment. Notwithstanding his artistic triumphs, which 
stand unequalled in the histoiy of art,_Liszt ever aspired to gain a position 
among composers, and although he could not reach that goal which he had 
set for himself, a goal similar to that of Berlioz, who desired to begin 
where Beethoven ended, nevertheless his works claim interest from every 
true artist. Those attempts include symphonic poems for the grand opera, 
in two of which, " Fest Klange " and " Prelude," mere expressions of 
sentiment, we find still the symphonic forms of our classics. In his 
later works he attempts to paint characteristically circumstances, localities, 
x x x 2 


and the musical individuality of special persona, and adopts Wagner's leit- 
motivi, thereby introducing the new symphonic style. 

This form could not bring the desired result, since the employment of 
the leit-motiv, as we have asserted elsewhere, is nothing but a return to 
monothematism, i.e., to an antiquated form. The manifold contrasts of 
modern existence find their true representation only in poly thematic music, 
more especially dualism, the form used by the great masters in the sonata, 
symphony, and overture, and found in the chamber music of Haydn, Mozart, 
and Beethoven, and in the works generally of Schubert, Weber, Spohr, 
Mendelssohn, and Schumann. This form is also present in a few of Liszt's 
compositions, viz., the " Hunnenschlacht," a work inspired by Kaulbach's 
picture of the battle of the Huns; "Mazeppa;" "Die Ideale," after 
Schiller's well-known poem; the "Faust Symphony;" "Dante Symphony;" 
and "Berg Symphony," after Victor Hugo's poem. This master's works 
exhibit as a whole much originality, boldness, and earnestness, while in 
them we find no triviality nor effects lacking serious intention. Liszt 
possesses much in common with Wagner as regards energetic will, although 
the latter master, with his wealth of invention, developed a more independent 
character. Of his entire works, Liszt's sacred music is by far the most 
valuable, and includes his " Graner Messe," "Missa Choralis," " Ungarische 
Kronungsmesse," and his oratorio Christns. Die Legende von der heiligen 
Elisabeth, (St. Elizabeth), the libretto of which is by Roquette, and in 
which Liszt's romantic tendency proclaims its presence most clearly in the 
" Rosenwunder " and " Kreuzfahrerscene," may be said to stand midway 
between the sacred and secular styles. We must also call attention to the 
master's setting to music of Heinrich Heine's poems; a sonata dedicated to 
Robert Schumann, his two concertos for the piano in E flat, and works 
belonging to an early period; the "Consolations," "Annees de Pelerin- 
age," " Hungarian Rhapsodies," and " Harmonies Poetiques et Religieuses." 
That the master is not lacking in humour is proved by his " Nieschor " in the 
'' Wartburgfestspiel " and the " Vogelpredigt " from the Franciskuslegende. 
Besides his gifts as a musician, Liszt enjoys a wide education and sound 
universal knowledge, which enables him to maintain an important position 
as a musical litterateur. His writing is as fluent in French as in German. 
He has written a sketch of the life of Chopin, of whom he was ever a 
champion ; essays on John Field's " Nocturnes : " and pamphlets entitled. 

Born 22nd October, 1811, at Raiding, near Oedenburg. 

(By permission of S. Scliottlaender, of Breslau, after the original Steel Engraving published by him.) 



*' Ueber die Musik der Zigeuner," " Ueber Tannhauser und Lohengrin/' 
and " Ueber die Goethestif tung." He also contributed articles to Brendel's 
" Neuezeitschrif t." Benfey remarks on one of Liszt's eulogistic articles on 
Meyerbeer, in which his opinion was entirely opposed to that of Wagner, 
that " where Liszt feels and thinks otherwise than does Wagner he knows 
perfectly how to assert the independence of his judgment." 

Franz Liszt was born on October 22nd, 1811, at Raiding, a village 
near Oedenburg, in that part of Hungary bordering on Lower Austria. 
Though at an earlier period the family of Liszt had belonged to the Hun- 
garian nobility, Germanj has an equal claim on the master, as it was there 
that he received his musical education. This claim is strengthened by the 
fact that the master resided for many years at Weimar, that he was most 
energetic in promoting the spread of Wagner's works, was most active in 
assisting the completion of the Beethoven statue at Bonn, and held a 
peculiar and prominent position in the New Romantic or "Young German" 
School. His father, Adam Liszt, who was himself musical, discovered his 
son's gift at an early age, and eagerly fostered it, so that at nine years of 
age the boy made his debut in a concerto by Ferdinand Ries. A stipend 
was awarded to the young virtuoso by the Counts Amade, Apponyi, and 
Szapary, which enabled his father, who was steward to Prince Esterhazy, 
to send him to Vienna, where he received lessons in pianoforte playing from 
Charles Czerny, and in composition from Salieri. After a concert given 
in 1823, the young artist was taken to Beethoven by Schindler. The great 
master encouraged the youth with kindly words. By these early successes 
of his son, Adam Liszt was enabled to forsake his vocation and devote himself 
entirely to his son's interest. He entered with the lad upon a concert tour 
through Munich and Stutgardtijmd finally to Paris, in the winter of 1823-4-. 
Notwithstanding his success as a performer, and a brilliantly-passed exami- 
nation, Cherubini, clinging to sundry old statutes, refused to allow the 
virtuoso to enter the Conservatoire, and he was compelled to take private 
lessons from Reicha and Paer. The Paris journals of 1824 described the 
boy as a talent without parallel, and at about the same period a similar 
success was obtained in London. In 1825 the young musician's operetta, 
entitled Don Sancho, ou le Palais de I' Amour, was performed. In. 1.827 
Liszt lost his father, and at the early age of sixteen was enabled to 
present his mother, whom he had sent for from Styria, with 100,000 francs. 


About this period the youth's career seemed in imminent danger of inter- 
ruption, as he was seized with the desire of joining the priesthood. We 
find him soon after, however, an adherent of the "Nouveau Christianisme," 
as preached by St. Simon, and actively engaged with Chevalier and Pereire 
in planning socialistic improvements. Although he soon discovered that 
this was not his true destiny, we may safely affirm that it is from this 
period that his gentle humanity dates. Later on the talented master 
indulged in daily intercourse with the heads of the Romantic School of 
poetry, especially Lamartine, Victor Hugo, Heinrich Heine, and Mme. 
Dudevant, afterwards so celebrated as George Sand. It was at one of these 
meetings that Victor Hugo read his poem, " Ce qu'on entend sur la mon- 
tagne," which produced such an impression on the composer that he deter- 
mined on composing the " Berg Symphony." The friendship of Meyerbeer, 
Berlioz, and Chopin kept alive Liszt's musical enthusiasm. It is peculiar 
that the young artist who had just lately wished to become priest was now 
attacked by the same scepticism which characterises so many prominent 
Romantic poets and musicians, though it would seem that the nature^ of_ 
Romance, the chief features of which are art, chivalry, and woman-worship, 
would be averse to such contradictory principles. We, however, see that 
the disciples of Romance return, as a rule, to their original world's-concep- 
tion. So it was with Liszt also, whom Lamennais, the author of " Paroles 
d'un Croyant/' led back to the acknowledgment of the undeniable worth 
and grandeur of religion. The phenomenon we have just discussed is not 
without psychological interest, for the commonplace saying that scepticism 
once past strengthens faith, is not sufficient to account for the endless number 
and difference of intellect of the individuals who pass through the ordeal. 

In 1834 Liszt's intimacy with the Countess d'Agoult commenced. 
This lady was known as a gifted writer under the name of Daniel Stern. One 
of the children of this union was Cosima, afterwards Cosima Wagner. In 
1835 they removed to Geneva. A year later, however, the master returned 
to Paris, in order to contest with Thalberg, who had just achieved a brilliant 
success there. Liszt, as he has done everywhere and all times, maintained 
his position as the first of pianists. Heine remarked on this occasion that 
there was a striking contrast between the perfect but unimpassioned 
Austrian and the wildly enthusiastic Hungarian. Sigismund Thalberg 
(18121871) was a pupil of Hummel, studying under that master at Vienna. 

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The European fame of this artist is founded on his success in 1835, at 
Paris. Of his compositions his (pperalic fantasias* must be regarded as 
the best. lu 1837 Liszt went to Italy, where he achieved great success. 
While here the master seized the opportunity of earnestly studying the 
treasures of art which abound. In 1839 he commenced in Vienna that 
brilliant tour through Europe which insured for him a reputation unequalled 
by that of any virtuoso but Paganini. From this date until the year 1847 
the master travelled incessantly from Russia to Spain, from Sweden to 
Hungary, visiting everywhere the capitals and chief cities, and producing 
an extraordinary effect. Mendelssohn said that he had never before met a 
musician whose fingers could so perfectly express his sentiments. Schumann 
said, " The piano appears to glow under the hands of this master." This 
homage, which was during the years 1841-2 unprecedented at Berlin, was. 
not paid to Liszt as virtuoso alone, but as a man of intellect and high 
culture. The author, who had the opportunity of frequently hearing Liszt 
at an early age, remembers how the public were charmed with the master's 
noble bearing. Honours of every description were showered on Liszt. 
The Emperor of Austria renewed his patent of nobility ; the University of 
Konigsberg awarded him the honorary title of Doctor ; the City of Pesth 
presented him with a sword of honour ; and the European monarchs vied in 
decorating him. It was owing to his strenuous efforts that the Beethoven 
statue was completed, he himself contributing 50,000 marks. The ceremony 
of unveiling was performed at Bonn, on which occasion Queen Victoria and 
King Frederick William IV. of Prussia were present. About the year 
1847 the master, satiated with his success as virtuoso, longed for seclusion, 
and the desire of becoming a composer grew daily more intense. He 
sought a peaceful resting-place, and at length determined on residing 
at Weimar, formerly the home of Goethe, where he was invested by the 
Grand Duke with the direction of all the musical affairs of the State. 
He was accompanied by the Russian Princess Caroline von Wittgen- 
stein, and took up his abode at the " Altenburg," a property belonging 
to the Grand Duchess of Weimar. As conductor of the opera Liszt 
began by producing Flotow's Martha; this was followed by the first per- 
formance of Wagner's Lohengrin; Berlioz's Benvenuto Cellini; Schu- 
mann's Manfred and Genoveva ; and Franz Schubert's Alphonso und 
Estrella. The works of younger masters, such as Rubinstein, Raff, Lassen, 


and Cornelius, were introduced by him. He also instituted Sunday matinees 
at his residence, which was visited on these occasions by the Grand Duke 
of Weimar and many people of distinction. Liszt's career as a composer 
commenced with a symphonic poem, " Der entfesselte Prometheus." His 
" Graner Messe " was composed for the ceremony of consecration of the 
church at Gran, in Hungary, its first performance taking place in _18JaIL- 
His resignation of the post he occupied at the Opera was due to the opposi- 
tion of part of the public to the performance of the Barbier von Bagdad, 
by Cornelius, which the master was introducing. Liszt visited Paris in 
1860, but soon returned to Weimar, and after a visit to the Duke of 
Hohenzollern, finally fixed his residence at Rome, where, in 1864, he acted 
on behalf of Pope Pio nono in the " Aeademia Sacra." The Pontiff con- 
tinually alluded to Liszt as his "dear son" and " Palestrina," and in 1865 
created him Abbe Liszt^ as which the composer has been for the most part 
connected with the Franciscans. In this year the St. Elizabeth was per- 
formed for the first time at Pesth. Two years later Ckristus was produced at 
Rome, and the "Wartburgfestspiel" was performed for the first time at the 
Wartburg, in celebration of the eight-hundredth anniversary of its founda- 
tion. Since the year 1871 the master has resided for the most part at 
Weimar and Pesth. In 1870 he conducted a Beethoven festival at Weimar, 
and afterwards a similar celebration at Pesth. The Government of Hun- 
gary bestowed on the master the title of Royal Councillor, to which honour 
was attached an annual stipend of 4,000 florins, and the Grand Duke of 
Weimar appointed him Chamberlain. The first complete performance of 
Christus, a work conceived in the spirit of the Romish Church, took place 
at Weimar in 1873. Amongst the pupils of Liszt we find Hans von Billow, 
Hans von Bronsart, Karl Tausig (1841-1871), D'Albert, and Sophie Menter. 
We must close this sketch of Liszt's career with a reference to his 
versatility, tolerance, and the fostering care with which he aided the works 
of both old and young composers of the most diverse tendencies. If the 
leaders of opposing parties and different schools possessed more of Liszt's 
qualities of toleration, they would soon discover for themselves the fact that 
the history of art is sustained by the collective efforts of the most opposite 
natures, and that, excepting those isolated geniuses who appear in the 
course of centuries, who raise the beautiful to the divine, all who strive to 
reach the ideal are mere disciples. 




THE period of the present might with some justice be described as the 
period of the " Epigones," i.e., of those whose works form the art-produc- 
tion of a period of transition alternative with the existence of the great 
geniuses. The leading feature of such periods is the would-be degradation 
of preceding geniuses, and the attempted "discovery" of others. For 
example : thirty years ago the author was introduced to a young man as 
the future Goethe; this man has since become one of the foremost of 
German poets, but approaches Goethe no more than Chopin does Schumann 
or Schubert. How often in the space of thirty years do so-called geniuses 
arise who after a decade at most are forced back into oblivion ! 

Before employing too frequently the term "epigone/* at present a 
favoured expression with German literary theorists, we should explain that 
by it we do not imply mere imitation, but the fatality of birth immediately 
after the appearance of a genius. Immermann in his novel " Die Epigonen " 
has done much to lower the meaning of this word by employing it to desig- 
nate giftless imitators. But as the national peculiarities of composers vary 
to such a degree at the present day, as almost to defy the strict application 
of the term to them in any sense, we prefer to leave this debatable point, 
and return to the acceptation of the term as treated by us earlier in this 

Endeavour was there made to show that the musical history of the old 
French, Gallic, Belgian, Netherland, Roman, and Early Venetian schools 
had their origin in the conception of the Middle Ages. The Classical Renais- 
sance of the tonal art might, however, have received an entirely different 
form if actual reference could have been made to such productions as the 
choruses to the tragedies of Sophocles and ^Eschylus and other musical 
works of Greece. But nothing more than mere descriptions of such works 
were accessible. It is, then, extraordinary that the Romantic Renaissance 
should have adopted the musical theories of ancient Greece in connection with 
the sagas of ancient Germany (as if in opposition to the Classical Renais- 
sance) when suffering under the same disadvantage, a disad vantage not 


shared by the plastic art, to which distinct and visible Greek models were 

We have referred to two Renaissance periods in the tonal art, the Classic 
and the Romantic, the latter originating during the decline of the former. 
Within each of these we find a culminating point of high excellence. In 
the Classic period of the plastic art, Greek and mediaeval conceptions united 
to form the epoch of high culture, as represented by the works of Bramante 
and Raphael up to Correggio. 

In the modern Romantic period the Germans combined similar concep- 
tions, attaining that excellence in music and poetry represented by the 
creations from Bach and Klopstock to Beethoven and Goethe. In this 
period the works of Wagner and Liszt may be said to form its climax, but 
although the latter may represent the culmination of all that preceded them, 
yet they really belong to that section of the period initiated by Berlioz and 
Schumann, and known as the New Romantic School. They can therefore 
in nowise be described as Epigones, and in so far as Wagner is concerned 
he must, in a pre-eminent sense, be considered the last of the Romantic 
School. We, however, do not agree that the highest excellence was reached 
by Wagner and Liszt. It is true they complete the period of the Romantic 
Renaissance, but we consider that the ultimate stage was reached during 
the genius period extending from Bach to Beethoven, for the reason of the 
fusion that then took place of the most opposed culture-principles, in so far 
as such was possible in the musical art. 

To the historian it is very significant that, during the last stages of 
the Romantic period, the introduction of the New Romantic School was 
a perfectly logical sequence to all that had preceded it in the tonal art. 
It was furthermore imperative that this school, like all others, should have 
diverged, no matter to what degree, provided it was not the outcome of 
mere fashion but the true development of natural law. It was in fact 
an historical necessity. 

Reflecting now on the achievements of the past, we observe in the tonal 
art an organic whole. It is complete and finished. What is to come one 
cannot divine. Beyond investigation, a vision of the probable progress of 
the art is relegated to the realms of speculation. It is obvious that the 
tonal art, even of the New Romantic School, attained its climax in the 
universal development of the humanitarian principle dating from the Greek 


era. And herein the tonal art differs widely from the fine arts of the 
ancients, wherein eaeh art appeared to be the unique possession of a 
distinct race. But modern masters, though regarded as the natural 
outcome of the Romantic era, do, by their inherent tendency, form a period 
of transition, a period uniting all that has preceded them with the future. 
If, however, we may assume that the tonal art of the future will be dis- 
tinguished by its classical style, wherein will be found well-balanced periods 
and euphonic expression, and intellectual art-forms united to deep heartfelt 
conceptions (such as were effected, though unconsciously, from Bach to 
Beethoven), then our prediction that the basis of art-principles will be more 
complete and elevated will be perfectly logical and historically supported, 
though the productions partake of a Romantic as well as of a Classic 
character. All will be the natural result of working or proceeding from 
a sound basis, whether the music be " absolute/' or united to other arts. 
The more lofty the conception of art, the more pure and vigorous will be 
the art-productions, the character of which we are now only able to 

Such an art-period as this is, in our opinion, the only one possible, after 
all other tendencies and theories have been exhausted, unless music be 
confined to one direction, work in a circle, or ultimately degenerate into 
the abnormal. If, however, our picture of its future be in any degree true, 
then the period of conflict between the two opposed world-cultures we are 
now passing through will be conclusively proved. As in past ages there 
were conflicts in the arts of architecture, sculpture, painting, and poetry, 
so now have such arisen in music. The fierce contests in art and literature 
of the nineteenth century have invaded the domain of mental life with 
increasing vigour, arousing the most bitter strife and leading to conclusions 
too often antagonistic to reason. The battles of intellect have not been 


confined to the arts, but have also shown themselves in religion, philosophy, 
and natural sciences, affecting social life as well as the administration of 
states, a condition predicted by us many years since. In religion the strife 
began shortly after the period of the Reformation ; in the plastic arts 
during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries ; whilst in literature, natural 
sciences, philosophy, and the government of states, they date from the 
sixteenth to the nineteenth century, having greatly increased within the 
last two generations. It is only in the latter half of this century that 



these seemingly unending struggles have arrived at the consciousness of 
their irreconcilability, while in the musical art they are yet still engaged 
in a contest that can only terminate on the attainment of a full and com- 
plete conception of the fundamental principles of true art by the annihila- 
tion of all prejudices, and an emergence from the bias of party contention. 

But of this, at present, we cannot speak. We can only indicate in this 
general survey the tendencies of musical principles and their representatives, 
some of which are in direct opposition to orthodox laws, while others, 
again, adhere rigorously to established systems. As, however, from the 
different theories on which they work there is evidence of strong national 
traits in music which greatly influence whole groups of musicians and 
that in an almost unprecedented manner we are bound, besides pointing 
to the special schools of the artists, to treat of their nationality and to 
classify them accordingly. It is evident that we are precluded from 
naming all those possessing a certain degree of talent, who have yet gained 
unquestionable notoriety in their own locality. We are, in the space to 
which we have been limited in this chapter, compelled to confine ourselves 
to those musicians whose names have become known and respected by 
the intellectual section of the musical world. Were we not thus, to limit 
ourselves we should considerably exceed the limits of this section. We 
feel it also incumbent to consider that a general musical history should 
be restricted to the extraordinary and excellent on the one hand, and to the 
abnormal and such as may be deemed of real interest on the other. There 
are many able artists of France, Germany, and Italy, whose works, meri- 
torious though they be, yet must be omitted as far as detailed criticism 
is concerned. We have thought it, however, right to name those, who, 
though less meritorious, have yet explored new regions, such studies being 
the natural outcome of their possessing some strong individuality. We 
have regarded solely those who, in theoretical, historical, or aesthetic 
works, have left that which we feel will bear fruit for future generations. 
We have been compelled to omit, on account of their great number, the 
names of certain conductors, professors, and orchestral performers possessing 
undeniable talent, and doing- greater service to the tonal art than mediocre 
composers or virtuosi, naming them, however, 4f, at the same time, they 
have excelled as composers, theorists, or masters of prominent pupils. 
We have thought it a duty to refer to those artists, vocal and instrumental, 


who have confined their abilities to the rendering of the works of the 
great masters. But we fear, that no matter how carefully we may have 
sought to adhere to the plan indicated, we cannot have escaped occasionally 
mentioning a name of less merit than those possessing higher talent, but 
whose works have not yet been brought to our notice. It is but probable 
that "we have made no reference to this latter class, one comprising men of 
worth, but who from various causes escape publicity, although perhaps more 
fully entitled to it. It is hoped that in future editions we shall be able 
to rectify such omissions, or that whoever may be engaged in that labour 
will carry it out in the spirit hitherto shown by us. 

After these introductory remarks we will now endeavour to indicate 
as clearly as we are able the artistic tendencies of the most prominent 
musicians of our time, grouping their creations as accurately as possible. 
AsjGrermany took the lead in the tonal art a century and a half ago, and 
still holds the sceptre of music, though probably not for all time, we will 
begin with that country. A nation can only hold the lead in an art so long 
as its vision embraces every point of the horizon. The history of all arts 
teaches us this, and it is impossible that it should be otherwise. So long 
as a country merits the premier position, so long will its conception of art- 
principles be the most complete of its time. But if that necessary and 
wide survey be reduced, and only one of the many lines that form the 
limits of an art be treated as its full extent, then the time will quickly 
arrive when the leadership will pass into unbiassed hands whose natural 
instincts may not yet have been blunted by wilful prejudice. The loss of this 
leadership by Germany must happen if it does not succeed in throwing off 
its present subjectivity with its pernicious consequences ; an upgrowth of 
its music, to be regretted, during the past thirty-five years. If it does not 
rid itself of its intolerance of that which may not serve a party programme, 
in favour of universality in art, and become elevated above all prejudice 
while mediating between all contrasts, its lead will inevitably be lost to it. 

We can distinguishjn Germany three decided groups of composers, one 
loaning to the New Romantic School, the second to the still vital influence 
of Mendelssohn, and the third to the teachings of Schumann. .In the last 
we find an adherence to the strict classical form which, with Schumann, was 
almost an article of faith ; in this respect there is a connecting link with 
the followers of Mendelssohn, while, again, certain tendencies that united 


him to Berlioz have helped to prepare the school of Wagner and Liszt. 
The pupils of Schumann, therefore, occupy a peculiar position. They retain 
the Classical form of Mendelssohn while employing Wagner's advanced 
Romantic theories. This causes a convergence so frequent that in only a 
few cases can one point to them as being decided followers either of the 
New German School or of the Classico-Romantic School of Schumann. In 
alluding to any disciple of these three groups, we should, in order to avoid 
misunderstanding, explain that we do not necessarily mean that he is a 
strict disciple of the master of the school, but that he is influenced, more or 
less, by his model. 

We will now turn to those masters who in their youth followed 
Schumann, and, in various directions, have disseminated his influence. The 
most prominent, Johannes Brahms, is a composer of conspicuous merit. 
We know well that this distinction will not satisfy a certain eccentric 
number of his admirers, who in their exclusiveness are not less fanatical 
than the Wagnerians, a body much abused by them. We cannot but dis- 
appoint them in declining to place him on a higher pedestal than that of 
Schumann, or on a level with Beethoven, for, little as we hold him re- 
sponsible for the bombast of his adherents, we are forced by our stand- 
point of art-criticism to regard such inflated and careless utterances as the 
subjective aberrations of irresponsible enthusiasts. We do not detract from 
his merit in thus describing him, as we firmly believe he is the most promi- 
nent talent Germany has produced since Wagner's death. The only man 
worthy to be placed by his side is Rubinstein. 

Johannes Brahms was born in Hamburg on the 7th May, 1833, his 
father being a double-bass performer in the orchestra of the leading theatre 
there. At the age of fourteen Johannes made his debut as a successful 
pianist, and in 1853 visited Robert Schumann at Diisseldorf, before whom 
he played a selection from his own compositions. Schumann was so favour- 
ably impressed that he wrote an article in the Leipzig Neue Zeitsckrift, 
entitled " New Paths." In this he described Brahms as a talent of the first 
rank, the effect of this favourable criticism showing itself by Brahms se- 
curing a publisher for his songs and pianoforte pieces, which found much 
favour with the public. In 1863 jie moved from Hamburg to Vienna, 
making the latter his permanent residence. While at the latter place he 
held the conductorship at the Vocal Academy for a period of twelve months, 



and from 1872 to 1874 a similar post to the Society of the Friends of 
Music. He steadily refused all offers of appointments, his inborn love for 
music prompting him to devote all his time to composition. 

It was not long- before he made many friends in the Austrian capital, 
and being practically free from all professional engagements, was enabled 

Fig. 290. Johannes Brahms. 

to complete many works of magnitude. By 1882 he jiad written his 
eightieth opus, and, ere this, may have completed his hundredth. Among 
these we would direct attention to his German Requiem, performed for 
the first time at Vienna in 1868, a cantata entitled Rinaldo, a rhapsody 
(after Goethe's " Harzreise ") for contralto, male chorus, and orchestra, 
and his two cantatas entitled Schicksalslied and Triumphlied. Of his 


orchestral compositions we would remark that the most distinguished 
are his three symphonies; the first, in C minor, was called by his adu- 
lators the Tenth Symphony, as a seeming sequence to the last of Beet- 
hoven's masterpieces. Though we by no means respect such overweening 
appreciation, yet we must admit that it is a work of much interest. We 
would, however, place more value on the second and third, as in the D 
major symphony he turns from emulating Beethoven and displays more of 
his own individuality, whilst that in F major, simple and almost pastoral 
in character, has become the most popular. It may be added that at the 
first performance of the F major symphony the Viennese public were 
unanimous in asserting that the one hearing had expressed to them the com- 
poser's intention in a very clear and decisive manner. We must also notice 
favourably the two overtures Tragic and Academic, some variations for the 
orchestra on a theme by Haydn, the two orchestral serenades in G and A 
major, the two pianoforte concertos, and the violin concerto. Of his chamber 
music we would refer to two sextets, the first of which might be said to 
usher in a new description of " musica di camera." A sopata for violon- 
cello and piano, written at an early age, several string quartetts and piano- 
forte trios, quartetts and quintetts, bear evidence of considerable artistic 
merit. Among modern song composers Brahms holds a prominent position, 
and when we turn to his a capella songs for four and six voices, we meet 
with real gems. We refer to the " Magelonenlieder/' " Wie bist du meine 
Konigin," " Gutenabend, Gutenacht," and " Verfehltes Standchen," and, 
in addition, many duets for female voices. 

If we wished to investigate Brahms's music in connection with the 
present and the past, we should find him one of the most prominent expo- 
nents of that classical art-form used by all the great masters dating from 
Bach to Beethoven. As regards the poetical conception of his art, and in. 
spite of the influence of Schumann on his earlier period, we should find 
that he develops an independent individuality. He does not belong to that 
class to which might be applied the remark of Schiller on Goethe, that " he 
had only need to touch the tree of art in order that its fruits might fall 
plenteously at his feet." Rather should we say that Schiller's criticism of 
himself, " in order to achieve any real success my effort had to be cor- 
respondingly great/' is one more applicable. He could rarely give birth to 
his inspirations without considerable mental struggle, and only in the most 


exceptional cases was lie able to produce with the readiness of Goethe, 
though he appears to us to have overcome the subjective influence he showed 
in his earliest and, to a certain extent, subsequent works. It appears 
further to us that he has mastered the form and that tendency to subtlety 
which gave too abstruse a character to so many of his works, and has now 
turned to that sovereign naivete which accepts its inspiration without an 
exaggerated self-criticism. Throughout his works we meet with talent, 
accompanied by a seriousness that excludes all trivialities, and we may 
fairly say he is worthy to be ranked with the best musicians of our time. 

A contemporary of Brahms worthy of mention is Robert Volkmann, 
born at Lommatzsch, in Saxony, on the 6th of April,_1815, died the 29th 
of October, JJ383, at Buda-Pesth. He is another of the many musical 
notabilities produced by Saxony, where, during the seventeenth century, 
were born Johann Hermann Schein, Hammerschmidt, and Heinrich Schiitz ; 
in the eighteenth century it produced Adam Hiller, Naumann, and Schicht ; 
and in the nineteenth century Robert Schumann, Richard Wagner, and 
Otto Grimm. Although Saxony cannot claim old Sebastian Bach, with 
his son Friedmann, Hasse, Karl Maria von Weber, Moritz Hauptmann, 
and Felix Mendelssohn, on the ground of it being their birthplace, yet it 
has much to be proud of, inasmuch as the major portion of their labours 
was completed there. 

The fathei-of Volkmann, a cantor, early instructed his son in the piano 
and organ ; but having the intention to make him a schoolmaster, sent him 
to Freiberg for the necessary tuition. At this town, one Anacker, a musical 
director, meeting Volkmann by chance, advised him to journey to Leipzig 
to complete his musical studies, being impressed with his artistic gift. 
This advice Volkmann acted on, leaving for Leipzig in 1836 ; and three 
years later had the satisfaction of publishing his first composition for the 
pianoforte, " Phantasiebilder/' In the year 1839 he visited Prague, and 
afterwards Buda-Pesth, making the latter his residence. From 1854- to 
1858 he was studying at Vienna, returning to Pesth, the city he cared 
most to live in. 

On account of his long residence in the Hungarian capital it has been 

frequently supposed that he was by birth a Hungarian, and indeed some 

of his works, such as " Ungarische Skizzen," " Ungarische Lieder," and 

the fantasia "Au tombe du Comte Czechenyi," justify this supposition.. 

Y Y Y 


bearing the impress of the Hungarian character. Among his most im- 
portant works we include three serenades for string.. instruments, a 
number of string quartetts, an overture to Richard the Third, and two 
symphonies in B "flaiTmajor and D minor, the latter being especially 
excellent, and, in addition, two trios for piano and strings, one of which 
in B minor, as well as the string quartetts in A minor and G minor, 
were among the first to secure him notoriety. He also wrote several 
" Concertstiicke " for the violoncello and pianoforte, besides numerous piano 
solos "and duets. With regard to his vocal works we would refer to two 
masses for male voices, a number of secular songs, some with orchestral 
accompaniment and others with piano and flute accompaniment ; but his 
best efforts are undoubtedly shown in his orchestral and chamber music. 
He, like Brahms, was much influenced by Schumann, developing later on 
and in a similar way hia real tendencies, these showing themselves in 
natural and heartfelt expression. In the greatest number of his works we 
find less subtlety than we meet in Brahms's, yet we do not find him less 
profound, for though Brahms is bolder and more severe, yet Volkmann 
shows greater regard to euphony ; but in respect, however, to strict art- 
form, both masters appear to be evenly balanced. 

Another disciple of Schumann, possessing less universality than the two 
masters just compared, is Robert Franz, a man of much ability in the more 
restricted sphere of song-compositions, in which he has achieved most 
praiseworthy results. Born in 1815 at Halle, his father, perceiving his 
inclination for music, forbade him to follow the profession, the result being 
that he did not begin his studies till 1835, at Dessau, under Friedrich 
Schneider. His retiring character and extreme modesty united in confining 
his efforts to the limits of song-form, with the exception of a few somewhat 
lengthy compositions for the Church. Although in his songs he is most 
individual and refined, still he has failed to achieve the same prominence as 
Schumann, Schubert, or Mendelssohn. The first of his forty-four sets of 
songs appeared in 1843 ; the second, soon after, was dedicated to Robert 
Schumann, who in writing of them said, " There is no end to the new and 
refined traits that one discovers." Franz, who held the position of organist 
to the <c Ulrich Kirche/' and conductor to the Vocal Academy of Halle, 
had the honorary degree of Doctor conferred on him by the University oi 
that town, on account of his resuscitation of old sacred vocal works, such 


as those of Astorga, Durante, S. Bach, and Handel. It is to be remarked 
of his songs, that with very few exceptions they have not become so well 
known as those of other classical masters, but on the whole they are tone- 
pictures of a reflective nature, and highly finished in form, with carefully 
chosen harmonies and refined accompaniments, melody and fluency, how- 
ever, not being very evident. Many of them require deep musical declama- 
tion, with an unusually careful delivery ; and if, on the one hand, there are 
some that are the outcome of reflection rather than of an effusive imagina- 
tion, there are those, on the other hand, that overflow with a naivete and 
spontaneity deficient in others. Nothing, however, can support our estimate 
of him more than the fact that men such as A. W. Ambros, Julius 
Schaffer, and Franz Liszt have deemed him of sufficient merit to warrant 
their writing specially of him. 

Another song composer reflecting the influence of Schumann is Adolf 
Jejnse_n^_born at Kpnigsberg^JSS?, died at Baden-Baden, 1879. Having, 
in 1856, conceived the idea of studying composition under Schumann at 
Diisseldorf, he travelled to Russia in the hope of gaining sufficient money 
there to enable him to carry out his object. Within a year he returned 
to Germany, on hearing* of Schumann's illness an illness that preceded 
insanity and accepted the appointment of conductor to the Posen town 
theatre. This position he subsequently resigned, taking up his residence at 
different periods in Copenhagen, Konigsberg, Berlin, and Graz. Of his 
song compositions we would mention those arranged in sets numbered 4, 6, 
22, and those entitled " Dolorpsa " and " Erotikon." He has further dis- 
tinguished himself in modern pianoforte music, notably sonata Op. 25, a 
number of detached pieces, such as Op. 37, 38, and 42, and some larger 
works of a sacred character, e.g., " Der Gang nach Emmaus," and the chorus 
for nuns with accompaniment for harp, horns, and piano. 

In Woldemar Bargiel we meet a musician much resembling Jensen, and 
belonging to that branch of the Romantic School most closely allied to 
Schumann, to whom he was related, being step-brother to Clara Schumann. 
Born in 1828 at Berlin, he entered while very young the cathedral choir 
under the leadership of Grell and Mendelssohn, studying counterpoint with 
Dehn, and subsequently pursuing his studies at the Leipzig^Conseryatorium. 
In 1859 he was appointed professor in the Musical Academy at Cologne 
founded by Ferdinand Hiller, afterwards acting as conductor at Rotterdam. 

Y Y Y 2 


Of hia orchestral compositions we would point to the overture Medea, and, 
in chamber music, to the trios ; whilst his vocal compositions, both part-songs 
and solos, exhibit much poetic fancy. 

Theodor Kirchner, born in 1824 near Chemnitz, a musician of the type 
of Bargiel, has gained some repute in his chamber^ music, songs, and short 
pianoforte pieces, with and without accompaniment of strings. His string 
quartett in G major deserves special mention. 

Karl GrMener, born inJlSl^, to whom we owe many symphonic works, 
string quartetts, pianoforte pieces, and songs, is a musician endowed with 
an over-fanciful imagination. The same may, to an extent, be said of 
Albert Dietrich, born 1829, near Meissen, the pupil of Rietz and Haupt- 
mann, and court chapel-master at Oldenburg from 1861. In 1851, at 
Diisseldorf, he became intimate with Schumann, whose influence is manifest 
in all his compositions. 

Finally, we must mention Ernst Naumann, born 1832, and following 
like those above-mentioned the lead of Schumann. In chamber music he ex- 
hibits genuine gift and perfect mastery of art-forms, a combination further 
apparent in a sonata for viola and piano, and in a seren-ade in A major for 
strings and wind instruments. 

In dealing with those masters of the present who are specially influenced 
by Mendelssohn, the place of honour belongs to Ferdinand Hiller, his con- 
temporary and friend, as well as the senior among the adherents to the 
classic form which was evolved during the years 1830 to 1865. The 
romantic spirit which permeates Mendelssohn, the most ardent follower of 
classical art-form, is apparent also in the works of all his disciples. With 
Hiller, however, it is less strongly perceptible than in the younger com- 
posers, therefore he may fitly be regarded as the chief exponent of the 
Modern Classical School. Ferdinand Hiller, the son of a wealthy Jewish 
merchant, was born on the 24th October, 1811, at Frankfort-on-the-Maine. 
He first studied under Aloys Schmitt at Frankfort, and subsequently under 
Hummel at Weimar. InJ.82_e accompanied Hummel on a professional 
tour, during which at Vienna he had the good fortune to become acquainted 
with Beethoven. In 1829_he proceeded to Paris, forming there a close 
friendship with Cherubini, Meyerbeer, Rossini, Berlioz, Chopin, Liszt, 
Borne, and Heinrich Heine, and it will be readily understood why such 
society could not fail to be of the greatest service to him in widening his 


views and enlarging his comprehension. After acting as a substitute 
for Schelble in 1836 at Frankfort, he visited Italy in 1838, and again in 
1841. He also acted as deputy conductor for Mendelssohn at the Leipzig 
Gewandhaus Concerts, and as instructor to the Advanced Composition 
Class held at the Conservatorium. Three years later he was appointed con- 
ductor at Diisseldorf, leaving this post in 1850 to assume a similar one at 
Cologne, where his activity in the triple r61e of conductor, composer, and 
professor at the Conservatorium founded by him, has raised the city into a 
position of much prominence. His directorship of the Cologne musical 
festivals held during his residence there greatly contributed to the musical 
celebrity of the old cathedral city. In 1877 the. King of Wiirtemberg con- 
ferred on him a patent of nobility. He died on the 10th of May, 1885, 
before this notice had been written. In 1876 the number of his works had 
reached 160, many owing their origin to his undoubted facility of compo- 
sition. Among his inspired works vne would include The Destruction of 
Jerusalem, and Saul, two great oratorios, the latter having scarcely re- 
ceived its merited recognition. These might fairly be placed by the side 
of Mendelssohn's oratorios ; the same might also be said of his cantata Ver 
Sacrum. The symphony, superscribed with the motto, " Es muss doch 
Friihling werden," three concert overtures, a pianoforte concerto in F sharp 
minor (Op. 69), the effective vocal quintetts (Op. 25), and many chamber 
and pianoforte works, show very completely the uncommon facility and 
gift of the master. He composed five German and one Italian opera, but 
failed to achieve any success with them. He was not only a refined 
musician, but a spiritedjitterateur, maintaining firmly the classical charac- 
teristics of his school, and insisting on the principle that only a pure 
harmonic permeation of content and form, can create an art- work of 
genuine and lasting merit. His pupils, Max Bruch and Fr. Gernsheim, 
are the worthy scholars of a gifted master. 

Next to Hiller we mention Carl Reinecke^ another distinguished repre- 
sentative of the school of Mendelssohn. Born at Altona in 1824, he 
received his first tuition in piano playing from his father, himself an 
excellent musician. In 1842 he began his tour to Scandinavia and 
Stockholm, journeying thence to Leipzig, at that time the musical centre 
of Germany, owing to the efforts of Mendelssohn and Schumann. In 
1851 he was engaged by F. Hiller as professor to the Conservatorium at 


Cologne. Successively conductor at Barmen in 1854, at the Breslau Vocal 
Academy in 1859, of the Leipzig Gewandhaus Concerts in 1861, and 
director of its Conservatorium, he has been gaining a very prominent 
position in the musical world. Of his works, numbering more than one 
hundred, we may mention the opera of Manfred, several pianoforte con- 
certos, a symphony, two concert overtures, Dame Ko^ 

vocal and chamber compositions, all of which deserve notice on account of 
their finished form. 

Another professor of the Leipzig Conservatorium, S. Jadassohn. was 
born in 1831 at Breslau. Successively a pupil of Liszt for piano, and of 
Moritz Hauptmann for theory, he settled in 1852 at Leipzig, conducting 
the Euterpe Concerts from 1867 to 1869, afterwards becoming professor. 
His orchestral works possessing most attraction are certain symphonies 
which show formal finish and natural flow. The greater part of his works 
bear the impress of the Mendelssohn school, but his later compositions lean 
towards the New Romantic School. 

Among the earlier masters of the Mendelssohn school who outlived their 
idol we should mention Rietz and Taubert. Julius Rigtz, born at Berlin, 
1812, died at Dresden, 1877, was in his youth a friend of Mendelssohn; 
he was the pupil of Zelter and Bernhard Romberg, and became under the 
latter master a virtuoso on the violoncello. From 1834 to 1847 he occu- 
pied the post of conductor at Dusseldorf, thereby gaming much experience 
in that particular sphere of the profession. In 1847_he became chapel- 
master_at_the Leipzig Theatre; a year later he succeeded Mendelssohn 
as director of the Gewandhaus Concerts, and in 1860 was appointed royal 
chapel-master to the Court Theatre, Dresden. He does not seem to us to 
possess much importance as a composer, although it must be admitted that 
his well-known " Concert Overture," the overture to Hero and Leander, 
and a symphony composed for the Leipzig Concerts, are all masterly as 
regards form and orchestration. Besides being well versed in his profession, 
he was eminent as a general scholar, Otto Jahn, the litterateur, asserting 
that in him the world lost an eminent doctor of philology, owing to his 
exclusive devotion to music. Rietz has raised an imperishable monument 
to himself in editing the works of Bach, Handel, Beethoven, Mendelssohn, 
and Mozart, published by Breitkopf and Hartel. 

Wilhelm Taubert, another follower of Mendelssohn, born 1811, was a 


pupil of Ludwig Berger, studying theory under Bernhardt Klein. He is 
famed as a virtuoso of that classical school of pianists headed by Moscheles, 
Mendelssohn, Clara Schumann, F. Hiller, Wilhelmina Clauss, and Reinecke. 
In 1831 he undertook the conductorship of the Berlin Court Concerts, and 
three years later was elected member of the Prussian Academy of Arts, 
receiving in 1845 the appointment of court chapel-master of the Royal 
Opera-House at Berlin. His " Kiuderlieder " acquired much popularity in 
being sung by such eminent artists as Jenny Lind, Johanna Wagner, 
and Harriers- Wippern. His compositions of larger significance are the 
opera Macbeth, the incidental music to the Tempest, and to the Medea 
of Euripides. 

Of the few masters having had the inestimable advantage of private 
tuition from Mendelssohn we first mention Richard Wiierst, born at Berlin, 
1824, and dying there in 1881. In 1856 he was appointed music director at 
Berlin; in 1874 he was nominated Royal Professor of Music, and in 1877 
elected member of the Prussian Academy of Arts. Of his compositions 
we would mention specially " Der Rothmantel," " Vineta/' " Der Stern von 
Turan," and " Faublas," and his Cologne prize symphony, Op. 21. His 
cantata, Der Wasserneck, may be mentioned as a scholarly choral work. 

A prominent and popular composer is Max. Bruch, born at Cologne, 
1838, the pupil of F. Hiller and Carl Reinecke. In 1852 he was awarded 
the prize of the Frankfurt Mozartstiftung for a string quartett, a composi- 
tion that attracted the attention of the musical world. In 1867 he became 
court chapel-master at Sondershausen ; and three years later he removed 
to Berlin. From 1873 to 1878 he resided at Bonn, afterwards returning to 
Berlin to conduct Stern's Musical Academy. In 1880 he conducted the 
Philharmonic Concerts at Liverpool, and, after a tour in the United States, 
he returned to Europe to reside at Breslau, where he was appointed con- 
ductor of the Orchestral Union. Bruch is one of the most versatile and 
fruitful composers of the present day, his works evidencing the influence of 
Schumann and Wagner. In addition to his operas, instrumental and vocal 
music, his secular cantatas, the libretti of which were written by Georg 
Vierling, are worthy, from their epic character, to be placed among the best 
of secular oratorios, e.g., the cantatas, Scenen aus der Frilhjofs-Sage, Schon 
Ellen, and, in a still higher degree, his music to the Odyssey, Schiller's 
Lay of the Bell, and his latest work, Achilles. His operas, Ermione (after 


Shakespeare's Winter's Tale) and Loreley, rapidly becoming popular, the 
symphony in F minor, Op. 36, that in~"~E flat major, and the two violin 
concertos, are deserving of praise. It is interesting to note that the 
popular G minor concerto, with its melodious Andante^ has been performed 
by coloured artists from St. Domingo. Besides grandeur of style, his 
pianoforte, chamber, and song music exhibits much that is charming, and 
justifies the assertion that he never strives after effect for its own sake, but 
is always the genuine artist. 

A composer, educated in the Mendelssohn school, but, like Bruch, much 
influenced by Schumann and Wagner, is Karl Reinthaler, born in 1822 at 
Erfurt, in a house formerly inhabited by Luther, at which town his father 
founded a school called the " Martinstift." To gratify his father he devoted 
himself to theology, and does not seem to have exhibited any musical inclina- 
tion until he had passed his examination for the Church. While residing 
at Berlin for his theological studies, he, on feeling the force of his natural 
bent, took lessons in musical theory from Dr. A. B. Marx, which were of 
great advantage to him. Like Hiller, he enjoyed the friendship of Men- 
delssohn, whose steps he followed in adopting the modernised form of 
oratorio created by tnat master, and this is shown most in his Jephthali 
and his Daughter, a work that at once established his name as that of 
a musician of unusual ability. A symphony strictly adhering to the 
" classical " form increased his reputation, but the charming romantic 
opera Kdthchen von Heilbronn, in spite of its idealistic tendencies and the 
influence of Wagner's characteristic orchestration, further shows him to be, 
in melodious flow and careful attention to orthodox form, a disciple of the 
classical German school. His opera Edda, although an earlier work, is 
entitled to special mention. Owing to the success of certain sacred com- 
positions by him, performed by the Royal Cathedral Choir at Berlin in 
1850, Frederick William IV. of Prussia provided him with the means of 
proceeding to Italy for the purpose of studying there for two years. At 
the end of this time, F. Hiller engaged him as professor to the Cologne 
Conservatorium, but in 1858 he resigned this to become conductor of the 
Bremen Concerts, being appointed later on organist to the cathedral and 
director to the Vocal Academy. In 1876 he competed successfully for the 
prize offered by the town of Dortmund for a hymn to be composed in 
honour of Bismarck. 


In Friederich Gernsheim we meet with a musician of somewhat similar 
merit to Reinthaler. Born in 1839, he studied under Hauptmann, Rietz, 
and Moscheles, making his debut in 1855 as a pianist in Paris, and ten 
years later Hiller appointed him professor at Cologne, to which he subse- 
quently added the office of conductor of the civic Vocal Union and Cologne 
Opera. In 1874 he accepted the post of director of the Rotterdam Conser- 
vatorium. His pianoforte concerto^ in C minor, several string and piano 
quartetts, the cantata Salamis for male voices, and a " Salve Regina " for 
female voices, are worthy of mention. We will conclude this portion by 
referring briefly to four musicians influenced more or less by the teachings 
of Mendelssohn. The first, Theodor Gouvy, was born in 1822 near Saar- 
briicken, and was a composer of symphonies, chamber and sacred music ; 
the second, Karl Eckert, born 1820 at Potsdam, was chiefly celebrated for 
his opera Wilhelm von Oranien, and certain songs, and successively held 
the appointment of court chapel-master at Vienna, Stutgardt, and Berlin ; 
the third, Robert Radecke, born 1830 in Silesia, the composer of two over- 
tures, a symphony, and part-songs, was appointed in 1871 court chapel- 
master at the Royal Opera, Berlin ; the fourth being Ernst Rudorff, born 
1840jj.t Berlin, a pupil of Rietz, Hauptmann, Moscheles, and Reinecke, and 
famed for his overtures to Tiecks' Der Blonde Ekbert, to Der Schutz, a 
ballad, a serenade, and orchestral variations. In 1880 he was appointed 
conductor to Stern's Vocal Union. 

In turning our attention to living German musicians, we approach a 
body distinguished as dramatic composers e.g., Cornelius, Hofmann, 
Grammann, and Goldschmidt. Although the three first do not lack 
mastery of art-form in a great degree, whilst, however, differing as regards 
style, yet their operas do not possess the conditions of lasting and genuine 
success, chiefly on account of their imitation of the principle employed in 
the modern music-drama i.e., a continuous melody instead of the estab- 
lished operatic form. Such bare imitation must always fail to impress the 
hearer, as the copy of a strong individuality is at once perceived, and such 
a treatment can only interest when it is the outcome of some well-defined 
originality like that of Wagner. This primal power of Wagner is so 
exalted that it renders all imitation weak and spiritless ; imitation that 
is, after all, nothing more than an external reproduction lacking the 
vigour of the original 


Heinrich Hofmann, born in 1842_atJBerlin, was the pupil of Dehn and 
Wiierst. His heroic music-drama Armin displays decided dramatic gift, 
whilst a second opera, Aennchen von Tharau, exhibits much that is charming 
andjromantic in instrumentation. This latter work, on account of its rich 
vein of melody and, in part, humorous character, would assuredly have 
secured popularity had it not been for the unfortunate imitation of the modern 
music-drama, with its exclusion of set arias, duets, trios, ensembles, and 
finales interspersed with dialogue, a form, be it noted, observed with such 
success by Mozart, Beethoven, Weber, Lortzing, and Kreutzer. All comic 
operas e.g., Nicolai's Merry Wives of Windsor, and The Golden Cross, by 
Ignaz Briill, both of which have remained popular for the last thirty-five 
years, have interpolated spoken dialogue; and, moreover, the French teach us 
that recitative, admissible in heroic and tragic operas, and pre-eminently in 
modern German Romantic opera, ought to be excluded from the opera 
comique, a form of opera that evolved itself from their national " song-play." 
And it should be remarked that, up to the present day, French composers 
have almost exclusively adhered to the substitution of the spoken dialogue 
for recitative. 

Karl Grammann. born in 1844, deserves special notice for his operas 
Helusine, Thusnelda, and Das Andreasfest. Like Hofmann, he is an_ 
extensive colourist ; but both composers have achieved notoriety by works 
that show their individual gift to better advantage than their operas, and 
more especially Hofmann by his Hungarian suite, Op. 16, the cantata 
Mdrchen von der schonen Melusine, Op. 30, and Grammann in many of his 
chamber works. 

Peter Cornelius, nephew of the great painter of that name, was born at 
Mayencej 1824, and died there in 1874. His opera, Der Barrier von Bagdul, 
met with no success, again because of the imitation of the modern music- 
drama form, though talent is unquestionably displayed in this, as also in his 
music-drama Cid, and in certain minor compositions. 

Adalbert von Goldschmjdt, the last of the four, and born 1853 at Vienna, 
is a musician of gift, but is an illustration of the unsatisfactory result of 
attempting to overreach the individual tendencies of Berlioz, Liszt, and 
Wagner. This is particularly evidenced in his oratorio Die sieben Todsiinden, 
performed at Berlin in 1876 and the opera Helianthus, produced at Leipzig 
in 1884. 


Among those yet to be named who, on the whole, follow the German 
School, though not in the important branch of the drama, are Damrosch, 
Draseke, Krug, Lassen, the two Riedels, Josef Huber, Hans von Billow, 
Hans von Bronsart, Nicode, and Ferdinand Praeger. As a rule, these have 
adhered more to orchestral, chamber, and vocal music, an adherence to their 
profit, on account of the impossibility of the application of Wagner's 
musical dramatic principles to purely instrumental music, and the evident 
necessity of strict form. A musical subjectivity that descends to using the 
powerful means of the orchestra for no other purpose than extemporising 
fleeting impressions, as one would improvise at the piano, cannot but defeat 
its object. The use of such means for so small a purpose appears incon- 
gruous, and indicates an overweening love of approbation. 

This extravagance, however, is not to be met with in the greater number 
of the compositions of the musicians just mentioned. And even those that 
have adopted, like Liszt, the leit-motif and programme music, always show 
more fluency and adherence to form, as did Liszt in his chief works, than 
the imitators of Wagner's music-dramas, and this all the more so when 
they relegate Lohengrin and Tannhauser to the past, and adopt the principle 
observed in Tristan. 

Leopold Damrosch (born at Posen in 1832, died at New York in 1885) 
was from 1858 to 1860 conductor of the Philharmonic Concerts at Breslau, 
after which (1862-71) he established an orchestra for the chief purpose 
of popularising the works of Wagner, Liszt, and Berlioz, subsequently 
removing to New York, and conducting there numerous concerts and 
festivals, besides acting as an energetic pioneer of the German tonal art. 
His violin concerto in D minor, serenades, a " Festival " overture, a sacred 
idyll, Ruth and Naomi, and several other sets of songs, deserve special 

Eduard Lassen, born in 1830 at Copenhagen, became, in 1858, through 
the influence of Liszt, court music director at Weimar. He is the composer 
of two operas, Konig Edgard and Frauenlob, and of the incidental music to 
Goethe's Faust and HebbeFs Nibelungen, a symphony, overtures, cantatas, 
and a number of songs, of which many have become very popular. In 
these we meet occasional graceful traits, reminding one of the chansons of 
the best modern French masters. In his orchestral compositions Lassen 
generally adheres so strictly to form that it is only in the selection of his 


subjects that one is induced to consider him as belonging to the Romantic 

Karl Riedel, born in 1827 near Elberfeld, became founder in 1854 of the 
now celebrated Riedel's Vocal Union, its performance in 1859 of Sebastian 
Bach's difficult and grand mass in B minor being one of its greatest achieve- 
ments. It is owing to Riedel that many of the neglected works of the older 
masters have been republished, among them being those of Heinrich 
Schiitz. As a composer Riedel has gained notoriety through his songs and 
part-songs, and also as one of the prominent directors of the Leipzig 
Wagner- Verein. 

Hermann Riedel, born in 1847, conductor of the Court Theatre, 
Brunswick, has obtained prominence by his setting of Scheffel's Trompeter 
von SakJcingen. 

In Hans von Bronsart, born in 1828 at Konigsberg, and his wife 
Ingeborg, the latter a pupil of Liszt, we meet artists excelling both as 
virtuosi of the piano and composers of pianoforte pieces, the lady being also 
a writer of songs and an operetta on the subject of Goethe's Jery und 
Bcitly. Bronsart acted as conductor to the Euterpe Concerts in 1860, and 
from 1870 director to the Court Theatre at Hanover. 

Hans von Bulow, born in 1830_at Dresden, whom we have already 
mentioned as a pupil of Liszt, and one of the most prominent virtuosi on 
the piano, has written the symphonic works " Nirwana/' "Des S angers 
Fluch," the incidental music to Shakespeare's Julius Ccesar.and. in addition 
nine sets of pianoforte pieces, many transcriptions and arrangements and 
critical annotations to the works of the great masters. 

Joseph Huber.. born in 1837 at Sigmaringen, and appointed in 1864 
leader of the Euterpe Concerts, has composed four symphonies, each con- 
sisting only of one movement, and two operas, Die Rose vom Libanon and 
Irene. He is such an extreme partisan of the New German School that he 
even omits the signature of the piece. 

Felix Draseke, born in 1835 at Coburg, was an enthusiastic admirer of 
Liszt. From 1864 to 1874 he was professor at the Conservatorium at 
Lausanne, and since 1874 has officiated in a similar capacity at Dresden. 
Even his partisans have declared his earlier works to be in their nature 
somewhat bizarre, and that he has sacrificed euphony to obtain a doubtful 
success in character-painting. This judgment can, in part, be applied to 


such works as his symphonies in- G and F, and the Requiem. Of late 
he has made a new departure in his art, and if he steadily adheres to it he 
cannot fail, being a really talented musician, to approach closely the Classico- 
Romantic School of Schumann, Brahms, and Volkmann. 

Arnold Krug, born in 1849 at Hamburg, is a musician who seems to 
unite his symphonic poems, with their leit-motif and programme, with the 
classic form ; but how much he may achieve in this direction must be left 
to the future to decide. His prologue to Shakespeare's Othello exhibits, 
with real passion of expression, a decided gift of musical colouring. His 
graceful dance rhythms for the orchestra, and some chamber compositions, 
deserve passing notice. 

Next to Krug, Louis Nicode, born in 1853 near Posen, deserves to be 
included with the more gifted of the New German School, as is proved by 
his symphonic poems. Storm and stress still seem to weigh down in him 
the balance of organic development and clearness. He has shown himself 
to be a virtuoso on the piano, and a composer of pianoforte pieces of 

Lastly, we must refer to Ferdinand Praeger, of London, whose sym- 
phonic prelude to Byron's " Manfred," and overture to Abellino t show 
that he also belongs to that branch of the New German School just 
referred to. 

Besides the three groups of German composers mentioned at the begin- 
ning of this chapter there is a fourth, consisting of musicians neither 
showing the exclusive influence of any particular master, nor that they 
belong to any special school, but forming in themselves a distinct body. 
It is satisfactory to know that this section, notwithstanding the various 
coteries of musical thought in Germany, is numerically very large ; but as 
we are unable to form definite opinions of them all we will confine our- 
selves to such as Raff, Rheinberger, Jean Vogt, Ulrich, Grimm, Abert, 
Ries junior, Klughardt, Herbeck, Albert Becker, Kiel, Xaver and Philipp 
Scharwenka, Vierling, Meinardus, Blumner, Mangold, Abt, Wilhelm 
Tschirch, Sch'affer, Stade, Merkel, Miiller-Hartung, Wiillner, Goldmark, 
Heinrich Urban, Grell, Riifer, Brambach, Bernhard Scholz, Briill, Gurlitt, 
Bungert, Kretchmer, Holstein, Herzogenberg, Hochberg, Hopffer, Goetz, 
Schlottmann, Hans Huber, Strauss, Nessler, and the venerable Franz 
Lachner, of whprn we treated in the chapter on Schubert and K. M. von 


Weber. We include Lachner on account of his orchestral suites, which are 
of a modified classical art-form, fused with a romanticism that modernises 
them and augments our present symphonic repertoire. We will now pro- 
ceed to treat of those of the masters just named, that are noteworthy for 
their symphonic and chamber music, beginning with Raff. 

Joachim Raff was bom in 1822 in the Canton Schwytz, and died in 
1882 at Frankfort-on-the-Maine. While engaged in the occupation of 
teaching, he sent a few compositions to Mendelssohn for criticism, and in 
consequence of the favourable opinion expressed of them determined to 
devote himself entirely to music. He then went through a course of study, 
intending, at its termination, to take finishing lessons of Mendelssohn, but 
the death of that master in 1847 put an end to such a prospect. Three 
years later he travelled to Weimar, where the principles of Liszt and the 
New German School attracted his attention, without, however, inducing 
him to become their votary. In 1856 he was at Wiesbaden, and in 1878 
director of Hoch's Conservatorium at Frankfort-on-the-Maine. The in- 
fluence of the Modern Classical and the New Romantic School shows itself 
in a decided manner in the upgrowth and quality of Raff's large and pro- 
lific talent, for it was owing to the school of Mendelssohn that he gained 
his solid and excellent foundation, and never fell into the error of thinking- 
that art-form was superfluous and almost unnecessary. It was also owing 
to the influence of Schumann and Liszt that he was kept from exhibiting 
a merely finished and polished form by sustaining a passion and depth of 
feeling that restrained him from treating pure form as the summum &onum, 
a treatment that would, by its exclusiveness, have rendered him a mere 

The individuality of Raff is well exhibited in his grand symphonic 
works, especially in the " Leonora Symphony," which, with the exception 
of its demoniacal finale, is as classical in form as it is romantic in content, 
and because of this feature may justly be regarded as a valuable addition 
to the modern symphony. The symphonies, " Im Walde," rich in poetic 
fancy, " Friihlingsklange/ 7 and that in G minor, though less serious, yet 
graceful and sparkling in orchestration, are, of all that he has written, 
most deserving of special notice. He wrote more than two hundred works, 
a number proving the facility of his creation, but denoting a facility un- 
balanced by the purifying influence of self-criticism, the recognition of 


which would have insured the production of works greater in merit, though 
possibly fewer in number. Notwithstanding this, we find among his 
concertos, orchestral suites, chamber and pianoforte compositions, certain 
features that connect him with the most prominent musicians of the 
present day. 

To these belongs Hugo Ulrich, a man hitherto but little known, born 
in 1827 at Oppeln, in Silesia, died in 1872 at Berlin. He was a pupil of 
Mosevius and Dehn, and shows in his prize " Symphonic Triomphale," and 
two others in B minor and G major, an independence of thought that 
places him in the first rank of modern symphonists ; his pianoforte trio is 
also distinguished by the same laudable feature. 

August Klughardt, born in 1847 at Kotin, and court chapel-master 
since 1873 at Neustrelitz, shows a fusion of the Modern Classic and New 
German School in his D major symphony (No. 3), performed in 1882 at 
Dresden, the " Leonora Symphony/' the overture Im Friihling, the opera 
Iwein, the phantasias on Lenau's " Schilflieder " for piano, viola, and oboe, 
and in other chamber works. 

In Otto Grimm, born in 1830 in Saxony, and at present conductor of 
the Minister St. Cecilia Union, we find a composer displaying much 
thoughtful vigour in his symphony and pianoforte pieces. We must 
specially mention the suite for strings, written in strict canonic form., 
a composition that not only shows the master of strict art-form, but also 
to what degree a real talent can increase his ideas by its aid. 

Johann Herbeck, who was born in 1831 at Vienna, and died there in 
1877, belongs to the school of modern instrumental music. Of his most im- 
portant works, only the fourth symphony, the variations for orchestra, and 
a string quartett have been published. 

A symphonist of merit is Joseph Abert, born in 1832 in Bohemia, a 
pupil of Tomaczek, and court chapel-master in 1867 at Stutgardt. His 
operas, Konig Enzio, Astorga, Ekkehard, deserve notice on account of their 
many interesting features. His popularity, however, is owing to the C 
minor symphony, the symphonic poem " Columbus," and his overtures. 

Bernard Hopffer, born in 1840, Heinrich Urban, born in 1837, both in 
Berlin, and P. B. Riifer, born in 1844 at Liege, and now residing in Berlin, 
have each shown meritorious work in instrumental composition ; Urban in 
his " Friihling Symphony," a violin concerto, and the overtures to Fiesco 


and Scheherezade; Hopffer in his opera Frithjof, overtures, and symphonies; 
and Riifer in his F major symphony, three overtures, and chamber 

Franz Hies, born in 1846 at Berlin, whose uncle, Ferdinand Ries, was 
a pupil of Beethoven, is the son of Hubert Ries, a concert-master at Berlin. 
His string quartetts bear evidence of excellent polyphonic treatment, and 
his suites for violin and piano show considerable melodic gift. 

Philipp and Xaver Scharwenka, the former born in 1847, and the latter 
in 1850, both in the province of Posen, are noteworthy f6r their chamber 
music. Philipp, in addition, has composed symphonies, and Xaver, a grand 
pianoforte concerto in B flat minor. The nationality of both composers is 
very discernible in their rhythms. 

The Swiss, Hans Huber, born 1852, may be said to have expressed him- 
self in his best manner in pianoforte and chamber compositions, a trio, violin 
sonatas, a " Concertstiick," and pianoforte duets. 

Jean Vogt, born in 1823 near Liegnitz, shows a certain excellence in 
his chamber and pianoforte music and his oratorio Lazarus. August Bun- 
gert, born in 1846, at Muhlheim, on the river Ruhr, is known through his 
Holies Lied der Liebe, a work with orchestral accompaniment, an overture 
to Tasso, and a prize pianoforte quartett. Cornelius Gurlitt, born in 1820 
at Altona, is the composer of two operettas, and certain chamber and piano- 
forte music. 

Among gifted organ performers and composers of the group now under 
notice, we may mention Gustav Merkel, a musician, born in 1827 near 
Zittau, and dying in 1885 whilst court organist at Dresden; Wilhelm 
Stade, born in 1817 at Halle, court chapel-master at Altenburg, a com- 
poser of excellent vocal and orchestral works, and Miiller-Hartung, born in 
Thiiringiain 1834, a composer of organ sonatas, psalms, and part-songs for 
male voices. Also belonging to these, and noteworthy for their vocal works, 
are Louis Schlottmann and Julius Sehaffer. The first-named was born 
at Berlin in 1826, and is famed for his setting of Goethe's poems; the 
latter was born in Altmark in 1823, and is known by his compositions for 
mixed choirs. Since 1860 he has been director of the Vocal Academy of 
Mosevms, and is also the university professor of music at Breslau, and 
well known as a musical savant. 

In salon and sentimental music we meet with an eminent exponent in 


Franz Abt, born in 1819 at Eilenburg, and died in 1885 at Wiesbaden. 
In 1852 he was court chapel-master at Brunswick, and has written many 
songs of the description just mentioned. He has gained some prominence 
for his part-songs for male voices. A like prominence has been achieved by 
Karl Zollner, born in 1800, died in 1860, especially in those of a certain 
humorous character that is displayed with much effect in his chorus of the 
" Thirty-six German Fatherlands/' Julius Otto, born in 1804, dying in 1877, 
was cantor at the Dresden Church of the Cross. He is also another gifted 
song writer, his " Das treue deutsche Herz " being now acknowledged as a 
national song; but in the works of Joseph Brambach, born in 1833 at 
Bonn, and Wilhelm Tschirch, born in 1818 in Silesia, we meet with the 
evidence of a higher and more ambitious aim, the former in " Das 
eleusische Fest " and " Prometheus/' and the latter in " Eine Nacht auf 
dem Meere " and " Der Sangerkampf ." 

Of the composers of sacred music, Friedrich Kiel, born in 1821 near 
Siegen, dying in 1885 in Berlin, is to be mentioned as one that excels in the 
highest degree in that form of composition. He was a pupil of Dehn, but 
did not gain any notoriety till 1862, then doing so through his Requiem in 
F minor, a work we had the advantage of hearing at its first performance 
in Berlin by Stern's Vocal Union, and of which we then expressed the 
opinion that it was a worthy successor to the similar works of Mozart and 
Cherubini; a second Requiem in A flat major almost equals this in its 
grandeur, depth, and mastery of strict style. An equally unusual creative 
power is shown in his Missa Solemnis and the oratorio Christus, written 
respectively in 1867 and 1874, and again proving the perfect fitness of 
the classic form of the polyphonic style when united to adequate ideas. 
Kiel has also written a " Stabat Mater," a " Te Deum/' motets for two 
female voices, and, in addition, two string quartetts, trios, three piano- 
forte quartetts, four violin sonatas, a pianoforte concerto, and, as piano 
solos, fifteen canons, six fugues, suites, " variations and fugue/' duets, &c. 
Kiel, who settled at Berlin in 1842, is decidedly one of the most pro- 
minent contrapuntists of our time, but he never appears to have sacrificed 
his ideas in order to bring into prominence his pre-eminent ability as a 

Equally sincere, although, it may be, less gifted than Kiel, are Edward 
Grell, Becker, and Wiillner. Grell, bora in 1800 at Berlin, became a 
z z z 


member of the Berlin Academy of Arts in 1841, and ten years later was 
appointed conductor of the Vocal Academy there. His grand mass in 
sixteen parts, which was the means of securing him notoriety, is in character 
midway between the old Venetian and Palestrina styles. In addition to 
this he has written psalms in eight and eleven parts, a " Te Deum/' motets, 
cantatas, and settings of Biblical proverbs. 

Albert Becker, born in 1834 at Quedlinburg, a pupil of Dehn, created 
some sensation in 1879 by his mass in B flat minor. His German symphony 
gained in 1861 the prize of the Viennese Society of the Friends of Music. 

Franz Wiillner, born in 1832 at Miinster, was appointed in 1869 
royal court chapel-master at Munich. In 1877 he left for Dresden in 
order to take up a similar appointment, and since 1884 has been chapel- 
master at Cologne and director of its Conservatorium. He has written 
two masses, several motets, a " Miserere, a " Stabat Mater/' and a " Salve 
Regina," all of which are dignified in form and sacred in character. His 
part-songs for male voices with orchestral accompaniment, and his choral 
songs, exhibit much grace. He is a most able conductor, and, as a pro- 
fessor, has written some excellent choral exercises for the Munich Academy, 
at which place he received, on account of his professorial attainments, the 
degree of Doctor and Professor of Music. 

We add to this class of composers three that have obtained renown 
through their oratorios and sacred cantatas, viz., Blumner, Meinardus, and 
Vierling, excluding those such as Hiller, Kiel, Reinthaler, Max Bruch, 
Rheinberger, Diettrich, Herzogenberg, and others, also meritorious com- 
posers of such works, but who have by no means confined themselves 
strictly to that form of composition. 

Martin Blumner, born in 1827 at Mecklenburg, was a pupil of Dehn, 
and was appointed in 1853 a conductor of the Berlin Vocal Academy. He 
has written two grand oratorios, Abraham and The Fall of Jerusalem, the 
latter having been performed in 1884 with much success at the Seventh 
Silesian Musical Festival at Breslau. These not only show his mastery of 
strict style, but also considerable dramatic power in the treatment of 
musical epics. 

Ludwig Meinardus, born in 1827 in Oldenburg, a pupil of A. B. Marx, 
became in 1862 music director to the Grand Duke of Oldenburg, and in 
1865 professor at the Dresden Conservatorium. He is the composer of tne 


oratorios, St. Peter, Gideon, Salomo, and Luther at Worms, the last of 
which gained him much celebrity at the Luther Jubilee in 1883. Besides 
several chamber compositions, he has written some secular oratorios, and 
the cantatas, Roland's Schwanenlied, Frau Hitt, Die Nonne, and Jung 
Baldur's Sieg. 

Georg Vierling, born in 1820 in the Bavarian Palatinate, appears as a de- 
cided improver of an almost obsolete form, viz., the secular cantata, showing 
in this respect similar ability to that of Max Bruch. His Hero and Leander, 
Der Raub der Sabinerinnen, Alarich, and Constantin are full of dramatic 
vigour ; besides having met with much success in Germany, they have also 
been performed in America. In modernising the secular oratorio, Vierling 
stands in juxtaposition to Mendelssohn, who successfully effected a similar 
improvement in the sacred oratorio. A pupil of Marx, he established about 
the year 1850 the Bach Verein at Berlin. In 1859 he was appointed royal 
music director in that city, and in 1883 was made a member of the Prussian 
Academy of Arts. Besides his setting of the 130th and 137th Psalms, he 
shows himself in his symphony and overtures, " Sturm," " Maria Stuart," 
" Im Friihling/' " Hermannsschlacht/' and " Tragic Overture," an orchestral 
composer of merit. He has also written chamber compositions and part- 
songs of much significance. 

Another musician of considerable independence of thought is Joseph 
llheinberger, who, in many respects, might be described as the South 
German Raff. Although as versatile as the North German master, yet he 
does not exhibit so great a power in instrumental music as in choral works 
with orchestral accompaniment, in which he might be said to show a more 
powerful individuality. He was born in 1839 at Vaduz, in sight of the Swiss 
Alps, and was educated at Franz Hauser's Conservatorium in Munich, where, 
in 1859, he was appointed professor. In 1867 he received the title of royal 
professor of music, and in 1877 the appointment of Bavarian court chapel- 
master. Of his works we prefer the symphonic tone-picture " Wallen- 
stein," the overture to Demetrius, a pianoforte concerto, his choral works 
" Toggenburg," " Wittekiml," " Klarchen auf Eberstein," and St. Christo- 
phorus, the last being a very excellent cantata. In sacred compositions he 
has shown ability in a Requiem, " Stabat Mater/' a mass for two choirs, 
and many able organ compositions. The opera Die Sieben Raben, and 
the incidental music to Calderas's Der U'linderi/iiUigc Mug us, also deserve 
z z /. -2 


mention. Whilst exhibiting the influence of the Modern Classic and New 
Romantic Schools, he nevertheless retains his individuality intact. 

Of the masters of the group now under discussion, and whose best efforts 
are observable in operatic compositions, we would mention, as the most 
popular, Karl Goldmark, born in 1832 in Hungary. He received a 
thoroughly German musical education in Vienna, and first attracted notice 
by his overture Sakuntala, to which subject he was drawn through a natural 
inclination for Indian subjects, the study of which had for him a peculiar 
fascination. This same feature is noticeable in his opera, The Queen of 
Sliela, a work performed for the first time at Vienna in 1875, and securing 
for him much popularity. We know of no other artist of whom it might 
be said that he has entered fully into the peculiarities of that race, a people 
strange in manner and habits, and with passions peculiar to themselves, 
and the outcome of exceptional climatic influences. But in his avidity for 
Indian subjects both his strength and weakness are apparent. Perhaps his 
greatest glory is most, we might say exclusively, exhibited in extensive 
musical colouring, for his melodic invention and thematic working-out are 
not in proportion to his tone-painting. 

We have included this master in the present section, as, although he has 
gathered much from the artistic colouring of Wagner, he yet remains inde- 
pendent in his application of this feature of the art of music to that of the 
Oriental world, with its peculiar rhythms and cadences, and moreover does 
not, like many of the adherents of the New Romantic School, disavow the 
classic art-form. Of his massive colouring we have evidence in the 
orchestral suite " Landliche Hochzeit," an overture Penthesilea, a violin 
concerto, and many chamber works. With Goldmark we link Ig-naz Briill, 

O 7 

born m 1846 in Mahren, who began his career as a pianist, composed a 
pianoforte concerto, and in 1864 an orchestral serenade. His opera, The 
Golden Cross, was the first work on a large scale that brought him before 
the public, and with much success. It is a composition still found in 
the repertoires of German theatres. The same success cannot, however, be 
said to have greeted the operas Der Landfriede and Bianca, works that 
are by no means without evidence of talent. As a gifted composer of 
chamber music he shows the influence of Schumann and Mendelssohn. 

Edmund Kretchmer,born in 1830 in Saxony, was a pupil of the Dresden 
organist Schneider, the brother of the composer of the Last Judgment. In 


1854 he was appointed organist to the Dresden Catholic Chapel, and wrote 
in 1868 a prize mass. In 1874 his heroic opera Die Folkunger was pro- 
duced at Dresden, and up to the present has been performed at sixty -three 
theatres. Although the influence of Wagner's Tannhauser and Lohengrin, 
as well as that of Weber's and Meyerbeer's works, may be seen in Kretch- 
mer's operas, he sufficiently maintains an independence, and especially is this 
to be remarked of certain parts of the heroic opera written in the Scandi- 
navian style, which contains much that is new and agreeable. He was his 
own librettist in the opera Heinrich der Lb'ice, performed at Leipzig in 
1877, and showed both in the libretto and music much excellence. His 
" Musikalische Dorfgeschichten " also bears evidence of originality. 

Bernhard Scholz, born in 1835 at Mayence, was a pupil of Dehn : in 
1859 he was appointed court chapel-master at Hanover, and in 1871 con- 
ductor of the Breslau Orchestral Concerts, and in 1882 succeeded, on Raff's 
death, to the conductorship at Hoch's Conservatorium at Frankfort -on-the- 
Maine. Of his operas, Die ZietheniscJien Hnsaren, rich in humoristic vein, 
and Golo are the most popular. In chamber music he shows gift and 
evidence of the strong influence of Schumann and Brahms. He has also 
written a Requiem, and an overture to Goethe's Iphigenia. 

Next to Scholz, Holstein and Goetz are musicians of ability. Goetz 
died at the early age of thirty-six. Franz von Holstein, who was born in 
1826, and died in 1878, began his career as a musician after quitting the 
military profession, receiving his theoretical education from Hauptmann. 
His operas, of which he was also librettist, are Zwei Ncichte in Venedig, 
Waver ley, Der Haideschacht , Der Erbe von Morley, and Die Hochl<i/i<li>r 
(written in 1876), the first of which spread his name in Germany to a con- 
siderable extent. He also wrote an effective overture to Frau Aventiure, 
and many chamber compositions and part-songs. 

Hermann Goetz, born in 1840 at Konigsberg, died in 1876, is prin- 
cipally known through the opera Der Widerspensligen Zahmung (" The 
Taming of the Shrew"), a work finished in form and full of spirit. It 
has been performed at nearly all the important German theatres, in the 
repertoires of which it still holds a place, and it has further been trans- 
lated for an English audience; his last opera, Francesco, di Rimi/ii,vras 
left incomplete, the third act being unfinished. His F major symphony 
created a favourable impression, and among other works exhibiting talent 


may be mentioned "Nania," a composition for voices and orchestra, a 
" Spring Overture/' violin and piano concertos, and other chamber music. 

If among the operatic composers of this section we include Victor 
Neszler, born in 1841 in Alsace, it will not be on account of thorough 
musicianship or dramatic profundity, but rather because of his natural 
and felicitous style, to which is due his widespread popularity. His two 
operas, Der Rattenf anger von Hameln and Der Trompeter von Sdckingen, 
have been as frequently performed as those of Wagner, the Carmen of 
Bizet, and the Undine of Lortzing ; in fact we know of no operas that have 
obtained such universal favour, not even those of Mozart and Weber. 
This might well form matter for surprise, and would receive an explanation 
at our hands were we not so limited for space. 

We will conclude our review of this school by mentioning those masters 
who, though not showing conspicuous or special merit, have nevertheless 
given sufficient evidence of possessing more than ordinary ability, viz., Karl 
Mangold, born in 1830 at Darmstadt ; Heinrich von Herzogenberg, born 
in 1843 at Gratz ; Count Hochberg, born in 1843 in Silesia ; and Richard 
Strausz, born in 1865 at Munich. Mangold, who since 1848 has held 
the appointment of court music director at Darmstadt, first acquired pro- 
minence by his part-songs for male voices ; his other works of note are the 
oratorios WUteHnd and Israel in der Wiiste, the operas Dornroschen and 
Das Kohlermiidchen. Herzogenberg succeeded Kiel as professor at the 
Berlin Conservatorium, and has shown himself in his chamber and choral 
compositions a disciple of Schumann and Brahms ; he is also one of the 
founders of the Leipzig Bach Verein. Count Bolko von Hochberg is the 
composer of the successful opera Der Warwolf, many string quartetts, 
symphonies, and songs, and deserves praise for his exertions in promoting 
the Silesian Musical Festivals. Strausz introduced himself to the public 
by his E flat major concerto for the horn, a serenade in the same key for 
thirteen wind instruments, a concerto in D minor for violin and piano, 
and string quartetts, all of which bear indications of a promising career 
being open to the youthful composer. 

To this list might appropriately be added the names of those musical 
savants in whom Germany is scarcely less rich than she is in composers, 
and whom, for the purpose of clearness, we will endeavour as far as pos- 
sible to classify. As historians of music they might be subdivided into 


(1) those that have treated the art as a whole ; (2) those that have confined 
their researches to special periods ; (3) those that have dealt with it from an 
antiquary's standpoint by deciphering- old manuscripts and editing, with 
critical comments, old works ; (4) those that have treated it biographically 
and theoretically, or as physicists and as lexicographers ; and (5) those that 
have studied its aesthetics or its philosophy as an art. 

Unquestionably the most important of the modern German historians 
that have made musical history a life's study is A. W. Ambros, born in 
1816 at Mauth, near Prague, died in 1876 at Vienna. His mother was the 
sister of the celebrated musical historian Von Kiesewetter, which may 
partly account for his early interest in the art and subsequent eminence 
as an historian. In 1839 he obtained the degree of Doctor of Laws, and 
whilst engaged actively in his profession as crown advocate, was appointed 
professor of music at the University and Conservatorium of Prague. This 
double appointment he resigned in 1872, to superintend the historical art- 
studies of the Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria. He subscribed the 
musical articles in the Viennese official paper ; a treatise, " The Boundaries 
of Poetry and Music/' which he published in 1856, was in direct conflict with 
Hauslick's publication, " The Beautiful in Music/' and attracted consider- 
able notice. In 1862 appeared the first volume of his excellent "Musical 
History/' a work displaying his rare gifts as a critic and an art-historian. 
From 1864 to 1868 appeared the second and third volumes; the fourth, 
left unfinished by him, was completed by G. Nottebohm in 1878, two 
years after the death of Ambros, and contained a number of very impor- 
tant studies, dealing with the Palestrina period, and the influence of the 
Renaissance on the Florentines. But this gifted writer's treatment, begin- 
ning with the development of the musical history of the classic and pre- 
classic nations, does not extend much beyond the Netherland School of 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. It is strange that Ambros should 
be another of those eminent historians who died before the completion of 
their labours, this happening also to Padre Martini, of Bologna, with his 
" Storia della Musica," in the last century, and in the present century to 
Forkel, of Gottingen, and the Belgian Fetis. Ambros' imcomparable 
work, unfortunately still a torso, treats the history of music as affected 
by and bearing upon the history and development of the other arts, and dis- 
cusses, further, the influences of nationality, climate, politics, and ethics. 


He has also published a number of essays by no means abstruse in 
character, though showing to a remarkable degree his excellent intellectual 
education. The chief of these are "Bunte Blatter" (Musical and Art 
sketches and studies, in two volumes, published 1872 and 1874), and 
" Culturhistorische Bilder, aus dem Musikleben der Gegenwart " (Leipzig, 
1860), a work written in a graceful style ; from both of which one may 
learn much that is interesting. He occasionally makes departures into the 
serious realms of art-philosophy and history, but nevertheless maintains 
an attractive character that charms while it instructs. 

Arrey von Dommer, born in 1828 at Dantzig, August Reiszmann, born 
in 1825 in Silesia, and Heinrich Kostlin, born in 1846 at Tubingen, are 
historians of signal merit, Dommer having written a comprehensive " Hand- 
buch der Musikgeschichte," published in Leipzig, 1867, a second edition 
of which appeared in 1878. E-eiszmann, the composer of the operas 
Gudrun and Das Gralspiel, has written a useful musical history, besides his 
" Geschichte des deutschen liedes/^ for which the Leipzig University con- 
ferred on him the honorary title of Doctor. In addition to his " Geschichte 
der Musik im Umrisz," in two editions, Kostlin has also written the 
" Einfiihrung in die JSsthetik der Musik." The history of music by Dr. 
Brendel we have already referred to. 

Coming now to those writers who have devoted their researches and 
criticisms to special periods of tonal history, we find that the epoch of 
ancient Greece has been carefully treated by Heimsoeth, Kriiger, Beller- 
mann, "Westphal, Von Jan, and others. We refrain from naming eminent 
philologists, like Bockh and Ottfried Miiller, on account of their being such 
exclusively, though it should at the same time be stated that Heimsoeth was 
also a professor of philology at the University of Bonn ; but, as he was a dis- 
tinguished amateur musician, his remarkable investigations on the position 
and musical signification of the chorus in Greek tragedies have thereby 
acquired the weight attaching to the investigations of an expert, and as 
such they possess great importance for the musician. Similarly Friedrich 
Bellermann was also a philologist and a musical amateur of much merit. 
From 1847 to 1867 he was director to the Gymnasium of the Berlin Grey 
Monastery ; his profound work on Grecian scales and notes, and a treatise 
on the " Hymns of Dionysius and Mesomedes/' have gained for him great 
respect as a trustworthy writer on ancient Greek musical history. That 


learned musical theorist, Edward Kriiger, born in 1807 at Liineburg, held 
the appointment of professor of music at the University of Gottingen. He 
is the author of " De musicis Graecorum organis circa Pindari tempora," and 
"Grundrisz der Metrik" (published in 1838), works, deserving of serious 
attention. Rudolph Westphal, born in the year 1826, was from 1858 to 
1862 professor at Breslau University, and from 1875 professor at the 
Kalkow Museum, Moscow. He belongs to that section of writers who are 
distinguished alike for their philological and musical ability. In his 
" Plutarch iiber die Musik " (published in 1864), " Geschichte der alten 
und Mittelalterlichen Musik" (published in 1865), and "System der 
Antiken Rhythmik/' published in the same year, he exhibits profound in- 
vestigations and close reasoning, and has justly earned by those works much 
distinction. We can only accept his assertion that the Greeks were 
acquainted with polyphonic music, subject to restrictions, as to accept it 
entirely, without considerable limitations, would completely destroy our 
notion of the polyphony which we meet with in the a capella composers 
and organists, dating from the old French, Netherland, and Italian Schools, 
up to the time of Bach and Handel. 

Westphal has created an epoch in musical history in his " Allgemeine 
Theorie der Musikalisch Rhythmik seit J. S. Bach" (published in 1880), a 
work that has gained him great respect, and in which he enunciates propo- 
sitions deserving most careful consideration. Dr. Karl von Jan, head- 
master since 1884 at the Strassburg Lycee in Alsace, is the author of many 
excellent treatises, among which should be mentioned " Ueber antike 
Tonarten" (Fleckeisen's " Jahrbiicher fur Philologie," 1S67) ; " Die Har- 
monik des Aristoxenianers Kleonides" ("Programm Landsberg/' 1870), 
" Ueber antike Instrumente," a ; " Saiteninstrumente " (" Programm 
Saargemiind," 1882), b ; " Floten " (Baumeister's " Denkmaler " u. s. w., 
1885). In a similar manner to those writers who have treated the tonal 
history of the Greeks, the German musical savants, Commer, Proske, 
Mettenleiter, Bellerman (junior) , Von Winterf eld, Kade, and Andere, have 
exhaustively written about the music of the Middle Ages and the period of 
Luther and his immediate successors. Franz Commer, born in 1813 at 
Koln, has dealt very extensively and justly with the great polyphonic 
schools of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries in his " Collectio operum 
musicorum Batavorum saeculi XVI." This extensive work is completed 


in no less than twelve volumes. His "Musica sacra XVI., XVII. ssecu- 
lorum," still more voluminous, being in thirteen volumes ; and his " Collec- 
tion de compositions pour Torgue des XVI., XVII., XVIII. siecles," are 
other meritorious works. 

Karl Proske, cathedral chapel-master at Ratisbon, was, at the time 
of his death in 1861, the collector of a most valuable library of works of 
the a capella style, including " Musica Divina " (began in 1853, and con- 
tinued after his death by Vesselack in 1864) and " Selectus Novus Mis- 
sarum" (published in 1855), a work containing masses, motets, psalms, 
magnificats, hymns, vespers, and antiphonies by Anerio, Gabrieli, Gallus, 
Hassler, Lassus, Marenzio, Paciotti, Suriano, Vecchi, Viadana, Vittoria, and 
other masters. He cannot be too highly extolled for his efforts. 

J. G. Mettenleiter, born at Ratisbon, and dying there in 1858 
while organist and precentor of the Stiftskirche, gained even greater 
fame by his " Manuale Breve Cantionum ac Precum " and " Enchiridion 
Chorale, sive selectus locupletissimus cantionum liturgicarum juxta ritum 
S. Romanse Ecclesise" than by his sacred compositions 'for the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

Heinrich Bellermann, born in 1832 at Berlin, is the son of the savant of 
Greek music of that name whom we have recently mentioned. He was 
appointed in 1866 professor at the University of Berlin, and gained a 
much respected name by his treatise " Die Mensuralnoten and Tactzeichen 
im 15 und 16 Jahrhundert." He is also the author of a work on counter- 
point that has passed through two editions. In F. H. von der Hagen we 
meet the author of the " Minnesinger/' a work of interest, the third volume 
of which is illustrated with specimens taken from the Jena codex and other 
collections. He published in 1807 melodies to old German, Flemish, and 
French folk-songs, and died in 1856 while professor of literature at the 
University of Berlin. 

Karl von Winterfeld, born at Berlin in 1852, added to the library of 
musical history his work on Johannes Pierluigi Palestrina (published in 
1832), and in 1834 " Johannes Gabrieli und sein Zeitalter." Later on, in 
1840, appeared " Dr. Martin Luther's deutsche geistliche Lieder," and 
between 1843 and 1847 " Der evangelische Kirchengesang und sein Ver- 
haltniss zur Kunst des Tonsatzes," a work in three quarto volumes. These 
ure classical works of a valuable nature, and in addition to being written in 


a very comprehensive and spirited manner, unite in a great measure 
an individual and independent research to a profound knowledge whilst 
advancing propositions of great import to the tonal art. 

With regard to Luther and the Evangelical Church music, we meet 
with an able exponent in Otto Kade, born in 1825 at Dresden, and since 
1860 music director of the grand ducal cathedral choir at Schweriu. His 
work, published in 1872, " Neu aufgefundene Luther-Codex vom Jahr 
1530," and that on " Le Maistre/' are such as may justly be described as 
evincing a most genuine and excellent treatment of their subject. His 
explanatory musical additions (1881) to the third volume of A. W. 
Ambros' work on musical history are well worth study. He became a 
member of Robert Eitner's society for musical research (established in 1868), 
and in 1877 published, in the seventh volume of the society's journals, the 
" Wittembergisch Geistlich Gesangbuch " of Johann Walther, the well- 
known friend of Martin Luther. 

In the realm of musical research, Bitter and Schletterer appear to have 
approached more closely in their investigations to the period of the present 
than those authors to whom we have just referred. C. H. Bitter, born in 
1813 at Schwedt, and dying in 1885 at Berlin, was by profession a lawyer, 
and became in 1879 Prussian Minister of Finance, publishing in the same 
year his " Beitrage zur Geschichte des Oratoriums." In 1884 his " Die 
Reformation der Oper durch Gluck und Richard Wagner's Kuntswerk der 
Zukunft " appeared ; he gained notoriety by his pamphlets on Mozart's 
Don Giovanni and Gluck's Iphigenia in Tauris, as well as on that of Ger- 
vinus's " Handel and Shakespeare." H. M. Schletterer, born in 1824 at 
Ansbach, had the honorary title of Doctor conferred on him by the Uni- 
versity of Tiibingen in 1878, and has been since 1866 the director of the 
Augsburg Conservatorium and Oratorio Union. He has made himself 
favourably known through his " Studien zur Geschichte der franzosischen 
Musik" (the first section of which is the "Geschichte der Hofkapelle 
der franzosischen Konige/' the second, the " Geschichte der Spielmanns- 
zunft in Frankreich und der Pariser Geigerkonige/' and the third, the 
" Vorgeschichte und erste Yersuche der franzosischen Oper"), a work 
that appeared between 1884 and 1885. Older historical treatises are his 
" Geschichte der geistlicheii Dichtung Kirchlichen Toukunst," the first 
volume of which appeared in 1879, his " Zur Geschichte der dramatischen 


Musik uncl Poesie in Deutschland," published in 1863, and " Der Ursprung 

der Oper." 

Otto Gumprecht, born in 1823 at Erfurt, a Doctor of Law in Berlin Uni- 
versity, became in 1849 musical critic of the National zeitung. Etis is the 
merit of having widely spread the knowledge of our classical masters. - He 
has treated, in separate parts, special periods of musical history, concerning 
which we would direct attention to those entitled " Unsere Klassischen 
Meister " and " Neuere Meister." These have also been linked together 
and published under the title " Musikalische Lebens- und Charakterbilder," 
a second edition appearing at Leipzig in 1883. 

La Mara (Marie Lipsius), born in 1837 at Leipzig, has obtained celebrity 
through her " Musikalische Studienkopfe," a work in four volumes, pub- 
lished between 1873 and 1880, dealing with Weber, Schubert, Men- 
delssohn, Schumann, Chopin, Liszt, Wagner, Cherubim, Spontini, Rossini, 
Boieldien, Hector Berlioz, &c., and written in an intelligent and agreeable 
manner, although a not inconsiderable proportion has been derived from 
other works. Mpritz Fiirstenau, born in 1824 at Dresden, was the son of 
A. Bernhard Fiirstenau and grandson of 'Kaspar Fiirstenau, both of them 
celebrated flautists. He was the author of the thoughtful and original works, 
" Beitrage zur Geschichte der Konigl. sachsischen musikalischen Kapelle " 
(published in 1849), and " Zur Geschichte der Musik und des Theaters am 
Hofe zu Dresden" (published between 1861 and 1862), and, in addition, 
wrote a large number of pamphlets and essays treating of the history of 
music. He is himself an excellent flautist, and has been since 1842 con- 
nected with the court orchestra of Dresden ; in 1852 he was appointed 
librarian to the king's private library, and in 1881 received the title of 
Royal Professor of Music. 

To our most prominent musical antiquaries and biographers belong 
Polchau, Bohme, Dorffel, Eitner, Von Kochel, &c. Georg Polchau, born 
in 1836 at Berlin, was one of the shrewdest collectors of old musical 
works, and purchased, amongst others, the whole of the musical collection 
of Philipp Emanuel Bach ; thus he amassed treasures of this nature of 
much value, which, on his death, became the property of the Royal Library 
at Berlin. 

Magnus Bohme, born in 1827 near Weimar, and professor of musical 
history and counterpoint at the Hoch Conservatorium at Frankfort-on-the- 


Maine since 1878, has gained an enviable name by his "Altdeusches 
Liederbuch," a work that shows considerable spirit ; its authentic melodies 
and texts are evidently the work of a critical mind, and must have been 
the continuous labour of at least a year. 

Alfred Dorffel, born in 1821, was appointed successor to K. F. Becker, 
organist to the Church of St. Peter, Leipzig. He was the founder of a 
valuable subscription library for orchestral scores and older and rarer works 
of a theoretical and historical nature. He furnished most complete thematic 
catalogues of the works of Sebastian Bach and Robert Schumann, and, in a 
very meritorious manner, assisted in the publication of Breitkopf and 
Hartel's celebrated edition of classic composers. 

Robert Eitner, born in 1832 at Breslau, applied his scientific ability to 
bibliographical productions, such as, e.g., the " Lexikon der hollandischen 
Tondichter," by which he gained the prize offered by the City of Amster- 
dam in 1867. This, and also his " Verzeichnisz neuer Ausgaben alter 
Musikwerke aus der friihesten Zeit bis zum Jahre 1800" (a work by 
which he is best known), his " Bibliographic der Musiksammelwerke des 
16 und 17 Jahrhunderts/' and his " Verzeichnisz der Gedruckten Werke 
von Hans Leo Haszler und Orlandus de Lassus," are works in which he 
has shown his ceaseless musical activity. 

Chevalier Ludwig von Kochel (died in 1877 at Vienna) not only 
obtained prominence through his " Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichnisz 
sammtlicher Tonwerke W. A. Mozart's/' but also by his " Die Kaiserliche 
Hofmusikkapelle zu Wein von 1543 bis 1867," which gives a careful review 
of those musicians that during more than three centuries were engaged 
in the Imperial Chapel, and which has secured him celebrity both as an 
antiquary and musical historian. 

Turning now to the most important German musical biographers, we 
have to mention first Friedrich Chrysander, born in 1826 in Mecklenburg. 
He became Doctor of Philosophy at Rostock University, and was co-founder 
of the Leipzig Handel Society. A work still unfinished, but which 
merited the name it gained him, is his biography of Handel, consisting in 
its incomplete state of two and a half volumes. Equally noteworthy are 
his contributions to the " Jahrbiicher fur musikalische Wissenschaft," of 
which he was also the editor (vide the issues of 1863, 1867, and 1885). 
His edition of Carissimi's oratorios published in his "Denkmalern der 


Tonkunst" was an excellent finish to his labours because of its real 


Scarcely less important than the labours of Chrysander, in connection 
with the works and biography of Handel, are those of Philipp Spitta, 
born in 1841 at Hoya, near Hanover, with respect to the works, &c., of 
Johann Sebastian Bach. He studied philology at Gottingen, and in 3874 
assisted in the foundation of the Leipzig Bach Society. In 1875 he was 
called to Berlin to act in the triple role of permanent secretary to the 
Royal Academy, as professor of music to the University, and as professor 
of musical history at the Royal High School. His biography of Bach in 
two volumes (published respectively in 1873 and 1880) introduces, like 
that of Handel by Chrysander, much new matter in an objective historical 
criticism. In 1875 and 1876 he published two folio volumes of a critical 
edition of the organ works of Buxtehude. In respect of G. F. Handel, 
G. G. Gervinus (born in 1805 at Darmstadt, died in 1871 at Heidelberg), 
the well-known German literary historian and professor at Heidelberg 
University, must be referred to because of his authorship of " Handel und 
Shakespeare; zur ^Esthetik der Tonkunst" (published in 1868), a work 
which, although containing much that is important, nevertheless proves how 
even eminent professors, when treating* of other than their own special 
subjects, are liable to err in their judgments. Gervinus also translated 
into German the libretti of Handel's oratorios, which were published by 
his widow in 1873. 

In a similar manner Dr. Wilhelm Rust, born in 1822 at Dessau, and 
cantor at St. Thomas's Church, Leipzig, since 1880 has laboured cease- 
lessly in the production of the edition of Bach's works published by 
Breitkopf and H'artel. To this Rust has added no less than thirty critical 
analyses and prefaces. 

Otto Jahn may, in a certain manner, be considered a precursor of 
Chrysander and Spitta, so far as regards the biographies of classical musi- 
cians. He was born at Kiel in 1830, and in 1855 became professor of 
antiquarian research and director of the Academic Museum of Art at Bonn. 
He was one of the most distinguished of German archaeologists and philo- 
logists. His biography of Mozart, published originally between 1856 and 
1860 in four volumes, was in a second edition reduced to two; and it may 
fairly be regarded as a standard work on the life and labours of one of 


the most eminent representatives of musical art. The celebrated philo- 
logist Ritschl has referred to this work and its novel philological-critical 
method as one of the greatest achievements of our time. Jahn died at 
Gb'ttingen in the year 1869, leaving a large amount of matter for intended 
biographies of Haydn and Mozart, which, however, has been utilised by 
the American biographer Thayer (concerning whom it will be our duty to 
speak in connection with our review of English music), and by C. F. Pohl, 
of Vienna, of whom we shall now treat. 

Carl Ferdinand Pohl, born in 1819 at Darmstadt, was in 1849 
appointed organist at Vienna, and in 1866 keeper of the records of the 
Society of the Friends of Music. His seriously written biography of 
Haydn, in two volumes, appearing in 1878 and 1882 respectively, is 
defective only in so far as it omits to treat of the period subsequent to 
1 790. He has written other excellent works, one of which, " Mozart and 
Haydn in London/' appeared in 1867. 

Of the savants of the present that have made a special study of the life 
of Beethoven, we have to mention M. G. Nottebohm,, born in 1817 in 
Westphalia, died in 1882 at Gratz. He is an author who, in our opinion, 
has no compeer, and shows in his " Ein Skizzenbuch von Beethoven " (pub- 
lished in 1865), " Thematisches Verzeichnisz der im Druck erschienenen 
Werke von Beethoven" (1868), " Beethoviana " (1872), "Beethoven's 
Studien" (Band 1. Beethoven's "Unterricht bei Haydn, Albrechtsberger, 
Salieri : nach den Originalmauuscripten," 1873), ff Neue Beethoviana" 
(1875), and "Ein Skizzenbuch von Beethoven aus dem Jahre 1803" 
(1880), much depth of reasoning and trustworthiness of form. He also 
published -a "Thematisches Verzeichnisz der im Druck erschienenen 
Werke Franz Schubert" (1874), and " Mozartiana" (1880) ; and here we 
might refer, as regards biographies of Beethoven, to an excellent pamphlet 
of Dr. Gerhard von Brenning, son of Beethoven's friend Stephan von 
Brenning, entitled "Aus dem Schwarzspanierhause, Erinneruug an L. v. 
Beethoven aus meiner Jugendzeit," published at Vienna in 1874. Although 
unable to notice them critically in any way, yet we are not precluded 
from directing attention to the work of C. H. Better, in two volumes, 
" Johann Sebastian Bach," and his " Philipp Emanuel und Friedemann 
Bach/' as well as the " Franz Schubert " of Dr. Heinrich Kreiszle von 
Hellborn, published at Vienna in 1S65, the " Robert Schumann," in three 


volumes, of Joseph von Wesielewski, published in 1858, and his essay, 
"DieVioline und ihre Meister;" also to Max vonJWe Ws biography of 
his father, Karl Maria yon Weber, published in T8647~to the "Christoph 
Willibald Bitter von Gluck "' (1854) of Anton Schmid, and to the 
" Johann Friedrich Reichardt " of H. M. Schletterer. 

Among the few German professors of acoustics and physics, Hermann 
Helmholz, born in 1821 at Potsdam, is by far the most prominent. Having 
studied medicine and anatomy, he turned to the study of physiology and 
natural philosophy, holding during the jears 1849, 1855, 1858, and 1871, 
the appointment of professor to the Universities of Konigsberg, Bonn, 
Heidelberg, and Berlin respectively. This excellent physicist wrote in 
1863 a celebrated work, "Lehre von den Tonempfindungen, als physiolo- 
gische Grundlage der Musik," which, not only to the science of music 
generally, but to all practical musicians wishing to obtain an insight into 
the physiological aspect of their art, will be found to be of very great 
value. In this work he emphasises the methods of Rameau and Chladni, 
and points out how the whole action of music on man consists in the 
relationship of our nervous activity to the vibrations of objective bodies. 
He shows how the impressions of sound and colour are originated through 
the vibrations of bodies and light transmitted through air and ether re- 
spectively. The effect of these vibrations varies according to their nature, 
which may be modified according to the nervous capacity of the organs of 
sight and hearing. Helmholz goes on to show in what way the different 
excitements of the nerves affected by sound-waves correspond to their 
special causes, and how the laws of musical theory were based on such a 
process long before the principle was discovered. Specially important are 
the results of his investigations with regard to the varying nature of the 
tone-colour of different instruments, as well as his explanation of dis- 
sonances by interrupted vibrations. His valuable survey of the tone- 
systems of the Arabs, and of the Greeks since Pythagoras and Terpander, 
and other cultured nations, deserves passing notice. 

Arthur von Oettingen, born in 1836 at Dorpat, and since 1865 professor 
of physical science at the Dorpat University, has written a work of much 
value for musicians in his " Harmoniesystem in dualer Entwickelung " 
(published in 1866), and in it shows felicitously the correspondence between 
the "Lehre von der Harmonik" (Laws of Harmony), the "Natur der 



Harmonik und Metrik" of Hauptmann, and the acoustic principles as 
advanced by Helmholz. 

Within recent years theorists have numerically become fewer, and if we 
except such as Flodoard Geyer, or those authors who offer the means of that 
apparently rapid acquirement which has the inevitable result of giving but 
an imperfect grasp of the subject, we have only to add to the names of such 
theorists of later times as Marx, Dehn, and Hauptmann that of J. C. Lobe, 
an author dying in 1881, while professor of music at Leipzig, and whose 

Fig. 291. The Vienna Opera- House. 

most celebrated work is his " Lehrbuch der Musikalischen Composition tf 
(published in four volumes between 1851 and 1867). His " Lehre von der 
Thematischen Arbeit " (1846), and his " Musikalischen Briefe von einem 
Wohlbekannten " (published between 1853 and 1860), are works well 
deserving mention. 

Lobe was also an eminent classical art-critic, but often lost himself, in 
the mere formality of the work, in a purely subjective analysis of the com- 
poser's intention expressed in succeeding bars (vide his otherwise excellent 
analysis of the Don Giovanni overture). He, as a representative of the 
classical school, held the view indicated in the following quotations from 
his writings : " Our classical tone-masters in the Temple of Art believed 
that the human mind should be freed from the sorrows and miseries of 

A A A A 


every-day life. Now the belief seems to be gaining- ground that art should 
oppress the heart and torture it even more than life itself/"' 

Almost as complete a musical theory as that of Lobe was the one ad- 
duced by Reiszmann. His " Lehrbuch der Musikalischen Composition " 
was published in three volumes between 1866 and 1871 at Berlin, the first 
containing the rudiments, the second treating of the " accepted " form, 
and the third of orchestration. Of great practical value is Ernst Friedrich 
Richter's work, " Praktische Studien zur Theorie der Musik," published 
in three parts, which treat respectively of harmony, counterpoint, and 
fugue. The first of these has been translated into six languages, and had 
up to 1880 passed through no less than fourteen editions in Germany. 
Richter, while at Leipzig, was a colleague of Hauptmann as a professor 
of composition, and his work gains a special value on account of its 
embodiment in a practical form of the system of his celebrated compeer. 
In 1868 he became successor to Hauptmann as cantor to the Church of 
St. Thomas, and has, in following the Mendelssohn- Hauptmann School, 
shown in composition some interesting work of a sacred nature. He died 
at Leipzig in 1879. 

To the group of the German physicists and theorists we add those 
authors of aesthetic works and art-philosophy, such as W. H. Riehl, born 
in 1823 at Biebrich on the Rhine. Of those of his works containing a 
mass of new ideas on the basis of sound historical studies, and which by 
their attractiveness have gained much popularity with the greater part of 
the educated German public, we must mention the " Musikalische Charak- 
terkopfe" (published in 1853, a second issue with additions appearing in 
1861), and ' ' Culturstudien " (containing the essays "Das Musikalische 
Ohr," " Geistliche Gassen Musik," " Volksgesang/' " Heermusik/' " Geige 
und Clavier," "Musikalische Architektonik/' "Die Antike in der Ton- 
kunst/' &c.). Riehl, besides being an art-philosopher, is a lawyer, and 
professor of the University of Munich since 1854. He is also known as a 
composer by his " Hausmusik," published between 1856 and 1877. 

With regard to the study of musical aesthetics, we find in Edward 
Hanslick, bom in 1825 at Prague, a most important author on the 
subject. His "Von Musikalisch-Schonen ein Beitrag zur Revision der 
/Esthetik der Tonkunst" (published in 1854) has been translated into three 
languages, and has in Germany passed through six editions. It fixes the 


aesthetic creed of the musician, which till 1854 moved in manifold ways 
in the realm of purely subjective conception, by restricting it to an excel- 
lent and sound basis deduced from natural laws. Of his best works we 
would prefer "Die Moderne Oper" (1880), which has reached its fourth 
edition. Hanslick received the degree of Doctor of Law in 1849, and since 
1870 has held the appointment of professor of music to the University of 
Vienna. He is one of the most brilliant of the musical feuilletonists and 
critics of Germany. 

Other authors on musical aesthetics we meet with in Karl Kbstlin, born 
in 1819 in Wurtemburg; Heinrich Ehrlich, born in 1824 at Vienna; and 
Oustav Engel, born in 1823 at Konigsberg. The last-named has been 
since 1874 professor at the Royal High School, Berlin, and is one of the 
most prominent teachers of singing that Germany possesses. In his pro- 
found work, " ^Esthetik der Tonkunst/' published at Berlin in 1884, he 
bases his conception of aesthetics on that of Hegel, and in so doing im- 
parts to his work a philosophic and strictly scientific character. Heinrich 
Ehrlich is the author of a spirited and intellectual work on the same 
subject. Kostlin, in addition to a treatise on musical aesthetics, contri- 
buted the musical portion to the third volume of Theodor Vischer's work 
that treats of the aesthetics of the collective arts, and gained thereby a 
lasting name. Of works referring more especially to an intelligent inter- 
pretation of musical compositions, we would mention David Wagner's 
" Musikalische Ornamentik" (published at Berlin in 1863), and the sections 
in Damm's " Clavierschule " and Riemann's " Methode," treating of 
musical phrasing (published by Steingraber, of Hanover). In these works 
the authors discuss the subject in a very extensive manner, and, although 
it is by no means an entirely new one, it had never before received so full a 

We complete our list of German musical savants by referring to the group 
of lexicographers, the most prominent of whom are Mendel, Von Ledebur, 
Paul, and Riemann. Hermann Mendel, who died in 1876 at Berlin, 
published in 1870 his " Musikalisches Conversationslexikon," in which he 
only reached to the letter M, the rest being completed by Reiszmann. 
Oskar Paul, born in 1836 in Silesia, and professor of music at the Leipzig 
University, published in 1873 a small encyclopaedia, and in 1872 a transla- 
tion of the five books of Boetius " De Musica/' which now forms a valuable 
A A A A 2 


addition to the history of the earliest Christian era. Freiherr Karl von 
Ledebur, born in 1806 near Bielefeld, was up to the year 1852 an officer 
of the Prussian cavalry, and published in 1860 his musical " Tonkunstler- 
lexikon Berlins von den altesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart." Hugo 
Riemann, born in 1849 near Sondershausen, and since 1878 a private tutor 
in the University of Leipzig, published a " Musik-Lexikon," containing, in 
addition, a treatise on theory and orchestration ; he has also shown ability 
as a composer of the new German School. Robert Musiol, born in 1846 at 
Breslau, is the author of the " Musikalisches Fremworterbuch " and " Kate- 
chismus der Musikgeschichte," and the editor of the tenth edition of Julius 
Schubert's " Musikalisches Conversationslexikon " (published in 1877). 

We have dealt up to this point with the music of Germany. To the 
number of schools and artistic individualities by which it is represented are 
opposed the less numerous masters of other countries, which, however, have 
much increased during the last ten or fifteen years, and of these countries 
France and Italy have, in our opinion, with Germany, been the most pro- 
minent from a musical point of view. But we have to remark, that in 
modern times, the Scandinavians, i.e., Danes, Norwegians, and Swedes, and 
the subdivisions of the Slavonic race, viz., the Russians, Czecks, and Poles, 
have during the period above mentioned also forced themselves prominently 
forward by their undeniable genius. England, however, has not much ex- 
ceeded the average of its musical productivity, for amongst the English, 
as well as the Spanish and Portuguese, there do not seem to be any 
masters whose works have been performed out of their country to such a 
degree as has been the case with those of the masters of the Scandinavian 
and Slavonic races. 

We will now proceed to treat of Italian tonal art. We find prominent 
among the masters in the foremost rank Giuseppe Verdi, bom in 181 3^ near 
Busseto, in the Duchy of Parma. He received his musical education in 
the Academy of Milan, where in 1839 he produced his first opera, Oberto, 
(a, i ft- dl #. Bonifacio. From its manifest resemblance to the style of 
Bellini he gained by it some publicity. His operas, Nabucodonosor ; per- 
formed 1842, Ernani in 1844, / due Foscari, also in 1844, and Luisa 
Miller (the libretto adapted from Schiller's " Kabale und Liebe"), began 
to increase that publicity, but without doubt the world-wide popularity he 
now enjoys rests on his Rigoletto, performed in 1851, II Trovatore in 1853, 



La Traviata (adapted from Dumas' "Dame aux Camelias "), Il^Ballo in 
M^ascHerd, and that most admirable production, A'ida, performed in 1871, on 
thiTopening of the Italian Opera, Cairo ; for the last-named, we may add, 
he received 4,000. The operas written specially for the Paris Grand 
Opera, Les Vepres Siciliennes and Don Carlos (founded on Schiller's " Don 

Fig. 292. Giuseppe Verdi. 

Carlos "), contain much that is noteworthy, but bear no comparison to his 
five most celebrated operas ; and more especially is this so for the reason 
that his endeavour^to assimilate the style of the Paris Grand Opera (as 
introduced by Rossini, and continued up to the time of Donizetti) to his 
own was detrimental, inasmuch as he was no longer the exponent of his 
own feelings, but by assuming a garb that was to him foreign, was 
restricted from a full and complete expression. The result of this is that 


one intuitively feels that the newer element does not combine by any 
means in a favourable way with his own real merit. Unfortunately, Verdi 
went even further, for in his re-writing of Don Carlos at a subsequent date, 
he not only wrote in the style of the Paris Grand Opera, but showed a 
strong imitation of the second period of Richard Wagner, by which he was 
led to deviate from the established art-form, and to desert in several scenes 
his well-known del canto in favour of the undue prominence of orchestral 
painting so characteristic of that German master. 

In his other operas, such as Rigoletto, La Traviala, and // Trovatore, we 
meet with the influence of Auber, Meyerbeer, and Halevy, yet there is an 
abundant charm of Italian melody and a naivete that exclude that ten- 
dency to strained effects, evident in those works written by him for the 
Parisian opera. Most successful was he in his praiseworthy effort to adopt 
in A'ida a deeper and more dramatic character than had been usually shown 
by Italian masters. In 1874 he surprised the musical world, which had up 
till then regarded him solely as a dramatic composer, by his great Requiem, 
the style of which was very elevated, besides being pathetic in expression 
and full of youthful fire, containing also soli, ensembles, and choruses 
whose masterly polyphony is worthy of Mendelssohn. It is a production 
all the more surprising when it is considered that it was written at the 
comparatively advanced age of sixty-one, and is the work in which Verdi 
approaches most closely to the masters of the German Genius epoch, and 
especially to Mozart, and the modern Classical school. 

It is quite natural that such a talent as Verdi's should have influenced 
his compatriots, and that he should find among them many regarding him 
as their master. Among these we have to mention Arrigo Boito, bora in 
1842 at Padua, who, however, adopts in many ways the principles of the 
second period of Richard Wagner. His first work, the cantata Le Sorelle 
d' Italia, performed in 1868 at Milan, was folio wed by the opera Mefistofele, 
the libretto of which is based on Goethe's Faust, and was succeeded by 
the operas Hero and Leander and Nerone. It is interesting to note that 
Boito is a poet of some considerable merit. Francesco Cortesi deserves 
notice on account of his opera Mariulizza, performed in 1875 at the 
Pergola Theatre, Florence. The Gioconda of Amilcare Ponchielli (born in 
1834) was performed in 1876, and has been, like the Mefistofele of Boito, 
produced at Vienna and in Germany. Ponchielli's Marion Delorme met 


with much success on its performance in 1885 at the Scala Theatre, 

Filippo Marchetti, born in 1835 at Bolognola, produced at the Carcano 
and Scala Theatres his operas Romeo e Giulietta (in 1865) and Ruy Blax 
(in 1869), gaining thereby much popularity. Franco Faccio, born in 1841 
at Verona, is the composer of the operas Iprofnghi Fiamminghi and Amleto, 
which were produced respectively in 1863 and 1871. Carlo Pedrotti, 
born in 1817 at Verona, composed two operas, II Favorito and Olema, per- 
formed at Turin and Milan, respectively, in 1870 and 1873, with much 
success. Giro Pinsuti, born in 1829 near Siena, is the composer of the 
operas II Mercante di Venezia and Mattia Corvino, produced in 1873 and 

Before closing this review of Italian masters, we would like to refer 
to the work of Dr. Carl Riese, whose skilful translations of Italian libretti 
are deserving of much praise. He was specially engaged to translate into 
German for the Vienna stage Verdi's Simone Boccanegra, Boito's Mefistofele, 
and Ponchielli's Gioconda; and for the Dresden stage, Marchetti's Ruy 
Bias and Verdi's Don Carlos, and in each case paid special attention to 
a correct idiomatic rendering while, using language permitting of easy 
vocalisation. His earlier adaptations are those from Mozart's Idomeneo, 
Le Nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosifan tutte, and La Clemenza di Tito. 

Of the Italians most renowned in the field of musical research, we must 
mention Francesco Florimo, born in 1800 near Reggio, who introduced 
himself to the public through his work in two volumes entitled " Cenno 
Storico sulla Scuola Musicale di Napoli," published between 1869 and 1876. 
He showed his interest in German art by another work written in 1879, 
entitled " Riccardo Wagner ed i Wagneristi." * Florimo was appointed 
in 1826 librarian to the Real Collegio di Musica at Naples, the Conserva- 
torium of which city adopted the principles set forth by him in his 
" Metodo di Canto." 

Federigo Polidoro, born in 1845 at Naples, is an author of eminence in 
the field of musical history and aesthetics. By his representation of classic 
German, French, and Italian musicians, he has gained much celebrity, 

* An anonymous pamphlet on the same subject appeared in 1885 at Bologna, " Traccic 
per una ricerca intorno alia musica di Wagner ed alia musica italiana," and serves to show 
the widespread interest in German art. 


more especially in his " Dei pretesi portenti della Musica Antica," and has 
been since 1874 professor of aesthetic and musical history to the Conserva- 
torium of Naples. We must not omit to mention Gamucci, born in 1822 
at Florence, a composer of sacred works, and the author of " Intorno alia 
vita ed alle Opere di Luigi Cherubini." 

"We will conclude this review of Italian musicians and historians by 
referring briefly to the author Gaetano Gaspari, born in 1807 at Bologna, 
and dying there in 1881 ; the gifted composer for the pianoforte, Stefano 
Golinelli ; the song- writers, Gordigiani and Campana ; and, among im- 
portant instrumental composers, G. Sgambati, a pupil of Liszt, whose 
string quartett in D flat major, Op. 17, shows genuine sentiment and 
occasional euphony. In this work he, unlike many disciples of the New 
Romantic School, does not aspire to orchestral effects by the aid of 
tremolos, arpeggios, and other unfit contrivances. He shows that he is 
aware that this class of composition in its polyphonic treatment still insists 
on melody; and although a tendency to extravagance becomes apparent, and 
an attempt evinces itself to emulate the so-called posthumous quartetts 
of Beethoven, yet we meet with sufficient inborn gift to attract our 

We will now turn to the school of French musicians, of which the 
greater number are composers of operas. These either follow the romantic, 
and always more or less pathetic opera, or that graceful and romantic 
comic opera which is so peculiar to the French nature. The former has its 
representatives in such gifted musicians as Gounod, Bizet, and Massenet, 
the latter in Delibes, Thomas, and Masse. To these we might add 
Offenbach, who is not without talent, although of a lower kind. A third 
section comprising Saint-Saens, Felicien David, Reber, Lacombe, Godard, 
and Blanc, has devoted itself to the composition of orchestral works. 

In each of these groups there are those that follow their compatriot, 
Berlioz, or turn directly to the old and new German Romantic School. We 
specially refer to Gounod, Saint-Saens, and Bizet. We have also, in order 
to complete our list, to name as a fourth group the musical theorists and 
historians of France, of whom Castel-Blaze, Vincent, Kastner, Chouquet, 
Bidal, and Pougin are the best known.* 

* We do not include in this list of French theorists F6tis, Nisard, De Coussemaker, and 
aevaert, for the reason that they have not dealt with French but Belgian theory. Further, 


We will now proceed to treat of the most prominent composers. Charles 
Fra^ois Gounod, born in 1818 at Paris, a pupil of Paer, Lesueur, and Halevy, 
gained in 1839 "Le Prix de Rome" for a cantata. While in Rome he 
studied the works of the Italian masters of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, writing in 1842 a Requiem. At this time he was strongly dis- 
posed to enter the Church, but in the course of his travels through Germany 
the works of Mendelssohn and Schumann came under his notice, and owing 
to their impression upon him, he was induced to continue his studies in 
music. His first operas, Sappho, performed in 1851, and La nonne Sanglante, 
performed in 1854, attracted the notice of the Parisian public; it was, how- 
ever, owing to the success of Fajt&t, performed in 1859, that his fame reached 
its climax. The opera does not pretend to paint the metaphysical side of 
the Faust of Goethe, but, while allotting it the premier r61e, depicts it only 
in the character of a fantastic lover. The imagination of the poet was 
excited, however, almost exclusively through the German maiden Mar- 
guerite. But if, while accepting Gounod's interpretation of the latter 
character, we make some concessions to the French taste (concessions which 
are entirely opposed to Goethe's conception), and- accept the delineation 
expressed in the waltz song, for instance, and the joyful dance, during 
which she adorns herself with the jewels, then must we admit that this 
interpretation justly claims for Gounod's work a place among the best 
romantic operas of modern times. And the twenty-six years of its unabated 
success on all European and American stages, and even in Germany, go far 
to prove this assertion. It will be long before one discovers in the works 
of the present dramatic composers anything containing so much melody 
and dramatic passion as that exhibited by Gounod. We refer, in support 
of this assertion, to the garden scene towards the end of the third act, 
Valentine's death, and the cathedral scene. A work of equal merit, which, 
in our opinion, is but too little known, is his Philemon et Baucis, per- 
formed for the first time in 1860 at Paris, and which we consider to be far 
more original than his Romeo et Juliette (performed in 1867 at Paris), in 

we did not ckssify, in our list of German musical theorists, the Germans Kastner, Kreutzer, 
Zimmcrmann, Herold, Habeneck, Adam, and others ; nor Gretry in the Flemish School, although 
a Belgian by birth, nor similarly Onslow in the English School. All these masters (Fetis, 
Nisard, De Coussemaker, and Gevaert excepted) more properly belong to the French School, 
whereas Fetis and his three compeers have been, on account of their position as Belgian 
musical savants, included in the Flemish School. 


which one must admit the lower level of invention and dramatic power,, 
although it met on its production with greater success than that accorded 
to Philemon et Baucis. Besides the operas named, Gounod wrote eight 
that failed to achieve popularity. He has also written a number of sacred 
works, e.g., masses, Latin hymns, the oratorios Tobias, The Redemption, 
Hors et Vita (performed for the first time in 1885 at Birmingham), 
and many sets of excellent songs. A rather sentimental meditation on 
the first prelude of the great Sebastian Bach's Forty-eight Preludes and 
Fugues has secured Gounod considerable popularity among amateurs, but we 
must confess it is not in strict accord with the spirit of that great* master. 
His artistic objectivity is shown in a decisive manner in his reverence 
and enthusiasm for German music, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Weber, and 
Wagner being the masters that have most influenced him. 

A contemporary of Gounod, but of much less importance, is Aime 
Maillart, born in 1817 at Montpellier, died in 1871 at Moulins. His most 
popular opera, Les Dragons de Fillars, performed in Paris in 1856, although 
not exhibiting the gracefulness and sentiment of Auber's best comic operas, 
displays much piquancy, and has the true spirit of the opera comique. A com- 
poser of more depth and originality than Maillart was George Bizet, born in 
1838 at Paris, dying there in 1875. . He was a pupil of HalevyTand gained 
in 1856 the "Offenbach" prize for his operetta Der WunderdoMor, and 
in 1857 the " Grand Prix de Rome." It was not till ljJ75 J _in~Pa^ that his 
Carmen was produced, the success of which spread his name to other 
countries. This work sufficed to gain for Bizet a European fame, never 
destined for his enjoyment, the year of its great success being the year of 
his decease. If we inquire of ourselves whether Carmen deserved its fame, 
we cannot deny that in many respects it was fully merited, but we only 
admit this provided certain extravagances in harmony, rhythm, and instru- 
mentation are disregarded. TheVpera shows decided originality and ad- 
herence to the established art-form, and although employing the modern 
orchestral colouring, makes it ever subservient to the voice. It is very 
successful in its portrayal of Spanish character, which finds its embodiment 
in the admixture of glowing passion and humour in the leading role, and 
in the interpretation of which Pauline Lucca and Lilli Lehmann have suc- 
ceeded in a pre-eminent degree. The incredible number of the performances 
of Carmen has been proved by statistics, prepared in 1883 at Berlin, to 


have exceeded those of Weber's and Wagner's works combined. In the 
entr'acte music to Daudet's drama, I/Arlesienne^ Bizet shows much origi- 
nality, energy, and grace. After his early death and the great success 
of Carmen, a very natural inclination was shown by the public to hear 
others of his compositions. To meet this the entr'actes were arranged as 
an orchestral suite, and in such form have been performed by the chief 
German orchestras. 

Working in a different groove to that of Bizet is Jules Massenet, born in 
1842 near St. Etienne, another composer belonging to the group now under 
review. Having gained " Le Prix de Rome " for his cantata Rizzio f he 
received the honourable distinction of "Mejnbre de I'lnstitut/' and in 
1878 the professorial chair at the Conservatoire. He is especially distin- 
guished for his settings of Biblical jinynas, a species of composition which, 
both as regards libretto and music, is in character partly oratorio and 
partly opera, and in which he may be said to have been preceded by 
Anton Rubinstein. His most important Biblical dramas are Marie Made- 
leine (1873), Eve (1875), and La Vierge. He has, in addition, written 
orchestral suites, overtures, fantasias, &c., and secured celebrity outside 
France by two works written for the Paris Grand Opera, Le Roi de 
Lahore, and Herodias. 

"""it the head of the French national comic-opera writers of the present 
stands Leo Delibes, born in 1836 at St. Germain du Val. Among his 
many charming operas that are very tastefully scored, we would mention 
Le Roi I'a dit (1873) and Lakme (1883), works that were his most success- 
ful productions. In the first-named, which has been performed on almost 
all German stages, we cannot refrain from referring to a charming " f ugato " 
introduced in a serenade. We may mention that much praise has been 
awarded to his grand ballet Coppelia. 

A composer, in our opinion, of much less importance than Delibes is 
Ambroise Thomas, born in 1811 at Metz. His most popular work, Mignon 
(1866), performed on almost all the principal stages, shows but little depth, 
although it must be admitted that it leaves the impress of a certain talent. 
With the exception of certain portions, the whole of the music falls short 
of that required by the high poetic creation of Goethe's heroine. Of 
Thomas's Hamlet, written in 1868, it has been asserted that it is very 
little in advance of Mignon in point of style. 


Of similar capacity is Victor Masses, born in 1822 at L'Orient, and 
in 1876 appointed Auber's successor in the French Academy. Of his 
sixteen operas (eight of which are in character comic) the following have 
obtained most popularity, Le Fils du Brigadier (1867), Paul et Virginie 
(1876), and La Nuit de Cleopdtre (1877). We have now to mention 
Jacques Offenbach, born in 1819 at Cologne, died in 1880 at Paris, who, 
notwithstanding his considerable musical gift and a fancy both peculiar 
and original in the creation of the bouffe-parisiens, yet represents the 
cynicism and moral emptiness of the Second French Empire. And it 
cannot but be regarded with regret that he should have so subordinated 
his talents to pecuniary considerations; for his first one-act opera, by 
which he became known, entitled Le Manage a la Lanterne, decidedly 
ranks with the best comic operas, and even solely on account of its 
charming ensembles might fairly claim a classical position. Again, his 
Orphee aux~Enfers shows in many of its parts such a cheerful exuberance 
that it might well be called an intelligent musical persiflage. Those operas, 
however, of the La Belle Helene class became not only more frivolous, 
but, even from a purely musical standpoint, more and more shallow, and 
tried solely by meretricious means to please the coarser elements of the 
human mind. We, however, lay less stress on Offenbach as a musician, 
and prefer to direct attention to the peculiar position he held from a 
historical standpoint, in reflecting the morals and the character of Parisian 
society during the years 1850 to 1880, 

Turning to the modern French masters of symphonic compositions, we 
meet among the foremost the contemporary of Berlioz, viz., the gifted 
Felicien David, born in 1810 in the department Vaucluse, died in 1876 
at St. Germain en Laye. In an early part of this work, when treating of 
the Islamites, we had occasion to refer to David's most important sym- 
phonic work, Le^eseri, which maintained the style of programme-music 
inaugurated by Berlioz, and is a work not only original, but 'more perfect 
than those of Berlioz as regards form. The success David gained by this 
in Paris was very remarkable. Other works by the same master are the 
symphonic ode " Columbus," the opera Lalla Rookh (1862), an oratorio 
Moses on Mount Sinai, a symphony in F, twononeWs for wind instruments, 
and his string quintette, " Les Quatres Saisons." 

A composer who must unconditionally be admitted to be a most pro- 


minent instrumental writer is Camille Saint-Sae'ns. Born in Paris in 1835, 
he studied under Halevy, and in 1858 received the appointment of organist 
of La Madeleine. He gained much popularity by his Phaeton, Le Rouet 
d'Omp/iale, La Jeunesse d'Hercule and Danse Macabre, works in the style 
oT Berlioz and Liszt ; but they exceeded the productions of those masters 
in their stricter adherence to the established art-form. It has been sug- 
gested that the last-named work (Danse Macabre} might well be accepted 
as a musical illustration of Goethe's " Todtentanz " (death dance). Among 
his orchestral compositions, four symphonies, a suite algerienne, four grand 
pianoforte concertos, in addition to one for the violoncello and one for 
the vioKn7 deserve special mention. In chamber music Saint-Sae'ns again 
shows his complete mastery of art-form, infusing much genuine French 
esprit into his treatment. He is an excellent organist and virtuoso on the 
piano, and is thoroughly acquainted with Sebastian Bach, in the interpre- 
tation of whose works he has shown special excellence. He has also written 
meritorious organ music, and has a special gift as an improviser on both 
piano and organ. 

Yet, notwithstanding these acknowledged excellences, roe must admit 
that Saint-Saens shows more intellectuality in his compositions than poetical 
inspiration, and more self-criticism in art-form than richness of invention. 
His collective gifts, however, cannot be denied their sterling worth, and 
no other master, only perhaps excepting Pasdeloup, has since the time of 
Cherubini, Habeneck, and Berlioz, so warmly fought on behalf of Ger- 
man tonal art in France, as did Saint-Sae'ns, more especially before the 
year 1870. 

Another writer of symphonic works is Henri Napoleon Reber. born in 
1807 at Miilhausen, in Alsace, died in 1880 at Paris. A pupil of Reicha 
and Lesueur, he has secured an honourable name by his four symphonies, 
an overture, and an orchestral suite. To these may be added his string 
quartetts and pianoforte trios, all of which are imbued with the influence 
of the great German masters. His comic operas, however, have met with 
but very slight success. In 1853 he became Membre de 1'Institut, and 
in 1862 successor to Halevy at the Conservatoire. 

Louis Lacombe, born in 1818 at Bourges, and a composer much in- 
fluenced by Berlioz, studied at Vienna under Czerny, and produced in 
Paris in 1847 his dramatic choral symphony " Manfred." Three years 


later a similar work, Arva, ou les Hongrois/' appeared, and excited con- 
siderable interest. He wrote his prize cantata Sapj)ho for the great ex- 
hibition of 1878. 

Much has been furnished to the realm of instrumental composition of a 
charming character by Benjamin Godard. born in 1849 in Paris. His 
orchestral suite, " Scenes poetiques/' consisting of four movements (" Dans 
le Bois/' " Dans les Champs/' '< Au Village/' and " Sur la Montague"), is 
replete with the grace that is so peculiar to the French, besides possessing 
a certain charm due to its dreamy nature. It has been as frequently per- 
formed in Germany as in Paris, and is published by Bote and Bock of 
Berlin (Op. 46). The praiseworthy sobriety evinced in orchestration, that 
nowhere leads the composer to exceed a proper employment of the means 
for the attainment of his poetical and instrumental colouring, gains for him 
a prestige over many of the present German opera-composers. Godard also 
wrote a " Symphonic gothique/' and a lyric scene " Diane et Acteon/' and 
received for his dramatic choral symphony " Tasso " the prize offered by 
the city of Paris. His two hundred " Chansons et Melodies/' the latter 
having a strong resemblance to the German " lieder/' enjoy a widespread 
reputation in France. We have lastly to mention Adolphe Blanc, born in 
1828 in the department of the Basses- Alpes, who is chiefly known for his 
chamber music (based on the theories of the German School), consisting of 
quintetts, string quartetts, pianoforte trios, and sonatas. He was awarded 
the " Prix Chartier/' offered by the Ffench Academy, for his untiring efforts 
in popularising chamber music in that country. 

In dealing with the fourth group of French musicians, &c., we meet 
with the savants, of whom we shall be unable to mention any but the 
most important on account of space. Francois Castil-Blaze, born in 1784 in 
the department Vaucluse, died in 1857 at Paris, began his career by entering 
the legal profession, and it will not be without interest to refer to the fact 
of the chief German musical savants Thibaut, Von Winterfeld, Ambros, 
Kiesewetter, Bitter, Kiehl, Gumprecht, Hanslick, and De Coussemaker, 
having also been by profession lawyers. The chief works of Castil-Blaze 
are his " Dictionnaire de Musique Moderne" (published in 1825, and 
passing through two editions), the "Chapelle de Musique des Eois de 
France/' " Moliere Musicien " (published in 1852), and " Theatres Lyriques 
de Paris" (in three volumes, Paris, 1855 and 1856). He is also well 


known through his translations of the German and Italian libretti of Don 
Giovanni, Figaro, Zauberflote, Der Freischiilz (this appearing- under the 
title of Robin des Bois), Euryanthe, Matrimonio Segreto, Barbiere, &c., 
and was the author of the novel " Julien, ou le Pretre." 

Alexandre Vincent, born in 1797 in the department Pas-de-Calais, and who 
died in 1868 at Paris, wrote many erudite treatises on the music of ancient 
Greece, and a considerable number also on the music of the Middle Ages ; 
in these he has furnished us with a very exhaustive criticism on De Cousse- 
maker's brilliant mediaeval researches.* As regards the possession by the 
Greeks and Romans of a polyphony, Vincent strongly supported Westphal's 
affirmative view, but was as strongly opposed, in 1854 and 1861, by his 
compatriot Marcel Jullien (born in 1798, died in 1881). 

Johann Georg Kastner, born in 1811 at Strasburg, died in 1867 at 
Paris, was an author whose works have importance chiefly on account of 
their educational nature. We refer to the " Grammaire Musicale," in three 
volumes, the " Theorie abregee du contrepoint et de la fugue," the " Traite 
general de 1'instrumentation/' in two volumes with supplement, and the 
" Encyklopadie der Musik " (left unfinished through the author's death). 

In Adolphe Gustave Chouquet, born in 1819 at Havre, we meet with 
a prominent musical historian, who gained in 1864 the " Prix Bordin " for 
his " Histoire de Musique/' an excellent work, treating of the period from 
the fourteenth to the eighteenth centuries. No less meritorious is his 
" Histoire de la Musique Dramatique en France depuis ses origines jusqu'a 
nos jours" (published in 1873). In a similar manner Antoine Vidal, born 
in 1820 at Eouen, gained notoriety by a voluminous work, " Les Instru- 
ments a archet" (in three volumes, Paris, 1876), which is amongst the 
most reliable and profound treatises extant on the history of stringed 

Arthur Pougin, born in 1834, gained considerable prominence by his 
" Musiciens franais du XVIII. siecle." In 1867 he wrote, at the request 

* We give here the titles of a few of De Coussemaker's works: " De la Notation Musicale 
de 1'ficole d'Alexandrie " ("Revue Archeologique 3i6me annee"), an analysis of the celebrated 
paper "De Musica,"by St. Augustine (1849), "Emploi des quarts de ton dans le chant gre- 
gorien constate sur 1'antiphonaire de Montpellier " (1854), " De la Notation Musicale attribute 
a Boece et de quelques chants anciens qui se trouvent dans le manuscrit latin No. 989 de la 
liibliotheque imperiale," and lastly, the " Notice sur trois manuscrits grecs relatifs a la musique 
avec une traduction fra^aise et des commentaires " (Paris, imprimerie royale, 1847). 


of the Government, his " De la situation des compositeurs de musique et de 
Tavenir de Tart musical en France/' and published, in 1878 and 1880, two 
volumes in order to complete the " Biographie Universelle des Musiciens " 
of Fetis. We have no need here to mention the literary achievements of 
Berlioz, they having already been referred to. 

As we have completed our review of the musicians, &c., of the most 
gifted nations of the earth, viz., Germany, France, and Italy, we will 
turn our attention to the principal musicians of England, the Netherlands, 
and Scandinavia. 

During the nineteenth century the first-named country has possessed 
many undeniable musical savants and noteworthy composers. With regard 
to the latter we may well, on account of his wide popularity, introduce 
them under no less a man than Michael William Balfe. Although born in 
Dublin in 1808 (died in 1870), we cannot treat him as a national com- 
poser, for the reason that his works are strongly tinged with the influence 
of the school of Kossini, Bellini, and Donizetti, and not unmixed with 
certain features peculiar to the French grand opera. The work by which 
Balfe gained his remarkable popularity was the Bohemian Girl, performed 
for the first time at Drury Lane. This was followed by the opera Falstaff, 
written for Her Majesty's Theatre, and many others, some of which were 
performed in Germany and France : of these Les quatre fils Aymon 
achieved considerable success in the French capital. 

Sir George Macfarren, the director of the Royal Academy of Music,, 
was born in London in the year 1813, and from 1842 to 1864 devoted 
himself to the composition of the operas Don Quixote, Charles II., Robin 
Hood, and Helvellyn, and the oratorios John the Baptist and Joseph, in 
addition to cantatas, symphonies, overtures, and chamber music. By 
these works he gained considerable prominence. There is much merit in 
his critical edition of Purcell and Handel's works, and we may here refer to 
the excellent translations of German opera libretti by Lady Macfarren. We 
meet with another opera composer in W. Vincent Wallace, born in 1814 
at Waterford, died in 1865. His most popular work, Maritana, like others 
of his operas, has been performed in France and America and in the chief 
cities of the British Colonies. Maritana was followed by Matilda, the 
Amber Witch, Lurline, &c., none of which, however, can be said to be 
national in character, but rather to show the influence of the modern 


Italian and French Schools. Wallace was a prolific writer of pianoforte 
music, none of which, however, can be regarded as of the highest standard. 

Working in a different direction from that of Balfe and Wallace we find 
Sir Michael Costa, who, although born at Naples in 1810, yet spent the 
greater part of his life in the English capital, where he became conductor 
at Her Majesty's Theatre, and subsequently of the Philharmonic and 
Sacred Harmonic Societies, and also of the Birmingham and the great 
Handel Festivals, writing for Birmingham his oratorio Eli. Costa was 
knighted in 1869 and died in London in 1884. 

Sir Sterndale Bennett, who was born in 1816 at Sheffield, and died 
in 1875 in London, entirely followed the principles of Mendelssohn, and 
was honoured by the presence of that master at the performance, at one 
of the Royal Academy concerts, of his pianoforte concerto in D minor, 
a work in which Mendelssohn showed considerable interest an interest 
that developed into a friendly intercourse and lasted during Bennett's stay 
at Leipzig between the years 1837 and 1842. His compositions are more 
noteworthy for their taste and refinement than for their energy and force, 
the chief of them being the four concert overtures, The Na'iads, The Wood 
Nymphs, Parisina, Paradise and the Peri, the four pianoforte concert!, the 
symphony in G minor, the oratorio The IPoman of Samaria, and the cantata 
the May Queen. Bennett founded in 1849 the London Bach Society, and 
became in 1856 the conductor of the Philharmonic Society, and professor of 
music in the University of Cambridge; in 1870 he received the honorary 
degree of D.C.L. from the University of Oxford, and was knighted in 1871. 

Of older composers whose work was begun and completed in the present 
century, we may mention J. Baptist Cramer, who although of German 
birth (born in 1771 at Mannheim), yet at an .early age came to England, 
where he died (in London) in 1858. A pupil of the celebrated dementi, he 
owes his fame especially to his well-known classical pianoforte studies, and 
was the composer of much pianoforte and chamber music, writing no less 
than 105 sonatas, 7 concertos, and various exercises. Less prolific was 
John Field, who was born at Dublin in 1782, and died in 1837 at Moscow, 
the composer of many charming nocturnes, which in regard to a certain 
taste and refinement may be said to have anticipated Chopin, although 
the subjects are much simpler and more naive and diatonic than those 
of the more romantic Polish composer. 
B B B B 


The celebrated London pianist, Charles Halle, was born in 1819, and 
although he has practically passed his lifetime in the English capital, yet it 
is interesting to note that he and Sir Julius Benedict (the latter a pupil of 


Karl Maria von Weber) were both born in Germany, Halle at Hagen, in 
Westphalia, and Benedict at Stutgardt in 1804 (died in London, 1885). 
In 1835 Benedict arrived in London from Italy, and four years later 
was appointed conductor of the Drury Lane Opera. In 1850 he proceeded 
on a tour to America with Jenny Lind, and on his return was appointed 
conductor to the Sacred Harmonic Society. In 1854 he conducted the 
performance of Naumann's oratorio Christ, the Messenger of Peace, at 
Exeter Hall, for the benefit of the German Hospital; and in 1874 received 
the honour of knighthood at the hands of the Queen. Those of his operas 
that became most popular were the Gipsy's Warning and the Lily of 
Killarney ; his cantata Undine, and many orchestral compositions, have 
frequently been before the public. 

Among the more youthful English composers of note is Sir Arthur 
Seymour Sullivan, born in 184:2 in London. He received the principal part 
o his musical education at the Leipzig Conservatorium, at which he stayed 
from 1858 to 1861. While there he wrote his music to Shakespeare's 
Tempest, a work that was publicly performed at the Conservatorium. We 
would specially mention his oratorios, The Prodigal Son and The Light of 
ihe World, the symphony in C major, the overture In Memoriam, and the 
incidental music to Shakespeare's Henry VIII. His numerous operettas, 
principally comic, contain many charming morceaux, and in these Sullivan 
shows himself a talented disciple of a school evincing the strong influence of 
Schumann and Mendelssohn, although he by no means lacks individuality. 

With regard to the organists and professors of the English School, the 
Rev. Sir F. A. Gore Ousel ey, Bart., M.A., Mus.Doc., son of the distin- 
guished Orientalist and English ambassador of the Persian and Russian 
Courts, stands in a very prominent position. In 1846 he took his B.A. 
degree at Oxford, and in 1849 that of Master of Arts. In 1854 he received 
the degree of Doctor, and in 1855 the title of Professor of Music in the 
University of Oxford. As a theorist he is well known by his excellent 
treatises on harmony, counterpoint, and fugue. He has been a contributor 
to Sir George Grove's "Dictionary of Music/' and is the editor of the 
translation by Ferdinand Praeger of this "History of Music/' and one 


of the chief dignitaries at Hereford Cathedral, besides being a finished 
master of the organ. He exhibits a rare skill of improvisation in strict 
and double counterpoint, and is the composer of two oratorios, entitled 
St. Polycarp and ILigar, seventy anthems, fugues for the organ, and 
chamber and vocal music, all of which display considerable merit. 

The musical savant, Henry Chorley (born in Lancashire, in the year 
1808, died in London, 1872), next demands our notice. His invaluable work 
in drawing attention to the classical works of German authors deserves 
special mention. He was an intimate acquaintance of Mendelssohn, Rietz, 
and David, and a constant attendant at the German musical festivals. His 
most popular works are, "Music and Manners in France and Germany" 
(published in three volumes), and " Modern German Music " (in two 
volumes). Chorley, in addition to being a poet, was also the critic to the 
Athenaeum, and a librettist, supplying words to many songs. 

John Hullah, born in 1812 at Worcester (died 1884), was another 
distinguished savant. His grammars of (1) " Music " and (2) "Counter- 
point/' his "The Third or Transition Period of Musical History/' and 
the " History of Modern Music" (1862) are works exhibiting wide know- 
ledge of the musical art. He is well known for his enthusiastic endeavours 
to establish a national choral union, formed by the teachers and pupils of 
national schools, and also as the composer of many anthems and songs 
which have attained very wide popularity. 

We may here conveniently refer to the American biographer of Beethoven, 
Alexander Wheelock Thayer, born in 1817 at Massachusetts. In the same 
manner that the present generation is considerably indebted to Carlyle and 
Lewes for their careful and elaborate works on Schiller and Goethe, so 
it is indebted to Thayer for an excellent biography of Beethoven. The 
work, which is not yet complete, is of such merit that the portion which 
has so far been published has been carefully translated into German by Dr. 
Deiters, under the title, " Ludwig von Beethoven's Leben." Thayer was 
appointed in 1860 attache to the American Embassy at Vienna; an earnest 
worker in musical art, he has produced a valuable chronological catalogue 
of Beethoven's works (published in 1865), and, further, the critical 
essay, " Einen Kritischen Beitrag zur Beethovenliteratur," published in 

We will now devote our attention to the Swedish, Norwegian, and 
B B B B 2 



Danish masters. Considered as constituting one body, these Scandinavians 
do not appear, at any time, to have achieved celebrity beyond the borders of 
their own country. It is only during the progress of the present century 

Fig. 293. 

that we find any of their works falling under the fierce light of European 
criticism. To the Danes belongs the credit of being the first to make 
any conspicuous advance in musical art, in the person of no less a master 
than the excellent Niels Gade. Born at Copenhagen in 1817, he first 
became celebrated among his countrymen as the composer of a C minor 


symphony, while still a young member of the Copenhagen orchestra. The 
author had the good fortune to be present at its first performance at Leipzig 
under the direction of Mendelssohn, in the winter of 1842, at the Gewand- 
haus Concerts, at Which date the work was still unpublished. It produced 
general enthusiasm in the orchestra on account of its newness of treatment. 
Connoisseurs discovered in it the same sentiment that so strongly pervades 
the songs of Ossiau and the sagas of Frith jof. More forcibly is this depicted 
in the concert overtures, Jfackklange aus Ossiau, In/ Iloc/ilund, Hamlet, and 
Michalanfjelo. Of Gade's eight symphonies, none of which can be described 
as mediocre in character, that in B tlut major is on the whole the best. 
Gade has also written orchestral novelettes and most meritorious chamber 
music. Of his cantatas we would specially mention Coma la and Erlkomys 
Tochter ; but, notwithstanding the merit of his vocal works, we prefer his 
instrumental compositions. He is as rigid in his adherence to the strict 
classical sonata form as he is a perfect master of its details. He has also 
written some charming songs and pianoforte pieces. During the season 
1845-6 he acted for Mendelssohn as conductor of the Gewandhaus Concerts, 
succeeding to the conductorship on the death of that distinguished man in 
the year 1847. The following year he was appointed conductor of the 
celebrated Copenhagen Concerts, and in 1861 court chapel-master to the 
King of Denmark. 

Next in importance to Gade is his brother-in-law, Emil Hartmann, born 
in 1836 at Copenhagen. A pupil of the elder master, he has followed very 
closely in Gade's footsteps. In Germany he is best known by his overture, 
Nordische Heerfahrt, the symphonic poem, " Aus der Ritterzeit/' and the 
symphony in E flat major. He has also written a violin and a violoncello 
concerto, a cantata Winter und Lenz, and many smaller chamber and 
pianoforte works. 

In turning to the Norwegians, among the most noteworthy are Johann 
Svendsen and Edvard Grieg, the former born at Christiania in 1840, and 
the latter at Bergen in 1843. Svendsen, a pupil at the Leipzig Con 
servatorium, under Hauptmann and Reinecke, has been since 1872 con- 
ductor of the Musical Union Concerts at Christiania. He exhibits in 
his compositions the impress of the Scandinavian character, and shows an 
occasional tendency to mannerism. We would mention among his orchestral 
works the symphonies in D major and B flat major, the overture to Romea 


and Juliet, a descriptive work for the orchestra entitled ZoraJiayda, and an 
introduction to Bjornson's " Sigurd Slembe." In addition to these he has 
written Norwegian rhapsodies, a number of chamber compositions, and an 
octet for strings (Op. 3), all of which show mastery of classical art-form 
and power of invention. Ed vard Grieg has done less than his compatriot 
in symphonic works, gaining his name chiefly through chamber and 
pianoforte music. Of these some of the most remarkable are his two 
violin sonatas, a string quartett, and a sonata in A minor (Op. 36) 
for violoncello and piano, in addition to a number of pianoforte pieces, 
most characteristic and original, e.g., " Norwegischer Brautzug im Voriiber- 
ziehen," " Auf den Bergen," &c. We may ascribe what in Grieg's work 
seems somewhat extreme, to his having united with a young composer, 
llikard Nordraak (now dead), in opposing that which they considered 
effeminate in Scandinavian music, an effeminacy asserted to have been 
introduced by Gade through his strong leaning to the school of Mendelssohn. 
In so doing they entirely disregarded the undoubtedly great influence of 
the latter master on Scandinavian music, and the influence of the Leipzig 
school, from which the impulse first proceeded. 

Turning now to the Swedish composers, Ivar Hallstrom. born at 
Stockholm in 1826, is the first to demand our attention. He began his 
career as a lawyer, afterwards becoming librarian to the Crown Prince, and 
in 1861 successor to his compatriot, Lindblad, in the directorship of the 
Stockholm Conservatorium. He shows merit as a composer of operas, 
but the national impress of his dramatic works is very apparent in the 
choice of his libretti. The most popular of his operas are Das Geraubte 
Bergmadchen, Die Braut des Gnomen, JDer Bergkonig, and Die Wikinger, 
all of which were performed during the years 1874 to 1877. His pre- 
decessor ab the Stockholm Conservatorium, Frederick Lindblad (born in 
1804 near Stockholm, died in 186-1), was a composer of songs strongly 
national in character, and made celebrated by his pupil, the famous Jenny 
Lind, who introduced them into England and Germany. Of the many 
that are peculiar and interesting, " Der junge Postilion/' "Der Invalide," 
Der Spatz," Der Schlotfegerbub/' and the excellent " Gesang eines 
Madchens aus Dalekarlien," are, perhaps, the most popular. 

In discussing the music of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, we 
had to refer to the supreme merit of the then existing Netherland School. 


We will now turn to its modern descendants, as represented by the Belgians 
and Dutch. In its list of composers are the names of Verhulst, Vieuxtemps, 
De Swert, and Servais; and among litterateurs the widely known names of 
Fetis, Nisard, Burbure, De Coussemaker, Gevaert, Van der Straeten, and 
Van Maldeghem. 

Jan Verhulst, the most celebrated living Dutch composer, was born in 
1816 at the Hague, and studied under Bernhardt Klein and Mendelssohn. 
His compositions consist of symphonies, that in E minor being the most 
excellent, overtures, string-quartetts, a Requiem for male voices, a setting 
of the 145th Psalm, and many vocal works. It is, however, very strange 
that he absolutely refuses to write for any other than the Dutch tongue. 
Up to 184-2 he had the good fortune to move in the circle of prominent 
composers and pupils that surrounded Mendelssohn at Leipzig. In the 
same year the King of Holland appointed him court music-director; 
later on he became conductor of the Amsterdam Concerts, held under the 
direction of the " Maatschappijtot." 

Of the Belgian composers of the nineteenth century we have first to 
mention Henri Vieuxtemps, who was born in 1820 at Verviers, and who 
died in 1881 in Algiers. His compositions are principally for the violin, 
which is accounted for by his having been one of the greatest violinists of 
this century. They are all genuine artistic conceptions, aiming at the 
highest standard, and exhibiting the classical art-form. The chief of them 
are five grand concertos in symphonic form, an overture (Op. 41), a violon- 
cello concerto, and a duo concertante on airs from Mozart's Don Giovanni 
for violin and piano. We must not omit to mention his three cadenzas, 
written for Beethoven's violin concertos. As a performer of European 
fame, Vieuxtemps made three most successful tours in America. From 
1871 to 1873 he held the professorial chair at the Conservator ium of 
Brussels, and was conductor of the concerts populaires of the same 
place. Another Belgian artist of note is Jules de Swert, born in 1843 
at Louvain. He was a well-known performer on the violoncello, and 
besides being the composer of a number of works for that instrument 
that show decided talent, has also written an opera, Les Albigenses. 
Franois Servais, born in 1807 near Brussels (at which city he died in 
1866), undoubtedly ranks among the greatest violoncellists of the present 
century. As a composer for his favourite instrument he rises much 


above other Belgian virtuosi, as is witnessed by his three concertos and six- 
teen fantasias for violoncello and orchestra. 

We must finally refer to the Flemish composer, Peter Benoit, born in 
183-1 at Harlebeke, in Flanders, of whose compositions we prefer the 
Flemish opera Isa, the oratorio L'Escaut, a choral symphony " Les 
Moissoneurs/' a Requiem, a " Te Deum/' and the music to Charlotte 
Corday. Benoit is also the author of the interesting treatise, " L'Ecole 
de Musique flamande et son Avenir/' 

Of the Netherland savants we have frequently spoken, and may again 
refer to their connection with modern musical literature. In doing so we 
first notice F. J. Fetis, who was born in 1784 at Mons, and who died in 
1871 at Brussels ; he was the author of the " Biographic Universelle de Musi- 
ciens/' in eight volumes, of which a second edition appeared between 1860 
and 1865. His " Histoire Generale de Musique '' (published between 
1869 and 1875, in five volumes), unfortunately, does not extend beyond 
the fifteenth century. Only fifty copies were printed of his "Esquisse de 
FHistoire de 1'Harmonie " (1840). In 1827 ho was appointed librarian 
of the Paris Conservatoire, and from 1833 to 1873 was principal of the 
Brussels Conservatoire. He gained some distinction as a composer by his 
two symphonies, a sextet (for two pianoforte performers and a string 
quartett), a concert overture, and a Requiem. Fetis was held in very 
great esteem in the musical profession; at the performance in Aix-la- 
Chapelle in 1867 of his concert overture, he was received with the greatest 
enthusiasm by the orchestra, whose reverence for him was such as is only 
expected by a father from his sons. 

We next come to Theodore Norman (otherwise Nisard), born in 1812 in 
the province Hennegau, the author of ten works on the cantus planus, and 
of the " Etxides sur les Anciennes Notations Musicales de FEurope," works 
well deserving study. In the early part of his career Nisard was head- 
master of a high school, but after 1842 he devoted himself entirely to music, 
becoming organist and choirmaster of St. Germain, at Paris. To him is due 
the discovery of the celebrated anliphonary of Montpellier. 

Leon de Burbure, a wealthy 'Belgian nobleman, born in 1812 in East 
Flanders, has left us the results of his invaluable researches on the ancient 
musical guilds of Antwerp. His " History of Keyed Instruments and the 
Lute since the Sixteenth Century is a valuable and interesting work. 


Edmond de Coussemaker, the descendant of an old Flemish family, 
was born in 1805 at Bailleul, and died in 1867 at Bonbourg. Although 
trained for the legal profession, and subsequently appointed a judge at 
Bergues, his time, therefore, being fully employed, he succeeded in proving 
himself one of the most eminent musical savants of the present century. 
We have mentioned some of his chief works in a former chapter, and need 
only further name his "GEuvres completes d'Adam de la Hale" (1872), 
and his "Essai sur les Instruments de Musique au moyen-age." 

Another Belgian savant of eminence is Fraagois Auguste Gevaert, born 
in 1828 at Oudeuarde. A pupil at the Ghent Conservatoire, he there 
obtained in 18-47 a prize for his Flemish cantata Belgie, and later on the 
" Prix de Rome." He also composed sacred music, orchestral works, and 
comic operas, all of which were produced under his direction, and in 1867 
became conductor of the Grand Opera at Paris. In 1856 appeared his 
" Leerboek van den Gregoriaenschen Zang;" in 1863 the "Traite 
d'Instrumentation/' and in 1868 the work by which he is chiefly known, 
" Les Gloires d'ltalie/' containing specimens of the work of the best Italian 
masters of the present century. These were followed by the " Histoire et 
Theorie de la Musique de TAntiquite," written between 1875 and 1881. 
By these works he undeniably merits the high position he holds in the world 
of musical savants. In 1870 he left Paris, and the following year was 
appointed director of the Brussels Conservatoire. 

Edmond van der Straeten, born in 1826 at Oudenarde, became, on the 
termination of his studies at Ghent, librarian of the Royal Library, Brussels. 
Among his chief works, the "Notice sur Charles Felix de Hollande" 
(1854), " Recherches sur la Musique a Audenarde avant le XIX. siecle " 
(1856), and " La Musique aux Pays-Bas" (1867 to 1880, in five volumes), 
deserve special attention. Of the life of the author Van Maldeghem 
very little is known. His " Tresor Musical " is, however, to be mentioned 
as a meritorious work. 

Within the last twenty years the Slavonic races have made considerable 
progress in music. We do not intend it to be understood that prior 
to this they lacked talent, but, either from not being sufficiently numerous 
in the number of their representatives to make an impression, or from 
being too much under the influence of the great German masters, the 
special genius of their race has not been very pronounced until within 




paratively recent times. Whether their advancement in the art of music 
during this period is due to that most powerful o all influences, a more 

Fig. 294. Rubinstein. 
(With the kind permission of the publishers, S. Schottlaender, of Breslau, after an original engraving.) 

humane and therefore wider political view, we will not venture to say, but 
it is nevertheless true that their progress has been a most glorious one, 
showing all the while their national peculiarities. 


In entering upon our review of the work of the Slavonic masters, 
we are naturally led first to consider Anton Rubinstein, born in Bess- 
arabia on November 30, 1830. As early as 1840 he excited the wonder 
of the Parisians by a public performance; indeed, they regarded him 
as a prodigy. In 1844, at Meyerbeer's suggestion, he was placed under 
Dehn at Berlin. He has successfully carried through several concert 
tours in the various European capitals, and now resides in St. Peters- 
burg. He has written some Russian operas, of which we shall only 
mention Dimitri Donskoi (1854) and" The Siberian Hunters. In 1858 
he was appointed imperial Russian court pianist and conductor; in 1859 
he founded a Russian Musical Society at St. Petersburg, and three 
years later the Conservatorium. As a composer he reflects, to a great 
extent, the influence of the German School and its classical art-form, 
although the unrestrained wildness and impetuous rush so peculiar to the 
Slavonic race assert themselves at times in a very extraordinary manner. 
As a virtuoso he ranks second only to Liszt. We here cite a few of his 
most celebrated compositions, the operas Feramors (1863), Le Demon (1875), 
Die Makkabder (1875), and Nero (1879) ; the oratorios (designated by him 
"sacred operas"), The Tower of a be I and Paradise Lost; and his five 
symphonies, the best of which is that entitled " Ocean." In addition, he 
has written an endless number of duets, trios, quartetts, quintetts, and 
sextetts. Prolific as a composer of pianoforte pieces, he is to be credited 
with the production of five pianoforte concertos, sonatas, an " Album de 
Danses Populaires/' " Les Soirees de St. Petersburg," and the musical 
sketch, " Ivan IV., the Cruel," &c. His songs, " Der Asra," " Gelb rollt 
mir zu Fiiszen," " Es blinkt der Thau," &c., are most noticeable for natural 

Next to Rubinstein, Michail Ivanovitch von Glinka, born in 1804 near 
Smolensk, deserves notice. Like the great pianist just mentioned, he was also 
a pupil of Dehn. At an early period he studied intently the peculiarities of 
the Russian character, which study resulted in a more successful portrayal of 
native character than that of any other of his compatriots. In illustration 
of this, notice his first opera, A Life for the Czar, performed in 1836. The 
second opera, on the libretto of the Russian poet Puschkin, entitled Russia 
and Lndmilla, led Liszt, who was present at its second performance, to 
write a laudatory article upon it for Le Journal des Debats. Glinka has 


also written many interesting chamber compositions and a number of 
graceful songs. He became popular in Germany by his quaint and 
original orchestral treatment of Kamarinskaja and Jota Aragonese, the latter 
composed at Madrid. Whilst on a visit to his old master Dehn, for 
assistance in his researches as to the origin of the harmonies of the old 
Russian folk-songs, he fell ill, and in the year 1857 died at Berlin. 

Of older Russian composers we have to mention Bortnianski and Lwoff. 
Dimitri Bortnianski (born in 1751 in Ukraine, died in 1825) received his 
musical education from Galuppi, in Venice, through the patronage of the 
Empress Katharine II. He reorganised the Russian Imperial Cathedral 
Choir, and gained for it a celebrity which extended far beyond the Russian 
borders. For this choir he composed fifty a capella psalms for four and 
eight voices, but, like his mass written for the Greek ritual, they are of 
too sentimental a character, though this might justify their production in 
Russian churches. 

Alexis von Lwoff, who was born in 1799 at Reval, and died in 1870, 
was a great violin virtuoso, and chapel-master to the imperial court. He 
was also a major-general of the Russian army and aide-de-camp to the 
Czar. He wrote many violin compositions and choral works for the 
cathedral choir, and published in 1859 an interesting treatise " On the 
Free and Unsymmetrical Rhythm of the Old Russian Church Song/ 7 

As composers of modern times, Tschaikowsky and Borodin may now be 
referred to. Peter Tschaikowsky, born in 1840 in the province of Perm, 
entered Rubinstein's Conservatorium, and held a professorial chair there 
from 1868 to 1877. Besides some operas, he has written symphonies, over- 
tures, the symphonic poems, "Der Sturm" and " Francesca di Rimini/' 
string quartetts, a violin concerto, a pianoforte concerto, and other works 
for the piano. He is to be regarded as a representative of the Russian 
national character, and whilst occasionally descending to trivialities, he 
exhibits, on the whole, originality, combined with interesting modulation 
and quaint rhythm. 

Alexander Borodin, born in 1834, a greater master of polyphony, and 
possessing more natural gift, is, however, more confused in his treatment, 
and, further, is exceedingly unrestrained. He is a true representative of 
the Young Russian School, which, in many respects, has modelled itself 
after the New German Romantic School. As a member of the medical 


profession, he holds the distinguished appointment of professor to the 
St. Petersburg Medical and Surgical Academy, and is an imperial coun- 
cillor. Two symphonies, of which that in E flat major was performed 
in 1880 at Wiesbaden, the symphonic poem " Mittelasien/' the opera 
Igor, and his many chamber compositions, strongly corroborate our opinion. 
Everywhere one feels that the composer is straining after effect without 
duly regarding proper continuity. In fact, his music might be fairly 
termed "Nihilistic/' 

As musical litterateurs, Oulibicheff and Lenz stand prominently to the 
front. Alexander von Oulibicheff, born in 1795 at Dresden, was the son 
of the Russian ambassador at that court, and died in 1858 at Nishnii 
Novgorod. He introduced himself to the public by his " Nouvelle 
Biographic de Mozart, suivie d'un apenju sur 1'histoire generale de la 
musique," translated in 1S44 into German. This work (three volumes) 
affords numerous proofs of the writer's enthusiasm and refined taste, and 
although it lacks a certain trustworthiness, yet, even when compared with 
Jahn's " Mozart Biography," it remains a most interesting work. His 
enthusiasm for Mozart has made him scarcely just in his criticism of 
Beethoven, more especially with regard to that master's ninth sym- 
phony. He was, however, justly and happily corrected by the imperial 
councillor Wilhelm von Lenz, the well-known author of " Beethoven 
et ses Trois Styles" (1852 and 1855). 

We now turn to that more numerous class of Slavonic composers, the 
Bohemians (less known as the Czecks), the chief of whom are Cernohofsky', 
Tomaschek, Czerny, Dvorak, Smetana, Naprawnik, Zlenko, Fibich, and 
Neswadba. Bohuslav Cernohofsky, who died in 1740, and was known in 
Padua as Padre Boe'mo, was professor of music at St. Anna. On leaving 
Padua he became organist at Assisi, and, subsequently, chorus director and 
professor at St. Jacob, in Prague. In his notice upon Cernohofsk/'s few 
sacred compositions (including the excellent motet, " Laudetur Jesus 
Christus "), A. W. Ambros says : " These exhibit the manifold con- 
trivances of double counterpoint in the boldest and most intelligent 
manner." In 1754, the time of the great fire in Prague, the greater 
number of his compositions were unhappily destroyed, but he left in 
his native land, through the excellence of his teaching, many gifted 


Johann "Wenzel Tomaczek (Tomaschek) , who was born in 1774 at Skutsch 
in 'Bohemia, died in 1850, whilst holding the office of director of the Prague 
Conservatorium. An excellent organist and contrapuntist, he was more 
famed as a tutor than as a composer, numbering among his pupils the 
celebrated Schulhoff, Kittl, and Dreyschock. Tomaczek has published 
masses, cantatas, an opera, a symphony, a concerto for the piano, and a 
number of clever chamber compositions. 

Charles Czerny, born in 1791 at Vienna, where he died in 1857, is 
included among Bohemian composers, on account of his Bohemian descent. 
That he was a most prolific composer will be admitted when we mention that 
the number of his works reached the high total of a thousand; he was, too, 
an excellent pianist and a praiseworthy editor of classical works, the chief 
of which is Bach's "Wohltemperirtes Clavier/' The names of such of his 
pupils as Liszt, Thalberg, and Dohler, are sufficient to form an estimate of 
his ability, and it will be interesting here to mention that Czerny himself 
received lessons from Beethoven. His "Etudes de Velocite" and other 
studies have gained a world-wide celebrity. 

During the political movement by which the Czecks endeavoured to 
assert their independence, we trace, concurrently, the development of a 
similar feeling in music, which is represented by the genius of Anton 
Dvorak (pronounced Dvorschak}. Dvorak, born in 1841 near Kralup, is 
one of the most gifted composers of the Bohemian section of the modern 
German School. We think, however, that he has exercised very little care 
in his scoring; and we are further of opinion that a more matured 
study of harmony, and a stricter observance of art-form, would have 
added materially to the value of his compositions ; of this we are convinced, 
after having heard certain of his symphonic orchestral works. Whilst we 
do not feel that much regard will be paid to this Teutonic judgment, yet 
we take as musicians sufficient interest in his talent to justify this advance- 
ment of our opinion. As a dramatic composer he has gained but little 
success, which will well be understood after hearing the opera Der Bauer, 
ein Schelm; still, we meet with much that is remarkable in his sym- 
phonies, the Slavonic rhapsodies for orchestra, a serenade for wind instru- 
ments, an elegy, Dumka/' for piano; the duets "Klange aus Mahren/' 
Slavonic dances, and the Bohemian national dances entitled " Furiante." 
As national in character as the compositions of Dvorak are those of 


Fried rich Smetana, who was born in 1824 at Leitomischl, and who died 
insane in 1884 at Prague. Smetana shines most as a dramatic composer, 
and chiefly in the operas Die verkaufte Brant, Die Brandenburger in 
Bohmen, Dalibor, and Der Kusz. In his orchestral works he shows an 
adherence to the school of Berlioz, Liszt, and Wagner. Among his sym- 
phonic poems, " Wallensteins Lager," " Hakon Jarl/' and " Mein Vater- 
land/' deserve special notice. 

Edward Naprawnik, born in 1839 near Koniggratz, resided from 
1853 to 1861 in Prague, and became in 1869 chief conductor of the 
St. Petersburg Opera. While in that capital he composed the Russian 
National opera Die Bewohner von Nischnij Novgorod, the symphonic 
poem " Der Damon," a number of chamber compositions, and many Czeck 
and Russian songs. 

Zlenko Fibich, born in 1850 near Czaslau, was educated at the Leipzig 
Conservatorium, and was subsequently a pupil of Vincenz Lachner ; in 1876 
he was appointed conductor of the Czeck National Theatre, Prague. Like 
Smetana, he follows in his orchestral compositions the school of Berlioz 
and Liszt ; his works include a number of symphonic poems, two sym- 
phonies, the opera Blanik, and a ballad, " Die Windsbraut." 

We conclude our review of the Czeck composers with Joseph Neswadba, 
born in 1824 at Vysker, in Bohemia, died in 1876, while court chapel- 
master at Darmstadt. He was a very popular composer of national songs. 

The third branch of the Slavonic race which, during the present century, 
has produced eminent composers, is that of the Poles. Of these, Frederic 
Chopin stands above and beyond the reach of any of his countrymen ; but 
as we have already fully discussed his merits in the chapter on Mendelssohn 
and Schumann, further reference is unnecessary. Composers such as 
Scharwenka and Moszkowski, although of Polish descent, have been too 
greatly influenced by the modern German School to be justly regarded as 
representative Polish composers. 

The remaining European countries possessing musical interest are Spain, 
Portugal, and Hungary. They cannot be said to be of considerable im- 
portance if the number of their representatives in musical art be held to 
be an indication, although their gift m other subjects cannot be denied. 
But of whatever nature it may be, it has never, to our knowledge, been dis- 
seminated beyond their respective borders ; it cannot, therefore, expect any 


critical attention, since it has not submitted itself to the judgment of 
musical opinion either in the English, French, Italian, or German capitals. 
Although it might be urged that the fame of such operas as those of 
Hallstrom has been widespread, in spite of their performances being con- 
fined to the native lands of the composers, yet the greater part of Spanish, 
Hungarian, and Portuguese music can only be regarded as salon music, 
consisting almost exclusively as it does of songs and dances. Thus we see 
that the Spaniards, with their brilliant poetry and their achievements in the 
plastic art, and even in music, possess few composers that have aspired to 
anything beyond the " fashionable " in music. These exceptions are Juan 
Arrieta, Baltasar Saldoni, and Pablo de Sarasate. The first, Arrieta, born in 
1823 at Puente la Reina, studied at the Milan Conservatorium. By the 
performance of his first opera, Ildegonda, at Milan, he at once gained 
celebrity as a dramatic composer. He subsequently composed other operas 
and operettas, and had in 1878 completed the thirty-fifth. All these have 
been performed in the Spanish capital ; the most popular of them, the 
zarznelas (operettas), being well known throughout Spain. In 1857 he 
became director of the Madrid Conservatorium, and has been since 1875 
a member of the Spanish Council of Education. 

Baltasar Saldoni, born in 1807 at Barcelona, a composer and musical 
savant of note, was educated in the Music School of Montserrat, and was 
appointed in 1829 organist to the Church of Santa Maria del Mar. In 
1839 he proceeded to Paris to study the classic method of vocalisation, 
returning a year later to Madrid, when he was appointed professor of sing- 
ing at the Conservatorium. He has written a number of organ compositions 
in the strict polyphonic style, and other sacred works. A symphony, 
entitled " A mi Patria," " A Hymn to the God of Art," Italian operas, 
and Spanish zarznelas, have secured him considerable favour. He is further 
known as the author of A History of the Montserrat School of Music " 
(1856), and " Effemerides de Musicos Espanoles " (1860). 

We cannot take leave of Spain without referring to one of the greatest 
violinists of the present day. Pablo de Sarasate, born at Pampeluna in 
14, exhibits, as a virtuoso, an almost marvellous perfection. His brilliant 
artistic conceptions of works such as those of Mendelssohn and Spohr, 
besides his arrangements and compositions of Spanish airs, have gained him 
the greatest popularity. He has always rendered his performances, in our 



opinion, as interesting- to the critic as to the audience unfortunately an 
uncommon occurrence.* 

With regard to Portuguese composers, we should first mention Vicomte 
Ferreira d'Arneiro, born in 1 838 at Macao, China ; he studied for the law 

Fig. 295. Pablo de Sarasate. 

at the University of Coimbra, but afterwards, from 1859 to 1862, turned! 
his attention to music. In 1866 he wrote a pantomimic ballet, performed. 

* Among Spanish composers and writers on music it would be wrong to omit all mention 
of Don Miguel Hilarion Eslava. This eminent man was born in 1807, and died in 1878. Hn 
was educated in the choir of the Cathedral of Pampeluna, became Maestro de Capilla at 
Osuna in 1828, and in 1832 was appointed to a similar post at Seville, where he was ordained 
priest. In 1844 Queen Isabella made him her chapel-master. He composed several operas, 
about 140 compositions for the Church, and some for the organ. But his greatest work is 
undoubtedly his admirable collection of Spanish Church music from the sixteenth century to 
the present day, entitled "Lira Sacro-Hispana," published at Madrid in 1869, in ten volumes. 
He also published his " Museo organico Espanol" at Madrid, " El Metodo de Solfeo " (1846). 
and "Escuela de Armenia y Composicion," of which the second edition appeared at Madrid in 
1861. F. A. G. 0. 

c c c c 



at the San Carlos Theatre, Lisbon, but his talent revealed itself in the 
"Te Deum" performed in Paris, 1871, under the title "Symphonic 
Cantata/' and, further, the successful opera, performed at Lisbon, entitled 
The Elixir of Youth. 

Carlo Gomez, born in 1839 in Brazil, of Portuguese parents, gained 
considerable success in Italy with his operas, Fosca (1873) and Salvator 
Rosa, &c., the latter being performed in Genoa in 1874, with the greatest 

We exclude from the list of Hungarian composers, &c., those famous 
conductors and virtuosi that do not fall within the limits we previously 
laid down. If we omit Keler Bela, the gifted writer of dances, marches, 
and potpourris, there remain for mention 6ermak (pronounced Csermak], 
born in 1771 in Bohemia, died in 1822 at Veszprim. We do not include 
Liszt, though an Hungarian by birth, because of his position as founder 
of the New German Romantic School. Cermak's compositions are still 
little known, but Count Stephan Fay, the historian of Hungarian music, 
has asserted that they possess as much classic skill as original genius. 
Cermak was one of the most prominent violin performers of Hungary, and 
in this respect Count Dessewffy is disposed to consider him greater than 
the celebrated Kode. He had considerable success as a violinist at Vienna, 
but it is sad to relate that an unhappy attachment ended in his insanity. 
Of less importance than Cermak is Michael Mosonni, born in 1814 at 
Boldog-Aszony, died in 1870 at Pesth. His principal works consist of a 
funeral symphony, an overture on the national air " Szozat," a symphonic 
poem " Triumph und Trauer des Honved," a German and two Hungarian 
operas. The former, entitled Maximilian, was destroyed in anger by the 
composer, on the suggestion by Liszt of certain alterations before its 
intended production. 

That which now remains to us is the task of referring to the most 
prominent virtuosi of the present, whether as vocalists or instrumentalists. 

* One excellent Portuguese composer is here omitted most unaccountably and un- 
deservedly. Joa"s Domingos Bomtempo was born in 1775 at Lisbon, and came to Paris at 
the age of twenty. After visiting London, he went back to Lisbon in 1820, where he 
became head of the Conservatoire. He died in 1842. Perhaps his most successful work 
was the Requiem Mass which he composed to commemorate the poet Camoens, which was 
published in full score, and is a most able and effective work. But he also wrote many 
other very admirable pieces of Church music, teeides operas and pianoforte music. F.A. G. O. 


But this we shall do only in so far as they fall within the limits of our 
consideration, which, as previously stated, are held subservient to ou: 
review of music as a history. "We have previously advanced the opinion 
that music is the most masculine of all arts, for art .essentially depends on 
the creative idea. All creative work in music is well known as being 
the exclusive work of man ; the totality of woman's labours being, com- 
paratively speaking, nil. But it is altogether a different matter when 
we consider the relative proportion of male and female vocalists. The latter 
then not only equal, but frequently exceed, numerically, the former. Of 
the lady artistes of Germany we may name Alvsleben, Brandt, Joachim, 
Koster, Lehmann, Lucca, Mallinger, Papier> Sembrich, Schuch, Spietz, 
Wagner, and Wilt ; and it is peculiar that Southern Germany can justly 
claim credit as the birthplace of the majority of those just mentioned. 
Louise Koster (Schlegel), born in 1823 at Liibeck, an artiste of rare intel- 
ligence, appeared principally at the Leipzig and Berlin Operas, and showed 
excellence in the accurate interpretation . of the works of Gluck, Mozart, 
Beethoven, Weber, and Meyerbeer. She assumed the chief characters in 
Armida, Iphigenie in Aulis, Alceste, Pamina, Donna Anna, Fidelio, Rezia, 
Valentine, Alice, and Bertha. Johanna Wagner (Jachmann), Richard 
Wagner's niece, was born in 1828 near Hanover, and was. connected with 
the Dresden and Berlin Operas. She appeared principally in the operas of 
her uncle, in Gluck's Orpheus and Clytemnestra, Fidelio, Romeo, and in 
Meyerbeer's Fides. Marie Wilt, born in 1835 at Vienna, made her debut 
in 1865 at Gratz, as Donna Anna, and proved herself a charming ex- 
ponent of the classical opera. Melita Otto Alvsleben, born in 1842 at 
Dresden, and engaged at the Dresden Opera from 1860, was an excellent 
interpreter of such conceptions of Mozart's as Ilia, Elvira, Donna Anna, 
Susanne, Fiordiligi ; of Madame Uhlig (in Schauspieldirector], and those 
of Margarethe, Isabella, Alice, and Bertha, by Meyerbeer ; of Mrs. Ford 
in Nicolai's Merry Wives of Windsor, Agathe in Der Freischiitz, and 
Matilda in William Tell. 

Pauline Lucca, born in 1841 at Vienna, is of remarkably prepossessing 
appearance, and has performed with the rarest perfection the most opposite 
characters. She has charmed French and American audiences with her 
representation of Marguerite, Carmen, Mozart's Zerlina, Selika, the Page 
in Figaro, and Valentine in Les Huguenots. 
c c c c 2 



Mariana Brandt, born in 1842 at Vienna, is a vocalist of considerable 
tragic ability. As Armida, Orpheus, Fides, and in Rubinstein's Macca- 
beus, she has no compeer. Mathilde Mallinger, born in 1847 at Agram, 
has exhibited, as prima donna of the Munich and Berlin Operas, much 
talent in classic and romantic roles. Of Lilli Lehmann, born in 1848 at 

Fig. 296. Pauline Lucca. 
(Original published by E. Erziwanek, Vienna.) 

Wiirzburg, we cannot say whether her Norma excites our admiration more 
than her Rosina, her Carmen than the Baroness in Lortzing's Wildschtitz, 
her Elvira or Fidelio than Mrs. Ford in the Merry Wives. To a re- 
markable dramatic power, that recalls to one's mind that of Schroeder- 
Devrient and Pauline ' Garcia, she unites a perfect mastery of Italian 
vocalisation. Marcella Sembrich (a Slavonian by birth) is of similar 
ability to Lehmann, and possesses a remarkably high voice, reaching with 


facility G on the fourth ledger-line, i.e., one note beyond that required 
by Mozart's Queen of the Night in the Magic Flute, a part written 
by the composer for his sister-in-law, Aloysia Weber, whose precursor, 
Lucrezia Agujari (died in 1783), possessed a similar range. Amalie 
Joachim, born in 1839 at Marburg, did not gain the celebrity she now 
possesses till she had quitted the opera-house for the concert-room. She 
shows her powerful mezzo-soprano voice and excellent delivery to the greatest 
advantage in the oratorios and cantatas of Bach, Handel, and Mendelssohn, 
and in the songs of Beethoven, Schubert, Schumann, Brahms, Rubinstein, 
and Robert Franz. Hermine Spiesz, born in 1860 near Weilburg (Nassau), 
a pupil of Sieber and Stockhausen, may here be mentioned as the principal 
contralto of Germany, as no adequate conception can be formed of her 
beautiful rendering of the contralto parts in Elijah and Samson. An 
entirely dramatic talent is that of Clementine Schuch-Proska (nee Pro- 
c'hazka), born in 1853 at Vienna. As an excellent soubrette, with remark- 
able skill in vocalisation, she includes among her roles, Rosina (Barbiere), 
Madeleine (Postilion de Lonjumeau], Isabelle (Robert le Diable], Javotte 
(Le Roi I'a di), Sulamith (La Heine da Saba], Baucis (Philemon et 
Baucis), Lady Harriet (Martha], Zerlina (Don Giovanni and Fra Diacolo), 
Dorabella (Cosifan tutfe), &c. Frau Rosa Papier, of considerable dramatic 
talent, possesses an extensive register, having an unusually deep contralto 
united to a mezzo-soprano. She secured her greatest popularity in Alceste 
and Orpheus, in Fides and Amneris, and is especially excellent in oratorio 
and song. 

Among Italian vocalists of the present day, the sisters Patti, daughters 
of the Italian tenor, Salvator Patti, stand foremost. Carlotta, born in 
1840 at Florence, gained notoriety chiefly as a concert artiste, whilst 
Adelina, born in 1843 (at Madrid), the incomparable dramatic artiste, 
gained her celebrity chiefly through operatic works. They each possess all 
the refinement that is to be gained from the Italian vocal school. 

Turning to Northern Europe, we meet with an eminent representative 
of the vocal art in the Scandinavian, Christine Nilsson, born in 1843. She 
has devoted herself principally to Italian and French operas, and in song' 
displays much emotion and feeling, especially when rendering the national 
airs of her native land. 

Of French artists, Desiree Artot (a pupil, like Aglaja Orgeny., of 



Pauline Viardot Garcia) was in 1858 engaged at the Paris Grand Opera, 
on the recommendation of Meyerbeer; but on joining an Italian opera 
company the following year in Berlin, she so ingratiated herself with the 
public that she was appointed in 1876 court vocalist. She was most 
excellent in her interpretation of the works of Auber, Rossini, Verdi, 

Fig. 297. Joseph Joachim. 

Gounod, and Meyerbeer. Her husband, Padilla y Ramos, may here be 
mentioned as one of the principal vocalists of Spain. 

With regard to English artists, we are chiefly concerned with John 
Braham, who died in 1856, the most celebrated of English tenors. His 
perfection in oratorios was as great as his ability on the operatic stage. 

Of German tenors, Mierzwynski (by birth a Pole), Ander, Nie- 
mann, Walter, Riese, Vogl, and Goetze ; and of baritones, Betz, Bulsz, 



Stockhausen, Gura, and Henschel, may be referred to as artists of great 

Turning to those instrumental performers (many of whom have been 
already mentioned) whose popularity is as great in the new as in the old 
world, we have as pianists, Liszt's pupil Sophie Menter (born in 1848 at 
Munich), Marie Krebs (born in 1851 at Dresden), Annette Essipoff, and 

Fig. 298. August Wilhelmj. 

Eugene D' Albert (also a pupil of Liszt). Also those perfect violinists 
Joachim, Wilhelmj, and Madame Norman-Neruda, the Polish violinist 
Wieniawski, the Scandinavian Ole Bull, and the violoncellist Popper. 
Of D'Albert we may remark that he has, in addition to his merit as 
a pianist, considerable claim to be regarded as a composer of classical works. 
Joseph Joachim, born in 1831 near Preszburg, and August Wilhelmj, 
born in 1845 in Nassau, were pupils of Ferdinand David, .and, for 
theory specially, of Hauptmann. Each shows consummate ability in the 


interpretation not only of the works of the classical masters Bach and 
Beethoven, but also in the interpretation of Mendelssohn, Schumann, 
Brahms, and Bruch, who succeeded them. Each also shows himself the true 
artist in holding in constant subjection his marvellous skill as a virtuoso 
in order that he may the more perfectly express the composer's intention. 
Each also possesses an exquisite fulness of tone ; but here we may remark 
that in our opinion Wilhelmj has of late acquired a fulness that is almost 

If it be assumed that Joachim is the best interpreter of Bach and 
Beethoven, it must be conceded that Wilhelmj has more energy and bril- 
liancy. But a marked difference in their artistic tendencies is the enthu- 
siasm of Wilhelmj for Richard Wagner, and the antipathy of Joachim for 
the New German School, as proved by his resigning the position of leader 
of the Weimar orchestra in 1849, owing to its increasing influence. In 
1854 he held a similar appointment at Hanover, and in 1866 removed to 
Berlin after the Prussian annexation of Hanover. Two years later he 
became director of the Berlin Conservatoire. Both masters deservedly 
enjoy a world-wide reputation. As composers it may be stated that 
Joachim has written a Hungarian concerto, and that Wilhelmj has para- 
phrased in a remarkably able manner certain of Wagner's motivi. In the 
foremost rank of violinists we meet the lady artiste, Wilhelmina Neruda, 
born in 1840 at Briinn. In 1864, while at Paris, she excited considerable 
interest by her extraordinary skill. In the same year she married the 
Swedish musician Norman. Since 1869 Neruda has regularly appeared at 
the concerts of the London season, and it is not too much to say of her 
that she need not fear the result of a comparison with even such a master 
of his art as Joachim. 

Of the French virtuosi of modern times, we can only refer to that 
< xcellent violoncellist Franchomme, born in 1808, who with the violinist 
: Vllard, and the pianist Charles Halle, instituted chamber concerts. The 
first violinist of an excellent quartett society, Chevillard, may here be 
mentioned, as well as the pianist Alkan, born in 1813 at Paris. 

The far-famed Scandinavian violinist, Ole Bull, who was born in 
1810 at Bergen, where he died in 1880, was first a pupil of Spohr, and 
subsequently of Paganini ; but, as was the case with the Polish violinist 
Henri Wieniawski (born in 18:35 at Lublin, Poland, died in 1880 at 


Moscow), and the violoncellist Popper (born in 1846 at Prague), he is 
rather to be considered as a virtuoso more anxious for public applause 
than for the realisation of an artistic ideal. We have referred to these 
because they were really eminent instrumentalists, but from a purely 
artistic consideration would preferably have discussed those who have been 
connected with the development of music during the latter part of the 
present century as leaders of orchestras, string quartetts, &c.* These are 
best represented by such first violinists as Lipinski, Hartmann, Lauter- 
bach, Konigslow, De Ahna, Rappoldi, &c. ; and by such violoncellists as 
Griitzmacher, Goltermann, Coszmann, and Hausmann, as well as by such 
quartetts as that of the Miillers, of Lauterbach, Joachim, Chevillard, and 
the Florentine. Although Lauterbach and Griitzmacher (both born in 
1832) are solo performers of the first order, yet the praise due to them 
is chiefly on account of their good work in orchestral and chamber music. 

We have now completed our task. A reference to all those that have 
assisted in the construction of the temple of art will be seen to be entirely 
beyond our province. All that not only Germany but Europe has contri- 
buted to that temple during the last two generations, though most inte- 
resting to the musician, but not of sufficient general interest, may well 
be left to the department of special biography. For example, the interest 
of the majority of the public is rather for the vocalist, and especially for 
the dramatic artiste ; for these, by standing out in bolder relief than the 
instrumentalist, necessarily excite the attention more, and thereby cause a 
greater impression than that produced by the orchestral, quartett, or solo 
performer. Furthermore, vocalists are numerically much fewer than instru- 
mentalists, and this is an additional reason for the greater attraction they 

It will be observed that we have refrained from referring to many 
prominent conductors and professors, if exclusively such, but this we felt 
compelled to do, unless they had gained any celebrity, as, for instance, 
musical litterateurs. As in music, so in the history of the human race, do 
we find that many important factors of civilisation have been overlooked, 

* For the above-mentioned reason we have refrained from reference to Teresina Tua and 
Anna Senkrah, &c., and other lady artistes, as well as to certain male artists, on account of 
their not having aimed at a higher artistic position than that of mere virtuosi. 


and that frequently the less important have attracted most attention and 
gained rewards totally out of proportion to the results of their labours. 

Although this history embraces a period of more than 3,000 years, we 
venture to hope that it will serve as an aid in dissipating party dissensions, 
"We have throughout considered our duty to be, as historians, that of 
awakening a sense and understanding of the schools and master-works of 
all times and creeds, a duty most admirably performed in literature by 
Winckelmann, Lessing, Herder, Schlegel, Tieck, Goethe, and Schiller. In 
writing a history one has to prove that one can be classic without discarding 
the magic of romance ; and further, that one can also adopt the romantic 
without denying the beauty of classical form. To exclusively uphold one 
school, one period, or one master, is but to show poverty of art, and thereby 
to rob oneself of a world of pure happiness. Goethe has promulgated his 
idea of a world's literature, and Alexander von Humboldt a comparative 
method,, out of which grew his " Cosmos ; " and so in music. A universality 
is proved by Mozart's works ; and we may well refer to the two-hundredth 
anniversary in 1885, that caused the adherents of both the Romantic and 
Classical Schools to join in warm appreciation of the two great masters, 
Bach and Handel. All restriction in music induces one-sidedness, but 
this we feel must vanish before a universal conception of the art. This 
can, however, only be when in the realm of all the arts the comparative 
method has been established. By that alone can it be decided to what 
degree music is to be subjected to those eternal laws to which all other arts 
owe their existence, whether as regards idea, extension, aesthetic beauty, 
proportion, form, or artistic style. 



IN the 31st chapter we brought down the history of music in England to 
the end of the eighteenth century. It will be remembered that it was not 
at that time in a very flourishing condition. Of really national opera there 
was practically none. Dramatic music was chiefly confined to musical 
ballads, accompanied with glees, choruses, and instrumental overtures and 


interludes inserted in the course of spoken dialogues, and thus producing a 
modernised development of the more ancient " masque " rather than a true 
opera. William Shield (17481829), Thomas Linley (1725 ? 1795), 
Thomas Linley, jun. (1757 1758), William Linley (1767 ? 1835), 
William Jackson (17301803), Stephen Storace (17631796), and a 
few others, carried down the old traditional English dramatical mode of 
writing, in a more or less enfeebled form, from Dr. Arne to the beginning 
of the present century. Many of them, however, excelled as song- writers 
and glee-composers, as has been already stated in a former chapter. Instru- 
mental music for the concert or chamber was not in a much better condition. 
The exclusive admiration which the public bestowed on Italian opera, and 
on the works of Handel, rendered all indigenous attempts at composition 
hopeless failures, and most injuriously affected English musical art. Only 
one kind of secular music then flourished in England, and that was the 
glee, a description of which has been already given. This kind of music 
had reached its culminating point of excellence at the close of the last 
century. And it is sad to reflect how entirely this most pleasing, though 
not profound, species of music has of late years been allowed to decline. 
The composer who was most active in supplying a number of really Hrst- 
class compositions of this nature at the time we are discussing, was un- 
questionably Dr. John Wall Callcott. This able man was born in 1766, 
and died in 1821. He was self-taught, but began to show his remarkable 
talent at a very early age. He graduated Bachelor of Music at Oxford in 
1785, and proceeded to the Doctorate in 1800. In 1720 he took lessons in 
composition from Haydn, but they do not appear to have much modified 
his own peculiar style, which remained ever truly English. He published 
some excellent songs, and a few pieces of Church music ; but it was as a 
composer of glees and catches that he chiefly excelled. In this branch of 
art no one has surpassed him. He also brought out a very good Grammar 
of Music in 1806, of which several editions subsequently appeared, but 
which has now been entirely superseded by newer works. We would 
mention, as examples of Dr. Callcott's skill in the art of glee-writing, the 
following : " Go, Idle Boy ; " " Thyrsis, when He Left Me ; " " Peace to 
the Souls of the Heroes ; " " Queen of the Valley ; " " Father of Heroes ; " 
and " Blow, Warder, Blow/' . 

In connection with Callcott we must not omit to mention his son-in- 


law, William Horsley, who was a worthy successor to him. This excellent 
musician was born in 1774, and was an organist at various churches in 
London, where he was much looked up to both as a player, a composer, and 
a most worthy man. As a contrapuntist he holds a high rank, and espe- 
cially as a composer of canons and catches, in which he greatly distinguished 
himself. The writer of this notice has in his possession two admirably 
written anthems by Horsley, in twelve real parts, in MS., which would do 
honour to any nation or period. Still, it is doubtless in such glees as " See 
the Chariot at Hand/' or " By Celia's Arbour/' that Horsley's fame will 
survive. The two examples here mentioned are truly masterpieces. 
Horsley took the degree of Mus. Bac. at Oxford in 1800, and died in 1858. 

Another very popular composer of glees was Richard J. S. Stevens (born 
in 1757, and died in 1837), whose glees are still sung by all glee-clubs and 
vocal unions, and are certainly of great excellence. We would specify the 
following as among his best : " From Oberon in Fairy Land ; " " Sigh no 
more, Ladies;'' "Ye Spotted Snakes;" "The Cloud-Capped Towers;" 
and " Crabbed Age and Youth." 

John Stafford Smith should also be mentioned as a glee- writer in this 
place, though he was eminent also in other branches of our art. He was 
born at Gloucester in 1750, where his father was cathedral organist, and 
became a pupil of Dr. Boyce. His death occurred in 1836. As a well-read 
musical antiquarian he rendered good service, especially by the publication 
of his learned work, " Musica Antiqua," 2 vols. folio, in 1812, and his 
curious collection of English songs in score, for three and four voices, com- 
posed about 1500, and taken from MSS. of the same age, published in 
1779. He also composed a few anthems for the Church. But it is as a 
glee-composer that he claims mention in this place, to which he would be 
entitled if he had never written anything but that magnificent glee, "Blest 
Pair of Sirens," or such specimens as " Return, Blest Days," and " While 
Fools their Time," which will ever remain favourites. 

Dr. Crotch was a glee-writer, and a good one, but we reserve our notice 
of him till we come to speak of oratorios and Church music. 

We come now to one of the most prolific and popular of all our English 
composers of songs, glees, rounds, and choruses. Sir Henry Rowley Bishop 
was born in 1786, and was a pupil of F. Bianchi. He was musical director 
of Drury Lane Theatre in 1810. In 1813 he was one of the original 


founders of the Philharmonic Society, which has done more perhaps than 
any other institution in London for the improvement of musical taste, and 
is still a flourishing and most useful organisation. Bishop became con- 
ductor at Drury Lane Theatre in 1825, and musical director at Vauxhall in 
1S3U. In 1839 he took the degree of Mus. Bac. at Oxford. In 1841 and 
1 ^ I :! he. directed the music in Covent Garden Theatre. In 1840 he became 
conductor of. the Concerts of Ancient Music, which post he held for eight 
years. The University of Edinburgh conferred on him the professorship 
of music in 1841, in succession to John Thomson, which honourable post he 
held for about two years. In 1842 he received the honour of knighthood, 
then but seldom conferred on musicians. 

On the death of Dr. Crotch in 1848 Sir Henry R. Bishop succeeded 
him in the chair of music at the University of Oxford, and in 1853 he 
took the degree of Mus. Doc. Oxon., thus putting the coping-stone on the 
" monumentum sere perennius " which his great talents had reared for him 
during a long and laborious life. Sir Henry Bishop died in London on the 
3Uth April, 1855. He was a most voluminous composer of what were 
formerly called English operas, of which he composed eighty-two, besides 
several adaptations of foreign operas to English words (often brought out, 
be it added with shame, without reference to the original composer, after 
an evil fashion much in vogue towards the beginning of the present 
century) . In his own dramatic works we find, however, a number of very 
beautiful songs, glees, and choruses, many of which still retain their popu- 
larity. It is true, indeed, that the majority of Bishop's so-called glees 
require instrumental accompaniment, and are so far an innovation on the 
genuine English glee ; such is the case with those effective compositions. 
" When the Wind Blows/' " Mynheer Van Dunck," " Blow, Gentle Gales," 
and " To See His Face." Yet he also wrote some real unaccompanied 
glees ; of these perhaps the best are, " Sleep, Gentle Lady," and " Where 
art Thou, Beam of Light ? " His choruses are really grand, and he 
excelled especially in the composition of vocal " rounds," such as " Hark, 
'tis the Indian Drum," in which particular branch he may be said to be 
nulli secundus. His instrumentation was always masterly and effective, 
though generally devoid of startling contrasts and unexpected combinations, 
such as are now the prevailing fashion. Probably Bishop's greatest merit 
was his admirable way of writing well for the voices. His music is always 


singable, and is admirably adapted to the works he had to set. On the 
whole he may be ranked among the best English composers of the present 

The gradual introduction of the German part-song into England, although 
in itself an unquestionable gain, yet had this disadvantage, that it tended 
to supersede the older and more national glee. The modern part-song differs 
from the glee in that it is sung in chorus, whereas the glee is intended for 
single voices to each part. The style of the part-song, too, is very different 
from that of the glee ; for whereas the glee mainly depends for its effect 
on the delicacy of the execution, the neatness of the various shakes, turns, 
and other graces with which it is adorned, the balance of the voices both as 
to power and quality of tone, and the accurate rendering of the words 
(most of which .things are incompatible with chorus-singing) the part- 
song, on the other hand, is constructed of sterner stuff; force and vigour 
are often more important elements of its effect than delicate refinement, 
although, of course, as much of the latter should be employed as is possible 
where the voices are multiplied. The part-song, indeed, is essentially a 
chorus, and must rely mostly on chorus effects. But it agrees both with 
the glee and the madrigal in being unaccompanied by instruments. 
During the last thirty years the number of part-songs produced in England 
has very greatly exceeded that of the glees, and it is much to be feared 
that the older and more truly English form will ere long be entirely lost 
a result which is, in the writer's opinion, very much to be deprecated. 
Still there have been a few good glee composers amongst us who have 
persevered in spite of the opposing fashion, among whom we would 
specially name Sir John Goss and J. L. Hatton. 

Of Sir John Goss an account will be given when we come to speak 
of composers for the Church. All that need be said now will be to com- 
memorate his admirable glees, '< There is Beauty on the Mountain," 
" Ossian's Hymn/-' and " Hark, Heard Ye Not ? " which are equal to any 
of Webbe's or Callcott's. 

John Liphott Hatton was born in Liverpool in 1809, and soon developed 
a great talent for composition, in which he was almost entirely self-taught. 
He was a composer of dramatic music, in which branch his opera of Pascal 
Bruno (produced at Vienna in 1844) was perhaps his greatest success. He 
also produced a number of very good and popular songs, of which many 


were published under the pseudonym of Czapek. But it is as a composer 
of part-songs that he comes under our notice in this place. Of these he 
produced a large number. But amongst them we find many which are 
essentially glees, though called part-songs, and which are best adapted for 
performance with but one voice to a part. Hence there need be no scruple 
in classing Hatton among English glee- writers, although he did not adopt 
the name of glee for his compositions. Hatton composed two cathedral 
services and a few anthems; also in 1877 he produced his "sacred drama" 
of Hezekiah, at the Crystal Palace. Still it is upon his songs, part- 
songs, and glees, that his fame will chiefly rest. 

We have spoken of writers of glees and part-songs. But some of these 
composers also attempted, with more or less success, to revive the old 
Elizabethan madrigal. Callcott composed one to Petrarch's words, " O voi 
ehe sospirate," which is a good imitation well carried out. Wesley and Wal- 
misley also, of whom we shall have to speak as Church composers, were each 
also the author of a madrigal. But the most successful of all modern Eng- 
lish attempts in this direction were made by R. L. de Pearsall. This clever 
and original composer was born at Clifton in 1795, and died at Wartensee 
in 1856. He composed only vocal concerted music, glees, part-songs, madri- 
gals, and Church music, and it was in his madrigals and part-songs that he 
achieved his greatest triumphs. Although intentionally adopting the style of 
a former period, yet his music was always spontaneous, original, and tuneful ; 
and consequently it still retains its popularity. There is hardly a choral 
society in England which is not familiar with Pearsall's " Hardy Norse- 
man," or "Who shall Win my Lady Fair ?" or "Oh, Who will o'er the Downs 
with Me ?" Nor can any musician fail to recognise the contrapuntal skill 
displayed, and the good effects realised in " Lay a Garland," and " Great 
God of Love." Pearsall's Church compositions are not equal to his secular 
works, though they display no small ability. He published an essay "On 
Consecutive Fifths and Octaves in Counterpoint," which is not without 
merit, though it does not go very deeply into the matter, nor does it 
originate any very novel views. 

Many other composers of lyrical part-music will have to be treated of 
under the head of Church composers or opera writers further on. 

Perhaps the most popular composer of what may be called ballad-operas 
this country ever produced was Michael Henry Balfe. He was torn in 


Dublin in 1808, and studied there under C. E. Horn and Rooke (whose 
real name was O'Rourke, and who had made himself known favourably by 
his opera of Amilie, or the Love Test}. He was a violinist at Drury Lane 
Theatre in 1824, when he also came out as a baritone vocalist. His patron. 
Count Mazzara, took him to Italy with him, where he doubtless perfected 
himself as a singer, and married Lina Roser, a vocalist. In 1835 he re- 
appeared in London as a singer, and became conductor at various theatres. 
He was engaged as composer at Her Majesty's Theatre from 1852 to 1870. 
His death' occurred in October, 1870. Balfe was essentially a dramatic 
composer ; the stage was his peculiar province, and he may be said to have 
done more to establish a real and permanent English opera than any one 
else. Unfortunately, he adopted so entirely Italian a style and method in 
order to accomplish that good object, that he incurred the just reproach of 
being an imitator, in spite of the original and often decidedly Irish cha- 
racter of his beautiful melodies. It is this devotion to Italian models which 
has mostly hindered the permanent appreciation of his works. There is 
also a want of harmonic vigour about his choruses, and instrumental accom- 
paniments and overtures, which has detracted not a little from the high 
reputation he gained as a writer of pure and most lovely melodies. The 
result is a certain effeminacy of style which is in the strongest contrast to 
the hyper-Teutonic taste of the present day. Still, in justice it must 
be admitted that no British composer, since the days of Purcell and 
Arne, ever had such a gift of spontaneous and original melody as Balfe. 
This is particularly observable in some of his detached songs and duets, of 
which he composed a large number. Of his operas, perhaps the best are 
The Bohemian Girt, The Siege of Rochelle, The Bondman, The Talisman, 
The Daughter of St. Mark, Satanella, and The Rose of Castille. He pub- 
lished a few cantatas and some glees, besides an edition of Moore's " Irish 
Melodies ; " but it is as a pure melodist that his fame will mainly survive. 

Another composer of signal merit, who belongs to the same school as 
Balfe, was William Vincent Wallace. He was of Scottish parentage, but 
was born at Waterford, in Ireland, in 1814. . He began his musical career 
as a violinist, in which capacity he was attached to various orchestras. In 
1836 he began to travel, and visited Australia, New Zealand, India, and 
South America, re-appearing in London in 1845, "and dying in France in 
1865. He was a composer of operas, pianoforte music, and detached songs. 


His best opera is undoubtedly Maritana, to which Lurline may rank as a 
good second. These two achieved a popularity quite equal to that of any 
of Balfe's, whose style is very similar. In some respects it may be said 
that Wallace was superior to Balfe, for his scoring- was more vigorous and 
effective, and his harmonic resources greater. But he had not the prolific 
genius of his Irish contemporary. His pianoforte compositions are elegant 
and pleasing, but have now gone out of fashion. On the whole, Wallace 
may fairly be reckoned amongst our best English composers. 

John Barnett is another English composer^ mostly of dramatic works. 
He was born at Bedford in 1802, and studied harmony at Frankfort under 
Schnyder von Wartensee. He has resided since 1841 at Cheltenham. He 
has composed a large number of operas and operettas, some of which have 
been eminently popular. Of these the most notable is The Mountain Sylph, 
because it is perhaps the earliest English work written in strictly opera 
form, and probably served as a model in this respect to Balfe, Wallace, and 
others. To show what a prolific writer Barnett has been, it will suffice to 
refer to " A selection from Mr. Barnett's concerted vocal pieces and songs 
which have been published, the total number of such works being about 
two thousand, issued between 1816 and 1880." He composed two oratorios 
which were never performed, and some instrumental works, besides a treatise 
on singing and some strictures on the " Hullah-system." There can be no 
doubt that if ever English opera obtains a permanent footing it will be 
very greatly due to John Barnett's admirable efforts in that direction. 

The only other English dramatic composer who need be mentioned in this 
place is E. J. Loder (born at Bath in 1813, and died in Lotidon in 1865). 
He composed many songs and ballads of a popular character, and also 
several operas, of which the best was The Night Dancers, composed and 
brought out in 1848. 

We shall speak hereafter of one or two composers, under another head, 
who also brought out operas and operettas with great success. But from 
what has been already said it will be sufficiently plain that there have not 
been wanting, during the last fifty years, English composers with both the 
will and the power to establish and make perfect a regular school of 
national opera, if only the public could be persuaded to encourage native 
dramatic talent more than they have hitherto done. We have been obliged 
to omit all detailed account of several song-writers who achieved great 
D D D D 


popularity in their day, such as Charles Dibdin (1745-1814), C. E. Horn 
(17621830), the brothers C. W. and Stephen Glover, George Linley 
(1795_1865), Sir John A. Stevenson (17621833), &c. &c., in order to 
leave more space for others who aimed at higher walks of art. 

We come now to the few Englishmen who have chiefly made their name 
as composers of instrumental music. Many of these have also been famous 
as performers on various instruments, but it is more in accordance with the 
plan of the present work to regard them mainly as composers, and with a 
special view to the influence they have exercised on the progress of musical 
art in this country. 

Probably the most distinguished British pianoforte player and composer 
in the early part of the present century was John Field (born in Dublin in 
1782, and died at Moscow in 1837), but as he has been already sufficiently 
described in this work, it will be unnecessary to say more about him in this 
place, unless it be to observe that while his peculiar style of playing and 
composition in some respects anticipated Chopin, the form of his celebrated 
nocturnes rendered them, as it were, precursors of the well-known " Lieder 
ohneW6rte"of Mendelssohn. There can be no doubt that Chopin took 
Field's nocturnes as a model. 

The next instrumental performer and composer who comes before us is 
Thomas Adams (born 1785 and died 1858), who was certainly one of the 
best organists England has ever produced. The writer of these lines has 
many a time listened to Adams's marvellous extemporaneous performances 
of fugues and other contrapuntal pieces, in which he was second only to 
Mendelssohn and Dr. S. S. Wesley. He was often employed to show off 
new organs before they left the builder's factory, and it was mostly on these 
occasions that his remarkable talents were fully displayed. After studying 
under Busby, he became organist of Carlisle Chapel, at Lambeth, from 
1802 to 1814, when he held a similar post at St. Paul's, Deptford. In 
1824 he was appointed organist of St. George's, Camberwell ; and in 1838 
he migrated to St. Dunstan's, Fleet Street, of which church he remained 
organist till his death. He composed many fugues and other pieces for the 
organ, besides a few anthems, hymns, and pianoforte pieces. In his organ 
fugues he showed himself a most admirable and ingenious contrapuntist, 
and his compositions, though complicated and difficult to execute, are very 
effective and never dull. It is much to be wished that his organ fugues 



were transcribed for modern organs. In his days English organs were 
of imperfect compass and deficient in pedal, and now that we have every- 
where adopted the true compass and arrangement of pedals and manuals, 
all good music composed to suit the older and more imperfect system should 
be carefully adapted to modern requirements. No organ fugues deserve 
such treatment more than those of Thomas Adams. 

We come now to speak of an English musician whose works have been, 
in the writer's opinion, most unaccountably and undeservedly neglected. 
Philip Cipriani Hambly Potter was born in London in 1792, and died there 
in 1871. He made his debut as a pianist at a concert of the Philharmonic 
Society in 1816, and then went to study at Vienna under Forster. It was 
then that he made the acquaintance of Beethoven, an event which had 
no inconsiderable influence on his subsequent career.* In 1822 he was 
appointed Professor of the Pianoforte at the Royal Academy of Music, of 
which excellent institution he became Principal, in succession to Dr. Crotch, 
in 1832. This honourable and useful appointment he held till 1859, when 
he resigned it in favour of Sterndale Bennett. Potter composed no less 
than nine symphonies for full orchestra, of which four were performed by 
the Philharmonic Society with great success. These have, however, never 
been published, which is much to be regretted. The remainder of his com- 
positions were mostly for his own instrument the pianoforte and were 
almost all published. His " Studies" for that instrument, which were 
composed for the use of the Royal Academy of Music, are admirably 
adapted to their purpose, and have formed many excellent pianists. Potter 
did much to enlarge and improve the Royal Academy, and it is, in a great 
measure, owing to his good management that it finally emerged from the 
financial struggle which for many years threatened its continued existence. 

Potter's eminent successor in the Principalship of the Royal Academy 
of Music is the next musician whose name comes before us. William 
Sterndale Bennett was born at Sheffield on April 13th, 1816, and died 
February 1st, 1875. No English composer since Henry Purcell has earned 
so wide or so high a reputation, nor has any had so strong an individuality 
and originality of style. Coming as he did from a family of musicians, 

* In a letter to Ries, dated March 5th, 1818, Beethoven says: "Potter has visited me 
several times. He seems to be a good man, and has talent for composition." (See Grove's 
" Dictionary of Music.") 

D D D D 2 


he not only inherited an unusual portion of musical talent, but he had the 
great advantage of having that talent judiciously cultivated from his earliest 
youth. At the age of eight he was made a chorister of King's College, 
Cambridge, but only remained there for two years, being then entered as a 
student at the Royal Academy of Music, where he learnt the pianoforte, 
first from Mr. W. H. Holmes, and then from Cipriani Potter, while in 
composition he was a' pupil of Charles Lucas and of Dr. Crotch. Under 
such able tutors his progress was exceptionally rapid, and before he had 
completed his seventeenth year he had an opportunity of performing his 
concerto in D minor at a Prize Concert of the Academy, in the presence of 
Mendelssohn, who greatly commended the work, and spoke words of en- 
couragement to the young composer. In 1836, so great an impression was 
created by some of his works that Messrs. J. Broadwood and Sons, the 
eminent pianoforte makers, were induced to send him, at their expense, to 
Leipzig for a year an event of no slight advantage to Bennett, who was 
not only able to make many valuable musical acquaintances, but was also 
enabled to make his talents known outside his own country. But perhaps 
the greatest benefit to him was the opportunity which he had in Leipzig 
of cultivating the friendship of two such musical giants as Mendelssohn 
and Schumann, who became his warmest admirers. Probably no English- 
man ever achieved such a musical reputation out of his own country as 
Sterndale Bennett, and, what is more curious, he appears to have been more 
highly appreciated at Leipzig than he ever was at home. So greatly did 
he enjoy his sojourn at Leipzig that he returned thither foi a second visit in 
1841. In 1844 he married Mary Ann, daughter of Captain J. Wood, R.N. 
Five years later he founded the London Bach Society for the encourage- 
ment of a study of Sebastian Bach's works, by which much good was done 
to public taste in England. In 1853 the conductorship of the Leipzig 
Gewandhaus Concerts was offered to him no slight honour; while in 
1856 he became permanent conductor of the Philharmonic Society's concerts, 
a post which he filled for ten years. At the same date he was elected Pro- 
fessor of Music in the University of Cambridge, and he continued to occupy 
this chwPtill his death. In 1866 he became Principal of the Royal Academy 
of Music, a post for which he was eminently qualified. . At Cambridge 
he was so highly appreciated that in 1 856 that University conferred on him 
the degree of Doctor of Music, and the following year added also the degree 



of Master of Arts, attaching at the same time a salary of 100 to his pro- 
fessorship. Up to this time Bennett had published only instrumental music, 
but in 1858 his May Queen was produced at the Leeds Musical Festival 
with great success, and then published. Although the libretto of this 
cantata is but a feeble performance, yet such is the graceful beauty of the 

Fig. 299. Sir W. Sterndale Bennett. 

solos, the excellence of the choral writing, and the admirable skill dis- 
played in the instrumentation, that the work has continued a general 
favourite with the public, and will probably live long. In 1867, however, 
Bennett produced a far more deserving choral work, The Woman of 
Samaria, at the Birmingham Festival. This composition, though by no 
means of so popular a character as the May Qneen, is yet far more 
interesting to the cultivated musician, as it contains original beauties of a 
far higher order. It is, unquestionably, Bennett's best choral composition. 


In 1870 the University of Oxford conferred upon him the degree of D.C.L. 
honoris causa, and in the following year he received the honour of knight- 
hood. In 1872 a public testimonial was presented to him, and the money sub- 
scribed on that occasion was devoted to the foundation of a " Sterndale Bennett 
Scholarship " at the Royal Academy of Music, which he had been connected 
with from his boyhood, and which he had loved and served so well. Bennett 
was a very fine pianist, and the pianoforte was naturally the instrument for 
which the greater part of his works were composed. They are calculated to 
display the peculiar characteristics of that instrument to the best advantage, 
and although by no means easy of performance, are yet well worthy of 
serious study. His style is emphatically his own. It has been said by many 
writers that he was an imitator of Mendelssohn ; but it is hardly credible 
that any competent critic could form such a judgment if he had taken the 
trouble to examine Bennett's works at all minutely. The stamp of origin- 
ality pervades them all, and tc accuse their author of plagiarism can only 
be taken as a proof of ignorance or prejudice. His compositions are likely 
to live, and to be more and more appreciated as time goes on, and may it 
be long before the musicians of England cease to revere in Sterndale 
Bennett the finest instrumental composer this country has yet produced. 
In addition to the compositions already mentioned, Bennett was a com- 
poser of anthems and hymn tunes, and his songs are among the very best 
the English School has produced. 

Another composer of instrumental music whose name deserves special 
mention is Henry Smart. This eminent organist and composer was born 
October 26th, 1813, and died July 6th, 1879. He came of a very musical 
stock, his father having been a good violinist, and his uncle, Sir George 
Thomas Smart, having been well known as a conductor and teacher of 
music, and remarkable as one of those who handed down the old tradition 
of performing Handel's music from Joah Bates to our own times. Sir 
George Smart was also, it is believed, the first English musician who re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood. Henry Smart studied music under his 
father and W. H. Kearns, but he was mainly self-taught. He had been 
intended for the law, but, his musical proclivities proving irresistible, he 
soon devoted himself wholly to the " science of sweet sounds/' He was 
successively organist at Blackburn ; St. Philip's, Regent Street, London ; 
St. Luke's, Old Street, City; and St. Pancras, Euston Road, London, 


which last post he only resigned in. 1864, in consequence of his almost 
total loss of sight. He composed a fe\v operas and cantatas, of which the 
Jlritle of Dunkerron was, perhaps, his best. He also was the author of 
cathedral services in F, G, and B flat, which would suffice to perpetuate 
his fame, had he written nothing besides. Some few anthems also he wrote, 
which are deserving of commendation. As a composer of part-songs, too, 
he greatly distinguished himself, nor are his single songs by any means 
to be despised. But it is for his admirable organ compositions that he 
will be best remembered. Of these he composed a large number, but as 
yet they have not been collected into one set of volumes, having been 
brought out by different publishers and in various forms. The best of 
them appeared in the Organist's Quarterly Journal, published by Novello. 
Probably no English composer for the organ has furnished us with so large 
a number of original works at once masterly and pleasing as Henry 
Smart. He had an inexhaustible store of lovely melody, which invested all 
his works with a charm peculiarly their own, while his harmonies were 
always masterly, his counterpoint irreproachable, and his power of bringing 
out the best points of his instrument unrivalled. 

Of Sir Julius Benedict enough has been said in another chapter of this 
work, especially as, although an Englishman by residence and naturalisation, 
he was a German by birth and education. He was born at Stutgardt in 
1804, and died in 1885 in London. 

Henry Brinley Richards is a composer of whom a few words must be 
said in this place, although he never rose to so high a level as those 
last mentioned. He was born at Caermarthen in 1817, and died in 
London in 1885. He composed one or two orchestral pieces and a good 
many brilliant arrangements, with some few original pieces for the 
pianoforte. He also wrote some meritorious part-songs and vocal duets. 
Among his songs is one which, from circumstances, has acquired a great 
popularity this is " God Bless the Prince of Wales," composed in 1862. 
and subsequently arranged as a chorus and also for various combinations 
of instruments. 

Postponing for the present all notice of living composers, we must now 
speak of those who have chiefly distinguished themselves during the pre- 
sent century as composers of oratorios, sacred cantatas, and Church music. 
Of these the first who comes before us is Thomas Attwood. This well- 


known and justly-admired composer was born in 1767 and died in 1838. 
He was educated in the Chapel Royal under Nares and Ayrton. While yet 
a youth he attracted the notice of George, Prince of Wales (afterwards 
George TV.), who most liberally sent him abroad in 1783 to study under 
Latilla at Naples, and then under Mozart at Vienna, who expressed the 
highest opinion of his talents. On his return to London, Attwood became 
organist of St. George the Martyr, in London, and member of the Prince 
of Wales's chamber band. In 1796 he was appointed organist of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, which post he retained till his death. To this he added the duties 
of composer to the Chapel Royal in 1796, and organist also to the same 
in 1836. In the earlier part of his career Attwood devoted himself almost 
exclusively to dramatic composition, in which he was very successful ; but 
as all such music is now entirely laid aside and forgotten, it is not on that 
portion of his life that his reputation now rests. It was not until his 
appointments to be organist of St. PauFs and composer to the Chapel Royal 
that Attwood began to compose services and anthems; but after that 
period he did little else. Although his Church music will not compare 
advantageously with the old English cathedral compositions, either of the 
madrigalian epoch or of the days of Purcell and Croft, yet it must be 
admitted that it is in every respect far superior to any other English sacred 
music of its own date. 

At the beginning of the nineteenth century Church composition had 
sunk to a very low ebb in this country. A sort of effeminate vulgarity 
seems to have invaded the music of the sanctuary. Ineffective adaptations 
of foreign works, intended for the services of the Roman Communion, to 
English words bearing no analogy to the style of the music adapted to 
them, had taken possession of our cathedrals, and the most vapid and ill- 
chosen metrical psalmody reigned supreme in our parish churches. It was 
no small gain, then, to have in Attwood a composer of original Church 
music, comparatively free from the abuses then prevalent, and able to supply 
a series of services and anthems of no inconsiderable contrapuntal merit, 
well written for the voices, and suitable to the words to which they were 
set, which still retain much of their pristine popularity in our choirs and 
bid fair to live for many future generations. Attwood's services in F and 
D are still household words in most cathedrals, while many of his anthems 
are as fresh now as when first composed. But Attwood did more than this. 


It was not for nothing 1 that he had been the disciple of the greatest 
orchestral composer the world had yet seen. The influence of Mozart's 
teaching was unmistakably seen in Attwood's compositions for the orchestra. 
As examples of this we would refer to his two magnificent coronation 
anthems for full orchestra and chorus, of which the former, " I was glad/' 
was written for the coronation of his patron and friend, George IV., while 
the latter, " O Lord, grant the King a long life," was written for the 
coronation of William IV., in 1831. These are indeed, both of them, works 
of the highest merit. Attwood had begun to compose a third anthem of 
the same kind for the coronation of Queen Victoria, when his career was 
cut short by death, and the intended work was never completed. He also 
composed some excellent glees and songs, which show his admirable power 
of vocal writing to great advantage. Mendelssohn formed a very intimate 
friendship with Attwood when he visited England, and dedicated to him 
some of his best works. 

The next great English composer of sacred music whom we must notice 
is Samuel Wesley. This gifted man was the nephew of the celebrated Rev. 
John Wesley, from whom the Wesleyans take their name. Samuel Wesley 
was born at Bristol in 1766, and died in London in 1837. In his childhood 
he exhibited such a wonderful precocity in music that the greatest interest 
was excited in his talents and progress, and several notices of him were 
published. He studied music under his elder brother, Charles Wesley, who 
was also a well-known and much-admired organist and composer. Samuel 
held several organ appointments, among them one at a Nonconformist place 
of worship and another at a Roman Catholic chapel. He was himself, 
however, it is believed, a member of the Church of England, for whose 
service he wrote several anthems, and one very clever, though somewhat 
fragmentary, service in F, " dedicated to all choirs." He also composed 
some really splendid Latin motets, for unaccompanied chorus and in many 
vocal parts, of which his " Dixit Dominus," "Exultate Deo," and "In 
Exitu Israel " may be cited as good samples. He likewise composed 
original hymn tunes adapted to every metre in the collection of the Rev. 
John Wesley. His fugues and voluntaries for the organ contain merit of 
a no mean order. But he has laid all English musicians under a deep 
obligation by being the first of our countrymen who made known to us the 
works of John Sebastian Bach, of whose " Wohltemperirte Clavier'' he 


brought out a good English edition, in conjunction with a co-editor, Horn. 
Samuel Wesley was admitted to be the best organist of his day, 
and he excelled specially in the (now neglected) art of fugal extempori- 

Wesley had a rival in a childish musical phenomenon, who excited even 
greater wonder by his very early performances on the pianoforte and organ. 
This was William Crotch, who was born at Norwich in 1775, and died at 
Taunton in 1847. Both Dr. Burney and the Hon. Daines Barrington 
published accounts of the wonderful proofs of musical genius displayed by 
Crotch in his childhood. Burney's account was printed in the Philosophical 
Transactions for 1779. In 1786 the young musician was taken to Cam- 
bridge, where he studied under Dr. Randall, whose assistant he became. 
At the age of fourteen he composed his first oratorio, The Captivity, 
which was performed in Cambridge, June 4th, 1789. About this time he 
migrated to Oxford, where, in 1 790, he became organist of Christ Church. 
He took the degree of Bachelor of Music at Oxford in 1794, and on the 
death of Philip Hayes, in 1797, Crotch was appointed to the Professorship 
of Music in that University, an office which he held till his death. He 
took his Doctor's degree in 1799, his exercise for which was a setting of 
Dr. Warton's " Ode to Fancy/' afterwards published in full score. His 
greatest work, however, Palestine, was not brought out till 1812. This 
oratorio was, unquestionably, the greatest and most successful work of the 
kind composed by an Englishman up to that time, and for force, vigour, 
beauty, orchestral effect, and proper setting of the words has seldom been 
excelled. In some places, indeed, it rises to real sublimity (e.g., the grand 
chorus, "Let Sinai tell"), and it is a work which has stood, and will 
stand, the test of time. In 1820 Crotch was appointed lecturer on music 
at the Royal Institution, and ia 1822 he was chosen to be the first 
Principal of the newly-founded Royal Academy of Music. On the in- 
stallation of the Duke of Wellington as Chancellor of the University of 
Oxford, in 1834, Dr. Crotch composed the music to an ode written for 
the occasion by the Professor of Poetry, the Rev. John Keble, and, at 
the same time, produced a new oratorio on the same subject as his first 
boyish attempt, The Captivity of Judah. This was prepared for publica- 
tion, but, shame to say, a sufficient number of subscribers was never o-ot 


together to render publication practicable. Besides his oratorios and odes, 


Dr. Crotch was also the composer of several anthems, of various pianoforte 
pieces and organ fugues, of some excellent glees, and of two treatises which 
have only been superseded quite recently. He also published some very 
useful lectures on music in 1831, together with three volumes of " Specimens 
of Various Styles of Music/' to illustrate them. These lectures deserve to 
be read by all musical students,, although many of the views maintained 
in them must now be considered antiquated and narrow. Crotch was a 
thoroughly well-educated man, and understood several languages. He also 
had a great talent for drawing, in which he might have become quite as 
eminent as in music had he thought it worth his while. On the whole, 
Crotch is a musician who deservedly holds a very high place among the 
English composers of the nineteenth century. 

We have only space to mention very cursorily John Clarke-Whitfield, an 
organist and composer who had a certain celebrity in his day. He was born 
at Gloucester in 1770, and died at Holmer, near Hereford, in 1835. He 
was successively organist at Ludlow, 1789; Armagh Cathedral, 1794; 
Christ Church and St. Patrick's Cathedrals, Dublin, 1798; St. John's and 
Trinity. Colleges, Cambridge, 1798; Hereford Cathedral, 1820 to 1833. 
He graduated in music ' at Dublin, Cambridge, and Oxford, and was 
appointed Professor of Music in the University of Cambridge in 1821. He 
published four volumes of services and anthems in 1805, .besides an oratorio 
and a cantata. He also composed many glees and songs. All these works 
are now well-nigh forgotten, but he has the merit of being among the 
earliest to publish editions of Handel's oratorios in vocal score with piano- 
forte accompaniments. 

The next name which comes before us is that of a most eminent Church 
composer, John Goss (born at Fareham in 1800, and died in London in 
1880). He was a chorister under John Stafford Smith at the Chapel Royal, 
and afterwards became a pupil of Attwood. In 1824 he had the place of 
organist at St. Luke's, Chelsea, and succeeded Attwood as organist of St. 
Paul's Cathedral in 1838. In 1856 he was appointed composer to the 
Chapel Royal, which office, together with his appointment at St. Paul's, he 
resigned in 1872, in which year he received the honour of knighthood. 
He was presented with the honorary degree of Doctor of Music by the 
University of Cambridge in 1876, four years before his death. He coin- 
posed several cathedral services, of which one, his "Magnificat" and "Nunc 


Dimittis" in E, is a permanent favourite in every choir where genuine 
English Church music is cultivated. But it is by his many and most ex- 
cellent anthems that he is best known : these are, indeed, a repertory of 
solid beauty, and pure part-writing, sometimes almost rising 1 to sublimity, 
which have probably done more than the writings of any other Church 
composer of recent times to preserve and hand down the true old English 
cathedral style, while, at the same time, they are by no means devoid o 
more modern resources in harmony and construction. Few composers have 
equalled Sir John Goss as a writer for voices ; the inner parts of his 
anthems are always melodious and easy to sing, the words are most cor- 
rectly set to music, while the counterpoint is always good, often masterly. 
Among Sir John Goss's anthems it is hard to assign the chief place to any 
in particular, as. they are so uniformly good. But among those best known 
we would mention the following: "If we believe," "O Saviour of the 
world," " O taste and see/' " Praise the Lord, O my soul/' and " The 
Wilderness/' But Goss was not exclusively a Church composer. He also 
composed some most admirable glees and one madrigal, not to mention some 
orchestral works of value and some organ arrangements. He published, in 
1835, his " Introduction to Harmony and Thorough Bass," a work which 
had considerable success in its day, though now superseded by subsequent 
treatises and instruction books. 

The next composer who comes before us was likewise a pupil of 
Attwood, and a son of an excellent musician, Thomas Forbes Walmisley 
(also himself a pupil of Attwood), who was born in 1783, and died in 
1866. Thomas Attwood Walmisley was born in 1814 and died in 1856. 
Under so able a teacher as Attwood, young Walmisley made very rapid 
progress, both as a composer and a player. In 1830 he was appointed 
organist of Croydon Church, and three years later he was elected organist 
of Trinity and St. John's Colleges, at Cambridge, and took the degree of 
Bachelor of Music at that University. In 1838 he took his B.A. degree, 
and in 1841 that of M.A., while in 1846 he took the degree of Mus. 
Doc. He is best known by his cathedral services and anthems, of which 
a collection was published in 1857, posthumously, edited by his father, 
who survived him ten years. He also composed some vocal and instru- 
mental music of no small merit. He was a distinguished organist and 
an admirable extemporaneous performer. In this too much neglected 


branch of the art, however, he was excelled by the next composer who 
comes before us. 

Samuel Sebastian Wesley (born in 1810 and died in 1876) was a son of 
Samuel Wesley, whom we have mentioned above, and was a worthy suc- 
cessor to his father's musical eminence. He was educated in the Chapel 
Royal, where his talents soon made themselves apparent. In 1833 he 
became organist of Hereford Cathedral in succession to Dr. Clarke- 
Whitfield. After his marriage with Miss Merewether, sister of the Dean 
of Hereford, he left that cathedral, and in 1835 was appointed organist 
of Exeter Cathedral. In 1839 he accumulated the degrees of Bachelor and 
Doctor of Music at Oxford, by special grace of the University. He became 
organist of Leeds Parish Church in 1842, which post he retained for six 
years. In 1849 he was appointed to the organ of Winchester Cathedral, 
and to that of Gloucester in 1865, which last post he held till his 
death in 1876. His service in E was probably the first of his works which 
earned him his great reputation as a Church composer. In this work, com- 
posed in 1845, he departed considerably from the old-established models, 
and inaugurated what may be termed the most modern phase of English 
Church music. This was also very much the case in his admirable 
anthems, which, although they are now, as it were, household words in every 
good choir, were looked upon as dangerous novelties when the earlier of 
them were first composed. It is not that they are unsuited to the service 
of the sanctuary, or at all secular in style, for that they most assuredly 
are not ; but they are full of very original harmonies, some of which had 
never been heard of before in this country, and a few of which must be 
deemed experiments in harmonisation of somewhat doubtful success. Now 
we have become accustomed to these modernisms, but when Wesley first 
ventured upon them many old-fashioned professors were shocked at what 
they deemed unwarrantable licences, and joined in condemning them as 
innovations. It was thus, doubtless, that his finest anthem, " The 
Wilderness/' failed to secure the Gresham Prize in 1834, for which ..e was 
a candidate. In spite of all opposition, however, "Wesley's Church music 
soon acquired that popularity and general appreciation to which i!; is un- 
questionably entitled. And we may well condone the contrapuntal laches 
and harmonic crudities which it unquestionably contains, when we consider 
the wonderful power and originality it displays, the successful manner in 


which the sense and accent of the words are attended to, the uncommon 
beauty of the melodies which abound in it, and the frequent instances we 
find in it of breadth and grandeur, sometimes amounting to true sublimity. 
Besides his Church music, however, Wesley also composed some good glees 
and part-songs, not to mention a few very fine songs of great beauty. 
He was also the composer of organ pieces of very considerable merit, but 
often of exceeding difficulty, all written in his own peculiar style. It is 
evident that he made Bach, Spohr, and Mendelssohn his models, and that 
his music is built up on that triple foundation. Yet it would not be just 
to call him an imitator, still Jess a plagiarist, as his own individuality was 
able to make itself apparent in all his varied works. "Wesley was also the 
author of some clever letters and pamphlets on subjects connected with 
cathedrals. He inherited from his father a wonderful power of fugal 
extemporisation, in which he was unrivalled in his day. It were much to 
be wished that this faculty were more cultivated amongst modern English 
musicians than it appears to be now-a-days. On the whole, Wesley was a 
man who supplied a connecting link between the Old and New Schools of 
English Ecclesiastical Music, and who displayed, both in his playing and 
in his compositions, a very unusual amount of talent of a very high order, 
which will render his name permanent among those who have distinguished 
themselves in the annals of English musical history. 

Among the composers of oratorios we cannot pass over Henry Hugo 
Pierson (otherwise Pearson), who was born at Oxford in 18] 5, and died at 
Leipzig in 1873. He was not intended for the musical profession, but 
after studying first at Harrow and then at Trinity College, Cambridge, had 
thoughts of entering upon a medical career. While at Cambridge, however, 
his musical talent became so evident that he changed his studies, and 
worked at musical composition under Attwood and Arthur Corfe. In 1839 
he went to Germany and became a pupil of Rinck, Tomaschek, and 
Eeissiger. At Leipzig he met Mendelssohn, and also became acquainted 
with Meyerbeer, Spohr, and Schumann. In 1844 he accepted the Reid 
Professorship of Music in the University of Edinburgh, but he soon gave 
this up in order to go back to Germany, where he mostly resided during 
the rest of his life. He at one time published many of his minor com- 
positions under the pseudonym of " Edgar Mansfeldt." His greatest 
work was an oratorio, Jerusalem, brought out at the Norwich Festival in 


1852 with marked success. He subsequently composed a second oratorio 
on the subject of Hezekiah. But it does not appear that this work was 
ever finished, although certain portions were performed at a Norwich 
Festival in 1869. In 1854 Pierson composed music to the second part of 
Goethe's Faust. This was greatly appreciated in Germany. He also 
wrote two operas, a few part-songs, and many single songs of great merit. 
Pierson appears to have been much more valued in Germany than in 
England, which accounts for his spending the greater part of his life 

Another oratorio composer who claims a place here is Charles Edward 
Horsley (born in 1821 and died in 1876), whose father, William Horsley, 
we have already mentioned in this chapter. He was a pupil of his father 
and of Moscheles in London, and of Hauptmann and Mendelssohn at 
Leipzig. Charles Horsley is best known by his oratorios, David, Joseph, 
and Gideon. But he also composed a cantata, Comus, besides several 
pianoforte pieces, chamber music, and sundry songs and part-songs. In 
1860 he went to Australia, and subsequently settled in New York, where 
he died. 

Nor can we pass over the name of Dr. Henry John Gauntlett, who was 
born in 1806 and died in 1876. He was originally a solicitor, but afterwards 
devoted himself entirely to music. As an organist he was well known, and 
he it was who inaugurated the wonderful improvement in the construction 
of organs in this country, when the old and imperfect GG compass of 
the manuals, and the short pedal-board with " return pedal-pipes," were 
gradually superseded by the true C compass, now universally adopted. He 
composed anthems and hymns, many of which are still favourites, and was 
also the author of several musical pamphlets, and a few minor compositions. 
Dr. Gauntlett was the second musician who received a degree of Mus. Doc. 
from the Archbishop of Canterbury, the first having been Dr. John Blow. 

The next name which comes before us is that of the Rev. John 
Bacchus Dykes, whose hymn-tunes, &c., are probably more popular than 
those of any other English composer. Dykes was born at Hull in 1823, 
and died at St. Leonards in 1876. He took the degree of B.A. at Cam- 
bridge in 1817, and M. A. in 1851 . In 1861 the University of Durham con- 
ferred on him the degree of Mus. Doc., this being one of the earliest degrees 
in music awarded by that University. After serving as an assistant curate 


at Mai ton, in Yorkshire, he was appointed minor canon and precentor of 
Durham Cathedral in 1849. In 1862 he became vicar of St. Oswald's, 
Durham, still retaining his minor canonry, though not the precentorship. 
He composed a cathedral service in F and several good anthems ; but it is 
as a composer of metrical hymn-tunes that he is best and most deservedly 
known. He had a very fine power of extemporisation on the organ and 
on the pianoforte, and was in every respect a thoroughly well-educated 

It is time now to turn to several admirable English musical men who 
are still living, and whom we have therefore placed last. Of these the first 
in point of date, and also in importance, is Sir George Alexander Mac- 
farren. This excellent and talented man was born in London in 1813, and 
was a pupil first of his father, then of Charles Lucas, and thirdly of Cipriani 
Potter, at the Royal Academy of Music, of which institution he became a 
professor in 1834, and Principal in 1876. In the year 1875, on the death 
of Stern dale Bennett, Macfarren was elected his successor as Professor of 
Music in the University of Cambridge, and in the following year he 
graduated as Bachelor and Doctor of Music by accumulation in that 
University. The honour of knighthood was conferred upon him in 1883. 
It is probable that no English musician has ever done so much good work 
for the improvement and advancement of the science and art of music in 
England as Macfarren. His whole career has not only been one of the 
greatest credit to himself, but also of the utmost benefit to music and 
musicians. Whether as a composer, a teacher, a lecturer, or a didactic 
writer, it is impossible to over-estimate the value of his efforts in the good 
cause of sweet sounds, and undoubtedly his name will be handed down to 
future generations among the greatest men who have devoted their time 
and talents to the -development of musical art. There is no branch of music 
in which he has not done good and fruitful work. His oratorios, St. Jo/in 
the Baptist (IMS), The Resurrection (1876), Joseph (1877), and King David 
(1883), are admirable works, destined, to live; and of these and other of his 
more recent works the merit is enhanced by the sad fact of his total blind- 
ness at the time of their composition. His cantatas, Lenora (1852), Old 
May-Day (1857), C/mxfwas (1860), Freya's Gift (1863), and The Lady of 
the Lake (1877), are equally excellent and effective. He has also composed 
much orchestral music of great excellence. This includes seven symphonies 




and many overtures. Nor has he been less successful with his chamber 
music. As an English opera-writer, Macfarren did much in the earlier 
part of his career, and it is to be lamented that his dramatic works have 
been so completely laid on the shelf; they deserved a better fate. Mac- 
farren has also composed services and anthems, many of which are in use 
in our cathedrals. His songs, part-songs, and other smaller vocal compo- 
sitions are too numerous to be mentioned in detail; but, like his larger 
works, they bear the impress of high talent, and many of them will 
probably long retain their popularity. Lastly, Macfarren's name will live 
to future ages in his valuable contributions to musical literature. His 
" Rudiments of Harmony/' his " Six Lectures on Harmony " delivered at 
the Royal Institution, his " Eighty Musical Sentences/' his work (C On 
the Construction of a Sonata/' his " Treatise on Counterpoint/' his various 
articles in different periodicals, and his various analyses of classical works 
all these constitute a mass of most valuable matter, for which English 
musicians cannot be too grateful. On the whole, then, Sir George Alexander 
Macfarren must be admitted to b3 deserving of occupying an exalted niche 
in the gallery of England's musical worthies. 

The next living composer whose name we must by no means omit is 
Sir George Job Elvey, who was born at Canterbury in 1816, and was a 
pupil first of Highmore Skeats, and then of his elder brother, Dr. Stephen 
Elvey (born 1805 and died 1860), for thirty years organist of New College, 
Oxford. George Elvey certainly made the most of his opportunities, and 
was appointed organist of St; George's Chapel, Windsor, in 1838, when 
only twenty-two years of age. This honourable post he continued to hold 
till his retirement in 1882. He took the degree of Mus. Bac. at Oxford 
in 1838, and of Mus. Doc. in 1840. In 1871 he received the honour of 
knighthood. He has been a very prolific composer of useful and effective 
anthems and other sacred compositions, some of which are of a very high 
standard of merit, and will long retain their popularity. He imderstands 
the art of writing well for voices, making the inner parts of his choruses 
interesting and pleasant to sing, an art often somewhat neglected by 
younger composers. His counterpoint is always good, and his style massive 
and striking. Perhaps sometimes we may detect in his works too rigid an 
adherence to the ultra-Handelian method of composition which prevailed 
when he was a young man; but by this we do not intend by any means 


to accuse him of plagiarism. He has published an oratorio, The Resurrec- 
tion and Ascension, and some pieces for the organ, songs, and glees. 

Another Church composer who comes before us in this place is Edward 
John Hopkins, perhaps one of the best living authorities on the subject 
of organ-construction. He was born in 1818, and educated in the Chapel 
Royal under William Hawes, also studying under T. F. Walmisley, of 
whom we have spoken above. After holding several organ appointments, 
he was elected organist of the Temple Church in 1843. In 1882 he 
obtained the degree of Mus. Doc. from the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
and a similar degree in 1886 from the University of Toronto. He is the 
composer of several excellent and effective services and anthems, as well as 
of some most useful compositions for the organ. But he is best known as 
the joint author, with the late Dr. Rimbault, of a work of considerable 
value, of which the title is "The Organ, its History and Construction/' 
published in 8vo in 1855, and of which other editions have appeared in 
1870 and 1877. He has also lectured on the same subject, and contributed 
some very useful articles about organs and organ-building to Grove's 
" Dictionary of Music." He has acquired a great reputation also as one 
of our best Church organists. 

We must now mention a very clever composer, chiefly of instrumental 
music of various kinds, Charles Edward Stephens (born 1821), who is a 
nephew of the celebrated singer, Catherine Stephens, afterwards Countess 
of Essex. Mr. Stephens is well known as a very successful pianist and 
teacher, and is also the author of some very excellent chamber music for 
pianoforte and stringed instruments, as well as some good pieces for the 
organ and for pianoforte solo. He has likewise composed a symphony for 
orchestra, and some services and anthems, besides sundry part-songs, glees, 
and single songs. His music deserves to be better known than it has 
hitherto been. 

Henry David Leslie was born in 1822, and studied music under 
Charles Lucas. Leslie is the composer of two oratorios, two cantatas, 
two operas, an orchestral symphony and overture, a few anthems, a number 
of very good part-songs, and some single songs. But it is as a successful 
trainer and conductor of choirs that he is best known. His celebrated 
' Leslie Choir" gained the first prize for part-singing at the Paris Inter- 
national Competition in 1878 no slight honour. In this respect he stands 


on a lofty eminence, and has done a great deal of good service to. the 
cultivation and appreciation of choral music in London and elsewhere. 

Following our chronological order, we now come to Sir Robert Prescott 
Stewart, who was born in Dublin in the year 1825. He received his 
musical education in the choir of Christ Church Cathedral in that city, and 
became organist of the same in 1844, at which time he also received the 
appointment of organist at Trinity College, Dublin. To these appoint- 
ments he added that of organist of St. Patrick's Cathedral in 1852, 
having taken the degree of Mus. Doc. at Dublin the preceding year. In 
1871 he received the honour of knighthood an honour which was well 
deserved. He is known as the composer of two cantatas, two odes, two 
cathedral services, and several effective anthems. He has also won more 
than one prize for glees and part-songs, and has delivered many valuable 
lectures on musical subjects in his capacity of Professor of Music at the 
University of Dublin, which office he has filled most efficiently since the 
year 1861. He is an exceptionally good organist, and his admirable style 
of accompanying a choral service is beyond praise. 

Probably one of the most accomplished executants on the organ now 
living is William Thomas Best (born at Carlisle in 1826). He held organ 
appointments at several churches and chapels successively, but has made 
his name chiefly by his admirable performances on the magnificent organ 
at St. George's Hall, Liverpool, where he has been organist since 1856. 
He has composed and arranged a vast number of pieces for his instrument 
in a masterly manner, and has thus laid all lovers of the organ under a 
deep obligation. He has also published some pianoforte music; nor has he 
neglected sacred vocal art, having composed services, anthems, and hymns, 
some of which have been widely used. But his fame rests mainly on his 
wonderful skill as an organist, where he need fear no rival in England or 
on the Continent. 

In the year 1830 was born Sir Herbert Stanley Oakeley, who has done 
very good work for the advancement of music in Scotland. He is the 
second son of Sir Herbert Oakeley, Baronet, and brother of the present 
Sir Charles Oakeley, Baronet. He was educated at Rugby, and Christ 
Church, Oxford, where he graduated as B.A. in 1853 and M.A. in 1856. 
He had always evinced great talent for music from his early boyhood, but 
did not make the most of his powers till he went to study in Germany, 

E 3 3 E 2 


under Plaidy, Moscheles, and Papperitz, at Leipzig; under J. Schneider 
of Dresden, for the organ; and under Breidenstein at Bonn. In 1865 
he succeeded John Donaldson as Professor of Music in the University of 
Edinburgh, which has ever since been the principal scene of his labours. 
On the occasion of the inaugm*ation of the monument to the late Prince 
Consort at Edinburgh in 1876, he received the honour of knighthood. In 
1871 he was made a Mus. Doc. by the Archbishop of Canterbury; in 1879 
the University of Oxford conferred on him the same degree, honoris causa ; 
while in 1881 he was complimented with that of LL.D. by the University 
of Aberdeen. His compositions have been chiefly vocal, consisting of a 
cathedral service in E flat, several anthems, many songs, part-songs, and 
choruses; but he has also published some pianoforte music and a few 
orchestral pieces. As Professor of Music at Edinburgh he has greatly 
advanced the study and appreciation of classical music in the Scottish 
capital, both by his lectures and classes, and also by the admirable concerts 
he has given, especially in connection with the " Reid " festival. He is a 
good pianist and organist, and his organ recitals deserve high praise. 

Ebenezer Prout is the next composer who comes before us in the order 
of time. He was born in 1835 at Oundle, in Northamptonshire, and took 
the degree of B.A. at London University in 1854. He was a pupil of 
Salaman for the pianoforte. He has composed some very excellent works 
for the orchestra, including four symphonies, and a concerto for organ and 
orchestra. He has also published some services and anthems, some piano- 
forte pieces, and some very good chamber music for pianoforte and strings. 
His little " Music Primer" on Instrumentation is most admirable and 
useful, and has been translated into German. He is also well known as 
an accomplished musical critic. 

We spoke of John Barnett just now, and we must not omit in this place 
to say a few words about his nephew, John Francis Barnett, who was born 
in 1837, and studied under Dr. Wylde. In 1850 and 1852 he gained 
scholarships at the Royal Academy of Music, and came out as a pianist. 
He subsequently studied at Leipzig, returning to London in 1859. He 
is now one of the professors at the Royal College of Music. As a 
composer he has made his mark by an oratorio, The Raising of Lazarus, 
and several very good cantatas. He has also produced an orchestral 
symphony and several concert overtures. His other works consist of 


pianoforte pieces and songs. Probably his most popular composition is his 
cantata The Ancient Mariner; but his music is always melodious and 
thoroughly well written. 

The present well-known organist of St. Paul's Cathedral, John Stainer, 
was born in 18 10, and was educated in the choir of that church. In 1857 
he became organist of St. Michael's College, Tenbury, where he remained 
two years. Thence he went to be organist of Magdalen College, Oxford, 
which post he occupied till he was appointed to St. Paul's Cathedral iu 
1872. He graduated at Oxford as Mus. Bac. in 1859, B.A. 1863, 
Mus. Doc. 1865, and M.A. 1866. While in Oxford he also filled the 
post of organist to the University. He has composed an oratorio, two 
cantatas, and many cathedral services and anthems. As an author he 
is known by the following works: "A Dictionary of Musical Terms" 
(edited conjointly with Mr. W. A. Barrett), 1875; "A Theory of Har- 
mony, Founded on the Tempered Scale," 1869; "Harmony" (music 
primer), 1877; " The Organ " (music primer), 1877; "The Music of the 
Bible," 1879; "Composition" (music primer), 1880; "Tutor for (he 
American Organ," 1883. His cantatas contain some very effective points, 
and among his anthems are some of the best we possess. As an organist 
he is much and justly admired, and he has undoubtedly done good 
service as a Government inspector of music in schools, to which office he 
was appointed in succession to Dr. Hullah in 1882. 

We come now to a many-sided and most conspicuous English musicianj 
Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan, who was born in 1842, and received his early 
musical training in the Chapel Royal, under the Rev. Thomas Helmore. In 
1856 he was elected to a " Mendelssohn Scholarship " at the Royal Academy 
of Music, where he studied under Sir John Goss and Sir W 7 illiam Sterndale 
Bennett for two years. He then spent three years at Leipzig, completing 
his musical studies there, till 1861, when he returned to London. Here he 
very quickly made a name for himself as a composer, as a conductor, and as 
Principal of the National Training School of Music, which office he held 
from 1876 to 1881. He received the degree of Doctor of Music, honoris 
causa, at Cambridge in 1876, and at Oxford in 1879, and was knighted in 
1883. Sullivan is undoubtedly the most popular English composer now 
living, and he owes this popularity mainly to his very clever and most 
successful operas and operettas, such as The Contrabandists, Box and Cox t 


Trial by Jury, The Sorcerer, H.M.S. Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance, 
Patience, lolanthe, Princess Ida, and The Mikado. He is also the com- 
poser of a large number of songs and part-songs, many of which have 
won a well-deserved popularity. But it will not be, probably, by these 
more ephemeral works that he will be best known to future generations ; 
he has also composed more serious and classical things, which will hand 
down his name among the best of England's musical worthies. His three 
oratorios, The Prodigal Son, The Light of the World, The Martyr of 
Antioch, his cantatas, and his admirable orchestral compositions, will live 
long after his lighter works have gone out of fashion. The same may 
be said of his Church music, most of which is truly excellent. All that 
he has done, be it great or small, has always been the work of a thorough 
musician ; and it may be said of him that in whatever walk of the art he 
has exerted his talent, he has never yet failed to succeed. 

Joseph Barnby was born at York in 1838, and was educated in the 
choir of York Minster, and afterwards in the Royal Academy of Music. 
From 1863 to 1871 he was organist of St. Andrew's Church, Wells Street, 
London, where the choral services have always been most carefully and 
efficiently rendered. In 1871 he became choirmaster at St. Anne's, Soho, 
London, and four years later he accepted the important post of Director 
of Musical Instruction at Eton College, which he still holds. He has 
written an oratorio, Rebekah, which he calls a "sacred idyll," besides a 
large number of services, anthems, and hymn tunes ; also songs and part- 
songs, and some organ music. He is well known as one of our best 
conductors and organisers of concerts and choral societies. 

A Scottish composer claims the next place in these pages. Alexander 
Campbell Mackenzie was born in Edinburgh in 1847. He soon became 
known as a violinist in Germany, and was elected a king's scholar at the 
Royal Academy of Music in 1862. He resided in Edinburgh till 1879, 
since which time he has lived principally in Germany. He has composed 
a good deal of pianoforte and other chamber music, as well as vocal pieces of 
various kinds. But his three greatest works, on which his now well-earned 
reputation rests, are the two dramatic works, Jason and Colomba, and his 
oratorio, The Rose of Sharon, which was brought out with great success at 
the Norwich Festival in 1884-. 

We have only space for two more living British composers. One of 


these is an Irishman by birth, Charles Villiers Sianford, who was born iu 
1852, and became a pupil of Arthur O'Leary and Sir Robert Stewart iu 
Dublin, and afterwards of Reinecke at Leipzig, aud Kiel at Berlin. He 
took his B.A.., with classical honours, at Cambridge, in 1874, and his M.A. 
three years later. In 1873 he was appointed organist of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and had the degree of Doctor of Music, honoris causa, conferred 
upon him by the University of Oxford in 1883. Dr. Stanford has published 
music of almost every kiud sacred, dramatic, vocal, instrumental, and 
elementary in which very great talent is displayed, and bids us hope for 
many future productions of the highest merit from his facile pen. Mr. 
Stanford is one of the professors at the Royal College of Music, and is also 
well known as a good conductor. 

The other composer whom we have to mention is Frederic Hymen Cowen. 
This excellent and popular musician was born in Jamaica in 1852, and came 
to England when four years old. Here he studied under Sir Julius Benedict 
and Sir John Goss, and afterwards prosecuted his studies in Germany under 
Hauptmann, Moscheles, and Reineeke. He has written operas, cantatas, and 
one oratorio, besides four very admirable symphonies and other orchestral 
pieces. He is also the composer of a good deal of pianoforte music and 
many very popular songs and part-songs. 

Did space admit of it there are many other very promising English 
musicians of whom we could say much ; and there is likewise much more 
to be said concerning those of whose life and works we have only been able 
to write mere sketches. But we are obliged, unwillingly, to go on to give 
a brief account of English writers about music, historians, biographers, 
and theorists ; and even of these we can only take a few. In order to do 
justice to this branch of our subject, we must go back to the early part of 
the eighteenth century, in order to give some notice of Sir John Hawkins, 
who was born in 1719 and died in 1789. He was a lawyer by profession, 
but also an amateur musician, and the author of various works which are 
now forgotten. But he has rendered good service to the art of music by 
his well-known " History of Music/' which he published in five large 
quarto volumes in 1776, and which was reprinted in two volumes, 8vo, 
by Novello in 1853. This is a wonderfully accurate work, and contains 
a great mass of useful information. Unfortunately, it is somewhat ill- 
arranged, and is not written in a very interesting style. In consequence 


of these blemishes it was for a long time almost superseded by Dr. Burney's 
more popular history, of which we must now go on to speak. 

Charles Burney was born at Shrewsbury in 1726. He received an 
excellent education at the free school of his native town, and afterwards at 
the public school at Chester. While at the latter place he studied music 
under Baker, organist of Chester Cathedral, and subsequently in London 
under Dr. Arne. In 1749 he became organist of St. Dionis Backchurch, 
in the City of London, and two years later he held a similar appointment 
at Lynn Regis. He accumulated the degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of 
Music at Oxford in 1769, and spent the greater part of the three following 
years in travels in Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands, with a view of 
collecting materials for his great "History of Music. " Of his foreign 
travels he published very entertaining and well-written accounts, of which 
the titles were " The Present State of Music in France and Italy, or the 
Journal of a Tour through those Countries," &c. &c., 8vo, 1771; and 
" The Present State of Music in Germany, the Netherlands, and United 
Province, or the Journal of a Tour through those Countries/' &c. &c., 
2 vols. 8vo, 1773. But interesting as these works are, they sink into 
insignificance by the side of Dr. Burney's magnum opus, the " General 
History of Music " in four large quarto volumes, of which the first came out 
in 1776, and the last in 1789. From a literary point of view this im- 
portant work is vastly superior to the rival work by Sir John Hawkins. 
It is written in a much more readable style, and is far better arranged. 
But as a history it is not by any means so trustworthy. Dates are often 
omitted, and when given are not unfrequently erroneous; the criticisms, 
though often elaborate, betray a want of musical discrimination ; and 
much valuable space is wasted on trivial details. Still it is a very 
excellent work, and deserves the long course of popularity which it has 
enjoyed. In 1785 Burney published an interesting and valuable " Account 
of the Musical Performances in Westminster Abbey and the Pantheon, 
&c. &c., in Commemoration of Handel/'' This work is one of his best 
writings, and is of considerable value and interest still. He also published 
many other biographical, historical, and critical works, and some musical 
compositions, long since forgotten. Dr. Burney died at Chelsea in 1814. 

The histories of music by Hawkins and Burney were a storehouse of 
facts of which many authors availed themselves in the compilation of 


smaller historical works. Among these plagiarists and imitators none 
deserve mention, unless it be Dr. Thomas Busby, whose works rise some- 
what above the common level. Busby was jaorn in 1755 and died in 1838. 
He was a pupil of Battishill, and composed an oratorio, three odes, and a few 
dramatic pieces, all of which have long since passed out of memory. He 
also was the author of a small " Dictionary of Music/' published in 1786 ; 
a " Grammar of Music/' published in 1818 ; a " General History of Music/' 
published in two 8vo volumes in 1819; "Anecdotes of Musicians/' in 
3 vols., 12mo, in 1825 ; and a few smaller works. In these publications 
Busby copied Burney and Hawkins freely ; but his own critical remarks, 
few in number unfortunately, are superior to those of either of his pre- 
decessors. He was certainly a sound and well-read musician, and had some 
reputation as an organist. 

We come now to a man who has done a great deal to improve English 
musical taste and knowledge. John Ella was born at Thirsk, in Yorkshire, 
in 1802, and was originally intended for the profession of the law; but 
this he abandoned in favour of music, for which he had evinced a very early 
predilection. He began his musical career as a violinist in the principal 
orchestras of London ; but he also cultivated music theoretically, studying 
it under Attwood and Fetis. The year 1845 was a memorable one for him, 
and for the art of music in England, for he then established his celebrated 
" Musical Union/' as well as his most useful " Musical Winter Evenings," 
both of which continued to flourish till his retirement in 1880. He pub- 
lished " Lectures on Dramatic Music and Musical Education Abroad and 
at Home/' in 1872; "Musical Sketches Abroad and at Home," 1869-78; 
" Records of the Musical Union," consisting of analytical programmes, 
criticisms, and biographical notices, 1845-78; and some smaller brochures, 
all of considerable value and interest. At the meetings of the Musical 
Union the very best and most classical chamber music was always executed 
to perfection by the most gifted performers of the day, and thus the taste for 
that high style of art was fostered among the leaders of amateur taste and 
fashion ; and it is obvious that by this means a very powerful impetus was 
given to the cultivation of the best classical style of music. It is therefore 
not too much to say that the appreciation of really good music has been 
encouraged and improved by Mr. Ella to an extent which demands the 
warmest acknowledgment. Many are the artists and many are the 


classical works which obtained a first hearing in London through the agency 
of Ella's Musical Union. 

Henry Fothergill Chorley claims mention here as a writer about music. 
He was. born in 1808 and died in 1872. He wrote musical articles, 
notices, and criticisms in the Athena tint from 1830 nearly till his death. 
He also published many works on subjects connected with music, such as 
"Music and Manners in France and Germany/' 3 vols. 8vo, 1841; 
" Modern German Music, Recollections and Criticisms/' 3 vols. 8vo, 1854; 
"Thirty Years' Musical Recollections/' 2 vols. 8vo, 1862; many librettos 
supplied to composers, &c. &c. His works are well written, and his 
criticisms generally, though, not always, fair. Many of his views are now 
considered obsolete. 

In quite a different line the English musical world is much indebted to 
the next author who comes before us. William Chappell was born in 180'J, 
and was brought up to the music publishing business. He devoted him- 
self, however, to antiquarian pursuits and researches, chiefly connected with 
English music. In 1840 he was one of the founders of the " Per.-y " 
Society. In the same year he founded the Musical Antiquarian Society, 
when he also became a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries. He rescued 
England from the unjust stigma cast upon her of possessing no indigenous 
popular music, by the publication, in 1838, of a f( Collection of National 
English Airs, Consisting of Ancient Song, Ballad, and Dance Tunes/' of 
which a second part appeared in 1839, and a third in 1840. This was fol- 
lowed by a still more useful work of the same kind, entitled " Popular 
Music of the Olden Time," in 2 vols. 8vo, published in 1845 and 1859. 
This is, unquestionably, a most valuable and important book, and forms an 
epoch in the history of our national folk-songs. In 1874 appeared the first 
volume of Chappell's "History of Music," a work of very considerable 
learning and research, of which no further continuation has as yet appeared, 
which is greatly to be lamented. On the whole, William Chappell may 
iairly claim to be recognised as the most learned musical antiquarian we 

We now come to a great name among English musicians, John Hullah 
(born 1812 and died 1884). His musical studies were commenced under 
William Horsley in 1829, and completed at the Royal Academy of Music 
in 1832. He then became celebrated as a successful teacher of vocal music 


in classes on the Wilhelm system, which he imported from France. He 
became Musical Instructor in Sir James Kay Shuttleworth's Training 
College at Battersea in 1840, and in the following year he taught music 
on the same system to schoolmasters in Exeter Hall. In 1817 he established 
musical classes in St. Martin's Hull, which continued for about three years. 
He held the post of Professor of Vocal Music at King's College, London, 
from 1844 to 1874, and combined therewith similar appointments at 
Queen's College, London, and Bedford College. In 1858 he was appointed 
organist of the Charterhouse. He also held the honourable post of Musical 
Inspector of Training Schools for the United Kingdom from 1872 to 1883. 
In 1870 he received the degree of LL.D. from the University of Edinburgh. 
His published works are both numerous and useful. We would particu- 
larise the following : " Method of Teaching Singing by Wilhelm," 8vo, 
1842 (second edition 1850) ; " Grammar of Vocal Music," &c., 8vo, 
1843; "Duty and Advantages of Learning to Sing," 8vo, 1846; 
fi Grammar of Musical Harmony/' 8vo, 1853 (new edition and exercises, 
1873) ; " History of Modern Music " (a course of lectures at the Royal 
Institution), 8vo, 1862 ; " Lectures on the Third or Transition Period of 
Musical History/' 8vo, 1865 (second edition 1876); " Cultivation of the 
Speaking Voice," 8vo, 1870 (second edition 1874); "Grammar of Coun- 
terpoint;" "Musical Notation;" "Music in the House," 8vo, 1877. 
Hullah also composed some operettas, and published good collections of songs 
and part-music. Some of his own single songs have also achieved popu- 
larity. But it is as the inaugurator of the vast improvement which has 
taken place of late years in pur church and school choirs throughout the 
length and breadth of the country that Mullah's name will be best re- 
membered; and although some persons may prefer other systems to his, 
yet even they must in fairness acknowledge the great debt we owe to him 
for setting on foot the rapid progress which has taken place since he first 
established his vocal classes. 

One of our best musical antiquarians was Edward Francis Rimbault. 
He was born in 1816 and died in 1876. He composed and arranged much 
music for the organ, as well as for the pianoforte and the harmonium ; but 
it is not on his music that his fame depends, but rather on his admirable 
literary labours on subjects connected with music. These are, indeed, so 
numerous that we cannot do more than allude 'to the more conspicuous 



among them. One of these has already been mentioned in connection with 
his collaborateur Dr. E. J. Hopkins, their great joint work on the History 
and Construction of the Organ. On this subject Rimbault published 
several smaller works of considerable value. He edited several volumes of 
reprints of ancient English music for the Musical Antiquarian Society, and 
also a volume of old English services and anthems. For the Motett Society 

he edited three volumes of services and 
anthems mostly adapted to English words 
from the works of Italian Church com- 
posers of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. But he did good work chiefly 
in rescuing from oblivion many sacred 
and secular ^compositions by English com- 
posers of the Elizabethan and Jacobean 
age. Though not always quite accurate, 
yet he was generally so, and his zeal and 
perseverance in ransacking archives and 
disinterrino- ancient MSS. are above all 


praise. In 1842 he became an F.S.A. 
and also a Doctor of Philosophy at Stock- 

The last English writer on musical subjects whom we shall mention 
is Sir George Grove. He was born in 1820, and was originally a civil 
engineer, but in 1849 he became secretary to the Society of Arts, and 
three years later he devoted himself to the Crystal Palace Company, in 
connection with which he acted as secretary, manager, and director for 
about thirty years. The admirable analytical programmes of the Crystal 
Palace Concerts, signed " G.," were written by him, and in conjunction with 
their excellent conductor, Mr. Manns, Sir George Grove may be credited 
with the main part of the success which these celebrated concerts attained. 
In 1883 he was appointed the first Principal of the newly-founded Royal 
College of Music, and on the inauguration of that institution he received 
the honour of knighthood. In 1885 the University of Glasgow conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of LL.D., in addition to that of D.C.L., 
which he already held from the University of Durham. This is not the 
place to enlarge upon his valuable labours and writings in connection with 

Fig. 300. Sir George Grove. 


Dr. Smith's " Dictionary of the Bible," nor with his exertions as one of 
the original promoters of the Palestine Exploration Fund. Probably his 
most valuable work is the "Dictionary of Music and Musicians/' of which 
he is the editor. Many of the best articles in this most useful book are 
of his writing. 

It only remains for us now to give a hasty sketch of some of the 
Musical Institutions of England, which have had a very great share in 
improving our national taste in matters musical. 

There can be no doubt that a very important step was taken in the 
cultivation .of native talent in England by the foundation, in 1822, of the 
Royal Academy of Music. This most excellent institution, after many 
struggles against pecuniary difficulties, succeeded in securing a Royal 
Charter of Incorporation in 1830. In 1864 a yearly grant of .500 was 
obtained from Government to subsidise the small funds of the Academy. 
This, however, was withdrawn in 1867, And, in consequence, it was almost 
determined to resign the charter and close the institution. By the strenuous 
exertions of the professional members of the staff this calamity was averted, 
and the Academy was reconstructed under the presidentship of the late Lord 
Dudley. In 1868 the Government grant was restored, and is still in force, 
since which time the Academy has continued to flourish, and has main- 
tained its great influence for good. The first principal was Dr. Crotch, 
who was appointed in 1823 and resigned in 1832 ; then followed Cipriani 
Potter, 1832 to 1859; Charles Lucas, 1859 to 1866; Sir William Stern- 
dale Bennett, 1866 to 1875; and Sir George Alexander Macfarren, who has 
held the post from 1875 to the present day. 

Among the many excellent vocalists whom the Royal Academy of Music 
has trained, we may mention Arthur Edward Shelden Seguin (born 1809, 
died 1852), an extremely good bass singer, and his wife, Ann Seguin, nee 
Childe, an equally successful soprano ; also Mrs. Alfred Shaw, nee Postans 
(born 1814, died 1876), who made a good name for herself as a con- 
tralto; and Miss Dolby, afterwards Mme. Sainton (born 1821, died 
1885), celebrated as a contralto. The Academy has al-;o trained many 
eminent instrumentalists, of whom we may mention the following : Henry 
Gamble Blagrove (born 1811, died 1872), perhaps the best known violinist 
England has produced; Charles Lucas (born 1808, died 1869), a first- 
class violoncellist ; John Thomas (born in 1826), celebrated as a harpist ; 


Thomas John Harper (son of the celebrated virtuoso on the trumpet), who 
inherited all his father's skill, and equalled him in his reputation ; and 
.William Lovell Phillips (born 1816, died 1860), well known as a violoncello 
player. But perhaps the greatest success of the Academy has been in the 
composers who have been trained within its walls. When we mention 
such names as Sir William Sterndale Bennett, Sir George A. Macfarren, 
R. Brinlry Richards, John Hullah, and last, but by no means least, Sir 
Arthur Sullivan, besides many others who have been already spoken of in 
previous pages, we shall have no difficulty in showing the immense amount 
of good which the cause of music in this country has received from the 
Royal Academy of Music. 

Of late years another institution, the Royal College of Music, bas been 
inaugurated under most favourable circumstances and Royal patronage, 
under the able presidency of Sir George Grove, and with a powerful staff of 
teachers. It is too early as yet to speak of its results, but it promises to 
furnish us with well-trained performers of every description, and will be, no 
doubt, a most valuable agent in promoting the advancement of the art of 
music in England. Of other kindred institutions, such as Trinity College, 
London, and the Guildhall School of Music, we have not space to say much. 
But it cannot be but they must each in their degree exercise a great in- 
fluence on the art for good. The same may be said of the excellent College 
of Organists, which we heartily wish God-speed. But it is not by any of 
these institutions that the taste of the British public is most directly culti- 
vated. It is rather by opportunities of hearing the best music well done 
that this can best be achieved. In the early part of the present century 
the only institutions which aimed at such an object were the Italian opera, 
the Concerts of Ancient Music, and the Philharmonic Society. The first 
impulse to Italian opera in London had been given early in the eighteenth 
century, as we have already shown. All the greatest dramatic singers, 
principally foreign indeed, though sometimes native, were heard in Italian 
opera. Such names as Mme. Mara, Mrs. Billington, and others in the latter 
part of the last century, were followed up in Italian opera by Catalani, 
the far-famed soprano, our own Braham, equally celebrated as a tenor, and 
such artists as Grassini, Pisaroni, and others. Then came the epoch of 
Pasta, Malibran, Grisi, Persiani, and their male contemporaries, Rubini, 
Mario, Tamburini, and Lablache, forming such a combination of talent as 


will probably never be brought together again, and which many of us can 
still remember with delight. And after these were others, such as the 
magnificent contralto Alboni, the matchless soprano Jenny Lind (now 
Mme. Goldschmidt), and many more whom to name is almost super- 
fluous, as they belong more or less to the present generation such names, 
that is, as Tietjens, Faure, Giuglini, Trebelli, and Albani, for whose pre- 
sentation to English ears we are indebted to Italian opera. Nor are we 
without almost equal indebtedness to English opera for bringing before us 
such singers as Parepa, Marie Roze, and Joseph Maas. At the same time, 
the Triennial Festivals at the Cathedrals of Worcester, Gloucester, and 
Hereford have been of nearly as much use in introducing some of the best 
of our English and foreign singers and instrumentalists to the inhabitants 
of the provinces, and thus spreading a taste for good music through a very 
wide area. To these must be added the eminently successful festivals held 
every third year at Birmingham, not to mention those at Norwich and 
many other local centres. 

Then, besides these various institutions, there have been others intended 
for the encouragement of a pure taste for serious and classical music of 
various kinds. Of these, the first which claims notice is the " Concerts 
of Ancient Music," an excellent institution, founded in 1776, of which 
the fundamental rule was that no music composed within the previous 
twenty years should be performed. At these concerts the highest style of 
music, both secular and sacred, was performed in the best possible manner 
by an excellent orchestra and chorus, and all the best singers of the day- 
were employed as soloists. It was at these concerts that the writer of 
this account first heard those two incomparable and inseparable performers, 
Lindley, the violoncellist, and Dragonetti, the contra-bassist. It was at 
the Concerts of Ancient Music that Catalani and Miss Stephens (afterwards 
Countess of Essex) made their debuts. It is not creditable to English 
public taste to record the ultimate cessation of these admirable concerts 
through want of adequate support. 

The next society which we must mention is the "Philharmonic 
Society/' which was founded in London in the year 1813 for the en- 
couragement and performance of music for the orchestra. Probably no 
musical institution has had so uninterrupted a career of success in this 
country as the Philharmonic Society. None has produced so many new 


works of first-class excellence, nor given a first hearing to so many de- 
serving artists. This admirable Society still flourishes, and contrives 
to hold its own amid the crowd of rival institutions which have sprung 
up of late years in our midst for the advancement of kindred objects. 
Of some of these institutions we must now go on to speak. 

The first which claims notice is the Sacred Harmonic Society. This 
excellent organisation was originated in 1 832, and its objects were, chiefly, 
the performance of oratorios and other great sacred choral works in the best 
possible manner. In 1834 the Society, after sundry migrations, made its 
home at Exeter Hall, in the Strand, where it remained till 1880. The 
chorus consisted mainly of amateurs, and the orchestra included the best 
executants to be found in London, while care was taken to secure first-class 
vocalists for the solos, &c. In 1837 the first steps were taken by this 
Society for the formation of what ultimately grew to be the finest musical 
library in England. This library has recently been purchased for the Royal 
College of Music. The first conductor of the Sacred Harmonic Society 
was Joseph Surman, who was succeeded (after a short interval), in 1848, 
by Sir Michael Costa. Soon after this the band and chorus numbered 
700 efficient performers. In 1857 the first Handel Festival was organised 
by this Society at the Crystal Palace at Sydenham ; the marvellous success 
of this " monster gathering/' and of all the Handel Festivals which have 
succeeded it, is too well known to need further notice here. In 1880 the 
Society had to leave their old quarters at Exeter Hall, owing to a change 
of proprietorship, and this soon led to the dissolution of the institution, a 
result greatly to be deplored in the interests of the art. The massive way 
in which Handel's oratorios were rendered by the Sacred Harmonic band 
and chorus was grand in the extreme, nor can those who have had the 
privilege of attending these performances easily forget the effect produced 
at them by such singers as Mme. Clara Novello (whose ringing soprano 
voice filled the vast space of the Crystal Palace as no other has ever 
done) ; or that prince among tenors, Sims Beeves, the worthy successor 
to the popularity of Braham ; or Santley, the justly celebrated baritone ; 
or Miss M. B. Hawes, the contralto ; or Miss Dolby, afterwards married 
to the excellent violinist, Prospere Sainton, who also formed a principal 
feature in the Sacred Harmonic orchestra, 

Then we must not forget the " Musical Union " which we have 


already alluded to, in speaking of John Ella. This society was inaugurated 
in 1844, and had for its object the presentation to its members of the best 
possible performances of classical chamber music. Probably no similar 
society, here or abroad, has ever maintained so uniformly high a standard 
of excellence, both in the choice and in the performance of chamber com- 
positions, as Ella's Musical Union. When we mention that 75 first-rate 
pianists, 112 performers on stringed instruments, and 27 on wind instru- 
ments, every one of them of the very best, have been heard (many of them 
for the first time in England) at these concerts, it will be seen what a great 
influence this society has had in spreading and encouraging a taste for high- 
class music among the nobility and the upper class of society in London. 
Still, this was after all but a limited sphere of good influence. It was 
reserved for another institution to carry a similar good influence into 
other strata of society, and thus to improve the taste of a vast number 
of persons who otherwise would have been without any opportunities 
of becoming familiar with high-class music. The firm of music pub- 
lishers, Messrs. Chappell and Co., were the projectors of the Monday 
Popular Concerts, by which this great end has been achieved. Never 
before in England had it been possible to hear the best instrumental 
chamber music performed by the very best artists for the sum of one 
shilling. At these concerts the public had opportunities of hearing such 
pianists as Charles Halle, Arabella Goddard, Mme. Schumann, Herr von 
Billow, and others equally great. There, too, were constantly heard 
Joachim and Mme. Norman-Neruda, the celebrated violinists, or the no 
less well-known violoncellist Piatti. And although at first the attendance 
hardly seemed to justify the continuance of so bold and novel an experi- 
ment, yet at length these concerts completely answered to their name, and 
became popular indeed; so much so, that in 1865 additional Popular 
Concerts of exactly the same kind began to be given also on Saturdays, a 
practice which has prevailed ever since with the most marked success. 

There are yet many other societies and associations which have in their 
degree tended to a similar result. But space forbids us to enlarge upon 
them further in this place. 

We must, however, before we conclude this chapter, say a few words 
about the astonishing improvement which has taken place in the Church 
music of England during the last half-century. This is mostly due to the 
Y F F P 


formation of choral unions and associations in connection with the different 
dioceses or archdeaconries, and may be considered to have been indirectly a 
consequence of the spread of the well-known system of teaching music 
to large classes which was introduced by Dr. John Hullah. These choral 
unions employ teachers who go about among the various parish choirs, training 
them upon a uniform system, and thus preparing them for collective meet- 
ings at various central churches, where great effects are produced by the 
large bodies of the rural choristers who join in the service. In some cathe- 
drals over two thousand voices have sometimes been thus brought together 
with the happiest results. The whole country has been now brought under 
this excellent organisation, more or less, and a vastly increased interest in 
Church music has been the natural result. Choral services may now be 
heard in many a village church, where formerly only a few bad voices 
roared or howled to the accompaniment of a barrel-organ, or to that of a 
few rural fiddlers in a gallery. It is impossible to overrate the importance 
of this onward step from every point of view, and it is a pleasant feature 
to contemplate in the general aspect of musical culture and development in 

From what has been mentioned in this chapter, it is surely evident that 
the love of music is increasing apace amongst us. We have now good 
music by English composers of every kind sacred and secular, vocal and 
instrumental, dramatic, ecclesiastical, or martial. We have admirable 
organists, pianists, violinists, vocalists, &c., fit to compete with any other 
nation in the world. We have also an ever-increasing popular appreciation 
of what is really good, which cannot but lead to even more satisfactory 
results in the future. 

When, therefore, we find England stigmatised as an essentially un- 
musical country, not only by foreigners, but also by Englishmen who 
ought to know better, we can confidently point to the facts here sketched 
out, and claim them as irrefragable proofs that such a low estimate of our 
national taste and powers is in truth nothing less than a calumny. 

F. A. G. O. 


Abert, Joseph, composer, 1215 

Abt, Franz, song writer, 1050, 1217 

Abyngton, Henry, 804 

Acbmed ben Muhamed, writer on music, 91 

Adam, A. Ch., French comic opera composer, 

Adam, famous Church vocalist and composer 

of sequences, 203 
A. lam vonFulda, 202, 433 
Adams, T., composer, 1282 
Adufe, an Israelitic timbrel, 64 
^Eschylus, 143 
Agazzari, Ag., 534 

d'Agoult, Countess, friend of Liszt, known as a 
. gifted writer under the name of Daniel 

Stern, 1190 

Agricola, Alex., motet writer, 361 
Agujari, Lucrezia, singer, 1268 
Aichinger, Gregor, German composer, 617 
Aist, Dietmar von, 239 
Albani, soprano, 1311 
il'Albert, Eugene, pianist, 1270 
Alberti, Domenico, 543 

Albinoni, Tommasso, violinist and composer, 545 
Alboni, M., contralto, 1005, 1137 
Albrechtsberger, J. G., 731, 879 
Albrici, B., 653 

Albuzzi-Todeschini, Teresa, 732 
Alc.rus, 127, 131 

Alcock, John, Church composer, 925 
Aldrich, Henry, 753 
d'Alembert, Jean le Rond, 836 
Alfred, King of England, 399 
Alkan, Ch. H. B., 1105 
Alkman, 129 

Allard, D., violinist, 1272 
Allegri, Gregorio, 69, 85, 172, 366, 512 
Altnikol, J. Ch., 781 
Alvsleben, M. Otto, singer, 1267 
Alygius, 156 

Amati, violin maker, 530 
Ambros, A. W., historian, 1223 
Ambrose, St., 181 
Ambrosian or authentic scales, 185 
Amiot, 11 
Ammergau, 771 
Ammon, A. B., composer, 618 
Amorevoli, Angelo, tenor, 703 
Amphion, 118 
Anacker, 1201 
Ander, Al., singer, 1270 
Ane, Hartmann von, 245 

Anerio, Felice and Giovanni, Italian composers, 

F F F F 2 

Anfossi, P., 1131 

Animuccia, Gio"., 373 

Anton, 75 

Antonia, Maria, of Saxony, 727 

Apollo (Phcebus), patron deity of Egyptian 

song, 37 

Apostles of Netherland School, 354 
d'Aquila, Marco, composer, 497 
Aquinos, Thomas, known as "Dr. Angelicus," 


Arabians, their knowledge of harmony, 89 
Archilei, Vittoria, a singer, 523 
Arion, 127 
Ariosti, Attilio, 800 
Aristonimos, 156 
Aristote, old French writer, 292 
Aristotle, Greek, 113 
Aristotle, German, 399 
Aristoxenos, 126 
Arkadelt, Jacob, a famous Dutch master, 343; 

his compositions, 372 
Arnaud, Abbe, 835 
Arne, Thomas Augustine, English opera coin 

poser, 916 

d'Arneiro, Ferreira, Portuguese composer, 1265 
Arrietta, Juan, Spanish writer, 1264 
Ars organandi, earliest attempts at part-writing 


Arston, Hugh, English composer, 668 
Artot, Desiree, singer, 1269 
Artus (aux Couteaux), composer, 591 
Artusi, G. M., 521 
Asapli, 72, 84 
Ashwell, Thomas, 668, 681 
Assyrians, Instruments of, 55 
Astarte, 56 
Aston, H., 668 

Astorga, Emanuele, Church composer, 577 
Athenodor, 156 
Attwood, T., 1287 
Auber, D. F. E., French opera composer, 1058; 

the father of modern French opera, his 

Mananiello, 1066 ; his operas analysed, 1096 
Auxcouste, 612 
Averie, 681 
Avicenna, 91 


Babbi, Gregorio, singer, 703 
Babylonians, Music of, 56 
Bach, A. Magdalina, 777 
Bach, Christopher, 639, 770, 771 
Bach, Christopher Friedr., 792 



Bach, Fried ir.ann, !!' 

Bach, Hans, 771 

Bach, Heinrich, C37 

Bach, Joh., 775 

Bach, Joh. Ambros, 773 

Bach, Joh. Christopher, 636, 773 

Bach, Joh. Mich., 636 

Bach, Joh. Sebastian, his work, 768 ; originator 
of a new period in art, 7tt9 ; his progenitors, 
771 ; his organ playing, 789 ; his hand- 
writing, 780 ; marries, 775 ; his 48 pre- 
ludes and fugues, 776 , remarries, 777 ; his 
emoluments, 778 ; contention with Leipzig 
Town Council, 779 ; his compositions, 780 ; 
Frederick the Great and Bach, 781 ; dies, 
783 ; amalgamation of his works, 783 ; 
summary, 794 

Bach, Maria Barbara, 775 

Bach, Michael, 638, 771 

Bach, Phil. Em., 781 

Bach, Veit, 771 

Bachelor degree in music, 671 

Bader, C., tenor, 1004, 1025, 1027 

Bai, Tomaso, 36(5 

Baillot, Fr., violinist, 1101 

Bailly du Rollet, 834 

Balfe, Michael William, opera composer, 1248, ! 

Banchieri, A., organist, 546 

Bnck, C., critic, 1038 

Banister, Gilbert, English com poser, 668 
'-* Barak, (54 

Barbaja, 1128 

Bardi, Giov., Count de Beruio, 516; part- 
proprietor of the opera, 521 

Barer, H., 953 . 

Bargiel, Woldemar, pupil of S. Dehn, 1029, 
composer, 1203 

Bariola, Ottavio, organist, composer, and pub- 
lisher, 546 

Biirmann, Heinrich, 964 

Barnby, J., 1302 

Barnett, J., 1281 

Barnett, J. F., 1300 

Baroque in music, 408 

Barrow, 11 

Bassani, G. , violin composer, 532 

Bateson, T., composer, 685 

Batten, D. A., English composer, 739 

Battishill, J., composer, 925 

Becker, Albert, pupil of S. Dehn, 1029, 1213 

Becker, K. F., 1217, 1229 

Beech, 681 

Beethoven, Ludwig von, 927 ; instrumental 
music, 929 ; his symphonies, 930932 ; an 
ardent republican, his birth, 934; early 
works, 935 ; the generosity of three of his 
patrons, 936 ; fond of the country, 937 ; his 
generosity, 940; his compositions, 942 ; 
analysis of his symphony form, 943 ; choral 
symphony form, 945 ; his religion, 947 ; his 
domestic worries, 948 ; his bearing towards 
nobility, 952 

Behaim, 253 

Bela, Keler, composer, 1266 

Bellermann, Fr., 1224 

Bellermann, H., 1224. 1226 

Belli, Giov., 732 

Bellini, Vincenzo, 1131 ; his Norma considered. 


Ben da, Franz, 989 
Benda, George, 728 ; composer, 909 
Benedict, J., German pianist and composer, 1259, 


Benet, J., composer, 684 
Benevoli, Orazio, 515 

Bennett, Sir Sterndale, 1035 ; English com- 
poser, 1249, 1283, 1309, 1310 
Benoit, Peter, Flemish composer, 1256 
Benserade, ballet writer, 592 
Berchem, Jacob, 371 
Bergen, Phil., 392 
Berger, Ludwig, 973, 1024 
Beriot, Ch. A. de, violinist, 1104 
Berlioz, Hector, on Gluck, 849, 1040, 1163; 

birth, 1165 ; his first compositions, 116<> ; 

remarkable scoring, 1167 ; programme music, 

1168 ; his criticism on Eichard Wa;rifer, 

1168 ; as a litterateur, 1170 
Bernachi, 704 
Bernard of Clairvaux, famous Church vocalist 

and composer of sequences, 203 
Bernard!, called Senesino (mezzo-soprano), 703 
Bernasconi, later Wagele. A., prima donna 


Bernhard, the German organ builder, 547, 548 
Berti, organist, 546 
Bertini, pianist and composer, 1105 
Berton (father), early French opera composer, 


Berton, H. M. (son), French composer, 1062 
Best, W. T., composer, 1299 
Betz, Franz, singer, 1185, 1270 
Bevin, Elway, English composer, 737 
Bharata (demi-god), 33 
Bianciardi, Franc., 494 
Biber, H. F. von, Venetian master, 589, 623; 

improver of the sonata form, 623 
Eillington, Mrs., singer 1310 
Binchois, Egidius. or Gilles de Bins, early 

theorist and composer, 317, 357 
Bini, Italian violinist, 707 
Bird, Wm., see Byrd 
Bird, writer on Hindoo music, 24 
Bisconti, Catarina, singer, 703 
Bishop, Sir H., composer, 1276 
Bitter, K. H., 1227 

Bizet, G., French opera composer, 1242 
Blagrove, H. G., violinist, 1309 
Blaise, St., 182 
Blanc, Ad., 1240 
Blangini, G., 1094 
" Blest Pair of Sirens," Smith, 1276 
Blitheman, William, 687 
Blow, Dr., 752 

" Blow, Gentle Gales," Bishop, 1277 
"Blow, Warder, Blow," Callcott, 1275 
Blume, H., baritone, 1025, 1027 
Blumner, Martin, pupil of S. Dehn, 1029, 1218 
Boccherini, Luigi, composer, 707 
Bockh, A., 1224 

Bodensehatz, Ehrhard, German composer, 614 
Boes (Buus), Jakob van, organist and composer, 


Boesset, Antoine, composer and ballet writer, 591 
Boethius, 396 



Bohemian Girl, The, Balfe, 1280 
Bolmie, Magnus, collector, 1228 
Boieldieu, F. A., French opera composer, 1067, 


Boi'to, Arrigo, Italian opera composer, 1230 
Bondman, The, Balfe, 1280 
Hononcini, G. B., 543 
Bononcini, or Buononcini, composer, 702, 912, 


Bontempi, G. A., 653 

Bordoni, Faustina (see Hasse, F.), singer, 703 
Borghesi, organist, 546 
Borodin, Alex., Kussian composer, 1260 
Bortnianski, D., Russian composer, 1260 
Both, Jean, 989 
Box and Cox, Sullivan, 1301 
Boyce, William, sacred composer, 922 
Braham, John, English tenor, 1270, 1310 
Brahms, Joh., composer, 1042 ; his birth, 1198 ; 

his works discussed, 1200, 
Brambach, Jos., 1217 
Bramston, 681 
Brandt, Karoline (Karl Maria von Weber's 

wife), 964 

Brandt, Mariana, singer, 1267 
Bratfisch, musik-director, 1035 
Breitkopf and Hiirtel, 899, 901 
Brendel, Franz, one of Wagner's biographers, 

1186 ; and historian, 1224 
Hreteuil, 1062 

Breuning, Steph. von, 934, 942 
Bride of Dunkerron, The, Smart, 1287 
Brohsart, Hans von, pianist and composer, 1192, 


Broschi, Carlo, called Farinelli, soprano, 703 
Brossard, Sebastian de, 612 
Brown, English composer, 668 
Bruch, Max, composer, 1207 
Briihl, Graf (Count), 1118 
Briill, Iguaz, 10!t', 

Brumel, Ant., Netherland composer, 339 
Brunelli, 615 

Brunetti, G., of Pisa, violinist, 707; com- 
poser, 1139 

Bruni, Caletti (gee Cavalli, Fr.), 535 
Biichner, E., 1035 
Bulesz, singer, 1270 
Hull, Dr. John, 687 ; author of "God Save the 

King, "737 

Bull, Ole, Scandinavian violinist, 1271 
Biilow, Cosima von, after Cosima Wagner, 1184 
Kiilow, Hans von, eminent pianist and Wag- 

nerian conductor, 1186 ; pupil of Liszt, 1212, 


Bungert, Aug., 1216 
Buouoncini, Giov., 603, 912 
Burbure, L. de, Belgian historian, 1256 
Burck, Joachim, Protestant composer, 478 
Biirde-Ney, J., 1133 
Burgmiiller, Norb., pupil of M, Hauptmann, 

1032, 1050 

Burlington, Count, 807 
Burney, Dr. C., 1304 
Burton, Avery, 668 
Busby, Dr. T., 1305 
Busnois, Ant. de, harmonist and theorist, 318, 

321, 356 
Buxtehude, Dietrich, celebrated organist, 029 

"By Celia's Arbour," Horsley, 1276 
Byrd (or Bird or Byrde), William, English 
composer, 678, 681 


Caccini, Giulio, composer, singer, and author, 522 

Calcott, John ^yall, Dr., glee writer, 919, 1275 

Caldara, Antonio, opera composer, 544 

Calvisius, Sethus (Jak. Kallwitz), see Kallwitz, 

Calzabigi, Raniero, 830 

Cambert, Robert, first French operatic com- 
poser, 592 

( 'ampana, song writer, 1240 

Campra, Andrea, 602 

Cannabich, Chr., X7."> 

Canon, Use of, 286 

Cantus firmus, used by Evangelical composers of 
the Reformation period, 428 

Canzonets, first use of them, 232 

( <i f >tinty, The, Crotch, 1290 

Carafa, M., opera composer, 1094 

Carestini (Cusanino), contralto, 703 

Carey, Henry, the first who sang "God Save 
the King," and supposed to be the real 
composer of it, 914 

Ciirissimi, Giacomo, originator of the Cantata da 
Camera (oratorio), 515 

Carl ton, R., composer, 684 

Carmen, 314 

Caron, Firmin, 298, 317 

Carpani, G. , 879 

Casella, I'., 368 

Caselli, 704 

Castanets, used by the Israelites, 73 

Castil-Blaze, French composer. 124 (i 

Catalani, Aug., singer, 1026, 1136 

Catel, Ch. S., French historian, theorist, 1106 

Caustun, English composer, 67> 

Cavaliere, Emilio del, ducal superintendent of 
fine arts, 521 ; first writer of a play the 
whole of which was told in music, 523 

Cavalli, Francesco, opera writer, 535 

Cavendish, M., -composer, 685 

Cecilia, St., 174, 178 

Celano, Thomas of, writer of Italian sequence, 


Celestine I., Pope, 189 
Cellini, 515 

Cerma'k, Luid., composer, 1266 
Cernohorsky, Bohuslav, 1261 
Cesaris, 314 

Cesti, Marc Antonio, 536 
Chaldaeans, Music of, 56 
Chalil, 91 
Chamber music, Schumann and Mendelssohn, 

685, 1051 

Chandos, Duke of, 757 
Chappell, William, historian, 286, 395, 400, 

556, 559, 1306 
Chapuy, Lorenz, 265 
Charlemagne, Emperor, 193 
Charles I. of England, 740 
Charles X., 1072 
Charlier, Jean, 277 
Che", Chinese stringed instrument, 1 ." 
Chelard, H., French comic opera composer, 1098 



Chelys, Greek stringed instrument, 148 
Cheng, Chinese wind instrument, 15 
Cherubim, M. L. : Mendelssohn taken to, 1030, 

1058, 1059 ; and Napoleon I., 1060 ; sacred 

and opera composer, 1109 ; idealist, 1114 
Chevalier de Guise, 593 
Chevillard, 1272 
Chezy, Helmine von, 9C6 
Chifonie (nee Organistrum), 195 
Chinese, 7 
Chiron, 118 
Chladni, F., 609, 1232 
Chopin, Frederick, pianist and composer, 1041 ; 

creator of a new pianoforte style, 1043 ; 

possessed a most poetical and refined nature, 

1042 ; raises the dance form into an art- 
form, 1043 ; his works, 1044 ; birth, his 

respect for women, 1045 ; on Mendelssohn, 

1046 ; in London, 1047, 1263 
Chorale, its introduction into the Protestant 

Church, 430 

Chorley, H., critic, 1251, 1306 
Choron, Alex., profound French theorist, 1106 
Chouquet, A. G., musical savant, 1247 
Christmas, Macfarren, 1296 
Chromatic scale, first extensive use of, 491 
Chrysander, Frederick, biographer, 821, 1229 
Chrysostomus, 180 

Church music and English writers, 401, 920, 1314 
Church song, introduction of popular secular 

melodies, 309 
Cratinus, 156 
Ciconia, Johannes, of Lieges, composer and 

poet, 356 

Cimarosa, Dom., opera composer, 701 
Cithar, Greek instrument, 148 
Clark, Jeremiah, organist, 756 
Clark-Whitfield, J., 1291 
Clauss, Wilhelmine, pianist, 1024, 1207 
Clavicembalo, forerunner of the pianoforte, 499 
Clavichord, 583 

Clemens non Papa, Netherland writer, 345 
dementi, Muzio, 909 
Cobbold, W., composer, 685 
Coclicus, Adrian Petit, 343 
Colasse, 596 
Colbran, Mile., 1128 
College of Organists, 1310 
Colomba, Mackenzie, 1302 
Commer, Franz, 616 

Compere, Louis, Netherland composer, 339 
Comus, 0. Horsley, 1295 
Concertos, best English written were by Dr. 

Arne, John Stanley, John Alcock, and 

"William Felton, 919 
Conduit, musical form, 284 
Constantin, 180 
Conti, Francesco, 69(5 
Contrabandutt, The, Sullivan, 1301 
Cooke, Dr. Benjamin, glee writer, 919 
Cooper, Dr., 681 
Copurario, John, 738 
Corbrand, 681 
Corelli, Arcang., 532, 552 
Corneille, Thomas, 596 
Cornelius, Peter, composer of the New German 

School, 1210 
Cornello, Antonio del, 520 

Cornysh, William, English composer, 668 

Cornysh, William, Junr., English composer, 668 

Corsi, Jac., 521 

Cortesi, Francesco, Italian opera composer, 1236 

Costa, Sir Michael, Italian conductor and com- 
poser, 1249, 1312 

Coszmann, B., violoncellist, 1273 

Cotton, John, English writer, 560 

Coucy, Chatelain de, 233 

Counterpoint, first use of, 278 

Country church choirs, 926 

Couperin, Armand Louis, organist, 611 

Couperin, Francois, composer for organ and 
piano, 611 

Couperin, Louis, organist, 611 

Couperin, Louise, singer, 611 

Couperin, Marg. Antoin., pianist, 611 

Couperin, Nicholas, organist, 611 

Coussemaker, F. D., musical historian, 275, 1256 

Couteaux, Maitre aux, better known by his 
sobriquet Artus, composer, 591 

Cowen, F. H., 1303 

Cramer, F. B., pianist and composer, 1249 

Crane, William, 804 

Crates, 152 

Cratinus, 156 

Crescentini, G., singer, 1135 

Creyghton, Dr. K., 754 

Cristofori, Bartolom., inventor of the pianoforte, 

Croce, Giovanni, Venetian master, 494, 685 

Croft, William, 756, 921 

Crotch, W., composer, 1290, 1300 

Crotta, 396 

Crout (French), see Rota, 196 

Crwt (Welsh), see Rota, 196 ; ancient violin of 
Wales, 396 

Curschmann, K. Fr., pupil of Moritz Haupfc- 
mann, 1032, 1050 

Cusanino (see Carestini), 703 

Cuzzoni, Francesca, singer, 704 

Cymbals, 77 

Cyprian, 180 

Czartoryska, Katharine, 1047 

Czerny, K., composer, 1262 


Da capo, invented by Tenaglia. 575 

Da Foggia, 615 

Dalayrac, N., French comic opera composer, 1080 

Damm, Fr., 1235 

Damon of Athens, musical tutor of Socrates, 

Damrosch, Leopold, composer of the New 

German School, 1211 
Danby. glee writer, 919 
Dance tune, Old English, 554 
Daughter of St. Mark, The, Balfe, 1280 
David, Fel., violinist and composer, 1100,' 1244 
David, Ferd., 1032; violinist, pupil of Spoln, 


David, King, 65, 66, 67 
Davis, Robert, 681 

Davy, Richard, English composer, 668 
Day, John, composer, 675 
De Ahna, violinist, 1272 
Deborah, 64 



De Handle, R., writer, 561 

Dehn, Siegfried, theorist and historian, 1232 

Deiters, H., 1251 

Dc'jazet, 1105 

Delaborde, J. B., French comic opera composer, 

De la Croix, Pierre, 297 

De la Guerre, Marin, 602 

De la Hale, Adam, 591, 1076 

Delibes, Leo, French opera composer, 1243 

Demantius, Christoph., theorist, 619 

Derabukkeh, Islamitic drum, 109 

Desaides, 1077 

Desbordes, singer, 1063 

Descartes, 604 

Desmarets, 602 

Des Pres, Josquin, 340, 342, 358 

Dessauer, Jos., composer, 1050 

Destouches, A. C., 602 

Devrient, Ed., 1031 

Devrient, Schroeder-, great dramatic singer, 1022 

Diaphonic system, propagated in Italy, 209 

Dibdin, 0., composer, 1282 

Dido and ^-Eneas, Purcell, 751 

Dietrich, A., pupil of M. Hauptmann, 1032, 1204 

Dio Cassius, 41 
Diodorus, 157, 176 
Diodorus (monk), musician, 165 
Dionysos, 121 

Diruta, Girolamo, organist, 546 
Discantus, Origin of, 214 

Dittersdorf , Karl von, composer and comic opera 
writer, !H)'.I 

"Dixit Domiuus," "Wesley, 128!) 

Doctor of Music, first use of title, 563 

Dohler, Theodore, 1262 

Doles, .1 dlia i in Friedr., composer, 716 

Dommer, Arrey von, liistorian, 1224 

Donati, B., Venetian composer, 494, 615 

Doni, Battista, 521 

Donizetti, Gaetano, opera composer, 1133 ; his 

works analysed, 1134 
Donndorf, 1030 
Dorer, 123 
Dorffel, A., 1229 
Dorn, Heinr., 1036 
Dowland, John, composer, 688 
Draghi of Ferrara, ."i.'lti 
Dragonetti, contrabassist, 1311 
Driiseke, Felix, composer, 1212 
Dreyschock, Al., 12(i2 
Drobisch, M. W., 609 
Drouet, L., flautist, 1104 
Duchemin, 373 

Dufay, G., head of the Gallo-Belgic School, 300 ; 
his compositions, 308 ; introduces secular 
melodies into Church song, 309 
Dufour, French violinist and violoncellist, 984 
IMiinanoir I. and II., 266 
Dumont, Henri, composer, 5!>1 
Duni, F. R,, 1077 

Dnnstable, J., theorist and composer, 562 
Dupont, F. A., 1035 
Duport, L., violoncellist, 1100 
Duprez, Louis, great French tenor, 107(> 
Durante, Francesco, Church composer, 577 
Durastani, singer, 703 
Diirer, Albrecht, 7% 

Dussek, 1024 

Dux (Ducis), Benedict or Hertoghs, Netherland 

composer, 344 

Dvohik, Anton, composer, 1262 
Dygon, John, English composer, 671 
Dykes, Rev. J. B., composer, 1295 


Eberlin, J. F., 875 

Eberstorff, Peter, 264 

Eccard, Johannes, Protestant composer, 479 

Eck, Franz, violinist, 984 

Eckert, K., 1116 ; composer, 1209 

Edward Vl. of England, good amateur musician, 

Eeden, Van der, 934 

Egyptians, a musical people, 34 

Ehrlich, Heinrich, musical savant, 1235 

Eitner, Robert, 1229 

Ella, J., 1305 

Elleviou, 1063 

Eloy, 317 

Elvey, Sir G. J., composer, 1297 

Engel, Gustave, musical savant, 1235 

English music : early, 395 ; in the Middle Ages, 
552 ; in reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., 
and Mary, 664 ; in reign of Elizabeth, 
675; 1600-1660, 733; after Restoration', 
746 ; old songs, 913 

Enzemiiller, 615 

Ephraim, St., 182 

"Epigones," 1193 

Erard, J. Baptiste, wealthy and renowned piano- 
forte manufacturer, 1115 

Erato, 120 

Erbach, Christian, organist and composer, 616 

Erdody, Marie, 952 

Ernst, Heinr. Wilh., violinist, 993 

Eslava, Don Miguel Hilarion, Spanish composer 

and writer, 1265 

Essipoff, Annette, Russian pianist, 1270 
Este, Michael, 684 
Este, Thomas, (is 1 .) 
Esterhazy, Karoline, 861 
Esterhazy, Prince : Haydn enters the service of 

the Esterhazy family, 861 
Ethan, 72 

Ethiopians, Music of, 53 
Euclid, 156 
Euripides, 144, 831 
Euterpe, 120 

"Exultate Deo," Wesley, 1289 
Eyck, H. van, 320, 771 


Faccio, Franco, 1239 
Farina, Carlo, violin composer, 531 
Farinelli (see Broschi, Carlo), 703 
Farmer, J., composer, 684 
Farnaby, Giles, 687 

Farrant, Richard, English composer, 679 
Fasch, K. F., composer, 1025 
Faszmann, Aug., singer, 1025, 1027 
"Father of Heroes," Calcott, l-7'< 
Fattorini, organist. ">li'> 

Faugues, Vincentius (1415 A.D.), composer, 317; 
his compositions, 356 



Faure, singer, 1311 

Faustina (see Hasse, Faustina), 568 

Fay, Count Stephan, Hungarian historian, 1200 

Fayolle, F. J. M., theorist, HOG 

Fayrfax, Robert, English composer, 668 

Ferat, 24 

Ferrabosco, Alfonso, 738 

Ferrari, D., Italian violinist, 707 

Festa, Constanzo, 503 

Fe'tis, F. J., historian, celebrated critic, 1256 

Fibich, Zdenko, composer, 1263 

Field, John, English composer, 1043, 1249, 1282 

Fievee, 1088 

Figured bass, in Church music, 534, 54o 

Fillago, organist, 546 

Fink, Heinrich, song writer, 440 

Fink, Herm., 440 

Fioravanti, Val., 701 

Flavian, 176 

Florimo, Franc., composer, 1239 

Flotow, Friedr'. von, opera composer, 1003 

Flutes, used by Egyptians, 52 

Fo-Hi, 8 

Folk-music, The rise of, 226 

Folz, 253 

Ford, 738 

Fording, 681 

Forkel, J. N., 294, 698 

Francesina, singer, 703 

Franchomme, A., 1047 ; violoncellist, 1272 

Franck, Melchior, sacred composer, 633 

Franco of Cologne, early writer on harmony, 
216 ; first to adopt the signs longa, brevis, 
the maxima or duplex lonya, 217 ; and the 
mensural theory, 270 

Franco of Paris, theorist, 293 

Franz, Robert, song writer, 1202 

Frasi, singer, 703 

Frauenlob, Heinrich, 249- 

Frederick George, 480 

Frederick William III., 1116 

Frederick William IV., 1118 

Frege, Livia, 1036 

French comic opera, its growth, 1077 

French opera, Auber, Halevy, Rossini, Meyer- 
beer, Gluck, Spontini, Cherubini, 1058 

Frescobaldi, G., organist, 546, 548 

Freya's Gift, Macfarren, 1296 

Friedlander, Max, 975 

Froberger, Job. Jakob, organist and composer, 
619 ; first employs modern five-line staff, 621 

" From Oberon in Fairyland," Stevens, 1276 

Fugger, Jacob, merchant prince, 616 

Fugue, initiatory stages, 496 ; Kuhnau, 633 

Fiirnberg, Baron, 861 

Fiirstenau, A. B., 967, 1228 

Furstenau, K., 1228 

Kiirstenau, M., 1228 

i-'ux, Job.. Jos., sacred and operatic composer, <>57 


Gabrieli, Andrea, Venetian master and com- 
poser, 492, 614 

Gabrieli, Giovanni, composer and organist, 493 
Gade, Niels, 1034; Danish composer, 1252 
Galilei, Vincenzo, composer, lutist, mathe- 
matician, and litterateur, 521 

Gallus (Handl), German composer, 614 

Galuppi, Baldassare, excellent composer of 
opera buffa, 543, 701 

Gamucci, 1240 

Gandharven, 21 

Garcia, Manuel, 704, 1104 

Garcia, Pauline Viardot, singer, 704, 1005, 1104 

Garlande, Jean de, theorist and composer, 286 ; 
his theory, 292 

Gasparini, Gaetano, 1240 

Gasparo di Salo, 530 

Gastoldi, G. G., Venetian composer, 494, 615 

Gatti, Teobaldo, 602 

Gauntlett, Dr. H. J., composer, 1295 

Gaveaux, P., 1080 

Gavinies, P., 1100 

Generali, P., opera composer, 1131 

Gennzinger, Frau von, 878 

George II., 822 

George IV., 1128 

Gerarde, D., writer, 667 

Gerbert, Hornau, 294 

Gerhardt, Paul, 431 

Gerle, H., 624 

Germiniani, A., 533 

Gernsheim, Fr., pupil of Moritz Hauptmann, 
1032 ; composer, 1209 

Gervinus, G. G., 1230 

Gesius, Bartholomew, 479 

Gevaert, F. A., savant, 1257 

Geyer, Fl., theorist, 1232 

Gibbons, E., composer, 684 

Gibbons, Orlando, 687, 734, 748 

Gideon, C. Horsley, 1295 

Gi?a, a dance, 908 

Gilbert, 595 

Giles, Nath., 805 

Ginguene, P. L., 836 

Giuglini, singer, 1311 

Gladkowska, Const., singer, 1045 

Glareanus, C. F., 339 

Glasenapp, one of Wagner's biographers, 1186 

Glee, origin in England, English glee, 917, 919 

Glinka, M. J. von, pupil of Siegfried Dehn, 
1029 ; Russian composer, 1259 

Glover, C. W., composer, 1282 

Glover, S., composer, 1282 

Gluck, Alex., 823 

Gluck, Chr. Wilib., known as Chevalier de 
Gluck, 823 ; early lessons, 824 ; first operas, 
825 ; in London, 825 ; marries, in Italy, 
Marianna Perrin, 827 ; his works, 828838 ; 
birth of the music-drama, 830 ; his views of 
what opera should be, 832 ; his popularity, 
835 ; Gluckists, 835 ; a consideration of his 
operas, 838 ; wise words, 845 847 ; a poet, 
845 ; as a conductor, 848 ; fearless, 848 ; his 
influence upon subsequent great masters, 
850, 851 ; his death, 851 

Gluck, Marie Anna, 827 

Gluck, Walburga, 1067 

" God Bless the Prince of Wales," 1287 

"God Save the King," origin of, 914 ; Beet 
hoven's opinion of the melody, 914 

Godard, Benjamin, French composer, 1246 

Goddard, A., pianist, 1313 

Goes, Damian, a Portuguese tone-master, 361 

Goethe, J. W. von, 1010 



Goetz, Herm., composer, 1221 

Goetze, Franz, tenor, 1270 

"Go, Idle Boy," Callcott, 1275 

Goldmark, Karl, composer, 1220 

Goldschmidt, A., pupil of Moritz Hauptmann, 

1032 ; composer of the New German School, 


Gollinelli, S., piano composer, 1240 
Goltermann, G., violoncellist, 1273 
Gombert, Nikolas, early Church writer, 344, 360 
Gomez, C., composer, 1266 
Gordigiani, composer, 1240 
Goss, Sir J., composer, 1291 
Gossec, Fr. Jos., 1058 ; French opera composer, 


Gottfried von Strasburg, 245 
Goudimel, Claude, Netherland writer, 34o ; 

founder of a School at Home, 373 ; his 

compositions, 374 

Gounod, Ch. F., sacred and opera composer, 1241 
<iouvy, Theod., composer, 1209 
<iradener, Karl, composer, 1204 
Grainmann, K., opera composer of the New 

German School, 1210 
Grassi-Bach, Mme., 793 
Grassini, singer, 1135, 1310 
Graun, Karl H., violinist, 707, 714 
"Great God of Love," Pearsall, 1279 
{ireeks, Music of, 118 ; their scales, 132 ; their 

instruments, 148 
Greene, Maurice, composer, 921 
Gregorian chant, 184 
Gregory the Great, 183, 189, 415 
Grell, Ed., composer, 1025, 1217 
Gre'try, A. E. M., French opera composer, 1082 
Greville, Rev. Richard, glee writer, 919 
Grieg, Edward, Norwegian composer, 1253 
Grig, Morgan, 681 
Grille, organist, 546 
Crimaldi (Nicolini), singer, 703 
Grimm, F. M., 610 
Grimm, Otto, composer, 1215 
<irisi, Giuditta, singer, 1137 
Grisi, Giulla, great singer, 1005, 1137, 1310 
Gritti, Doge, 369 
Grove, Sir G., writer, 1308 
( ; riitzmacher, Fr., violoncellist, 1273 
Guadagni, 831 

Guanimi, Giuseppe, organist, 546 
Guarducci, Tomaso, tenor, 703 
(iiiarnerius, William, 362 
Guerre, Marin de la, 602 
Guglielmi, Pietro, opera composer, 700 
Guicciardi, Julia, 952 
( i uidiccioni, Laura, a poetess, 523 
Guido of Arezzo, attempts at harmony notation, 

said to have originated solfeggi, 209 ; author 

of several works on musical theory and 

practice, 213 

Guignon, Jean Pierre (1741 A.n.), 266 
Guildhall School of Music, 1310 
Guilds, French, of the fourteenth century, 350 
Guinneth, John, 681 
<;iinipeltzhaiiner, Adam, German songwriter, 


Gumprecht, Otto, 1228 
(Jura. Dr. K.. singer, 1270 
Gurlilt, Corn., German composer, 1213 

Guzmann, 1047 

Gyrowetz, Adalbert, opera composer, 719 


Habeneck, 1245 

Hadlaub, 253 

Hagen, F. H., critic, 1226 

Hiihnel, E. J., 614 

Halevy, J. F. E., French opera composer, 1058 ; 
his birth, 1075 ; operas discussed, 1097 

Halle, Charles, German pianist, 1250, 1313 

Hallstrom, J., Swedish composer, 1254 

Hamboys, first receiver of the title of Doctor of 
Music, 563 

Hammerschmidt, Andreas, composer, 635 

Hamshere, English composer, 668 

Handel, George Fr., 795; compared with Bach, 
796 ; birth, 799 ; studies law, 800 ; fights a 
duel, 801 ; first operas, 802 ; in England, 
804 ; his income, 806 ; his English patrons, 
806; opera-house founded in Haymarket, 
807; his works 808, 809; Parliamentary 
opposition to him, 809 ; more works, 810 ; 
analysis of his compositions, 810819 ; his 
relation to the oratorio considered, 814 ; his 
charities and temper, 821 ; Mozart scores 
four of Handel's oratorios, 820 

Handlo, Robert de, an English writer on music, 
fourteenth century, 561 

Hanslick, Ed., critic, 1234 

" Hardy Norseman," Pearsall, 1279 

" Hark, Heard Ye Not? " Goss, 1278 

"Hark, 'tis the Indian Drum," Bishop, 1277 

Harmony, known to the Egyptians, 46 ; its 
growth, 278 ; in Wales, 398 ; known to the 
English, 552 ; advances under Rameau, 608 ; 
its climax, 767 

Harp, most important of Egyptian instruments, 

Harper, J., 1310 

Harpsichord, precursor of the piano, 585, 587 

Harrach, Count, 881 

Harriers- Wippern, L., 1207 

Hartmann, Emil, Danish composer, 1253 

Hartung, organist, 984 
Hasler, Leo Hans, German Church composer, 616 

Hasse, Faustina, 713 

Hasse, Joliann Adolf, composer, 712 

Hassler, Hans Leo, 460, 568, 1226, 1229 

Hasur (Asor Nassor), Hebraic cithar, 70 

Hatton, J. L., composer, 1278 

Hauptmann, Moritz, historian, (!2(J, 1031 

Hausmann, R., violoncellist, 1273 

Hawes, Miss, 1312 

Hawkins, Sir J., 1303 

Haydn, Jos., 852 ; father of the modern or- 
chestra, 853 ; he and Mozart, humour in 
music, the father of musical humour, 856 ; 
vast works, chamber music, .v~>ii ; elevates 
sonata form, 857; his younger contemporaries 
called him "Father Haydn." fOS : story of 
his life, 858 ; service in Ksterha/y family, 
861 ; marries, his works, 862 ; in London, 
864 ; a consideration of his compositions, 
867 ; raises the string ipiartett, S76 ; his 
temper and character, 877 ; his relations 
with Mozart, 878 ; his religion, 879 ; num- 
ber of his compositions, 880 


Haydn, Michael, brother to Joseph, 717 

Hayes, Dr. William, glee writer, 919, 923 

Hayes, Philip, son of Dr. William Hayes, 924 

Hay market opera-house founded, 807 

Heath, English composer, 676 

Heather, or Heyther, founder of Professorship 

at Oxford, 740 
Hebenstreit, Pantaleon, 731 
Heidegger, 808 
Heidel, 821 

Heimsoeth, theorist and historian, 1224 
Heine, H., 1092 
Heinefetter, Sabina, 990 
Heinichen, J. D., 705 
Heinrich of Meiszen, 248 
Heinrich of Beldeke, 239 
Helena, Empress, 180 
Heliogabalus, 165 
Hell, Th., 970 

Hellborn, Dr. H. K. von, 1231 
Helmholz, H., professor of acoustics, 1232 
Heman, 72, 84 

Henry VIII. of England, composer, 664 
Henschel, George, singer, 1270 
Hensel, Fanny, 1024 
Henselt, Ad., composer, 1043 
Herbeck, Joh., composer, 1215 
Hercules, 835 
Herold, L. J. F. , French opera composer, 1093 ; 

Le Pre aux Clercs, 1095 
Herz, Henry, 1041 ; pianist, 1099 
Herzogenberg, Heinrich von, 1222 
Hesse, A., a great organist and composer, 994, 


Hczekiah, Hatton, 1279 

Hierotheus, Bishop of the Greek Church, 180 
Hilarius (Hilary), Bishop of Poitiers, 180 
Hiller, Adam, operetta composer, 1002 
Killer, Ferd., 1034, 1039, 1204 
Hiller, Johann Adam, 711, 716, 1201 
Hilton, John, composer, 680 
Hindoos, 7 ; their scales related to those of the 

ancient Greeks, 24 ; their number and 

names, 24 

Hippeau, Edm., 1167 
Hiuen, Chinese wind instrument, 15 
Hiuen-kou, Chinese giant drum, 13 
Hobrecht, Jacob, Netherland composer, 339 
Hochberg, Count B., 1222 
Hodges, 681 
Hofer, 624 

Hoffmann, H., pupil of Dehn, 1029 ; opera com- 
poser of the New German School, 1210 
Hofhaimer, Paul, 433 
Hollander, Chr. Jan, composer, 375 
Holmes, J., composer, 684 
Holstein, Franz von, pupil of M. Hauptmann, 

1032, 1221 

Humilius, G. A., 793 
Hooper, 687 

Hopifer, Bernhardt, composer, 1215 
Hopkins, E. J., composer, 1298 
Horn, C. E., composer, 1282 
Horn, Golden, used by Hindoos, 32 
Horsley, C. E., composer, 1295 
Horsley, W., composer, 1276 
Hothby, English writer, 563 
Houpfeld, 875 

Huber, Hans, 1213 

Huber, Joseph, composer, 1212, 1216 

Hucbald, Ubaldus, 289, 395 

Hullah, J., 1251, 1309, 1310 

Hummel, Joh. Nep., pianist and composer, 909.. 


Humour in music, Haydn father of, 856 
Humphrey (or rather Humfrey), composer, 750- 
Hunt, T., composer, 685 
Hunten, Franz, pianist, 1041, 1099 
Hykaert (Ykaert), Bernhard, 362 
Hymnology, Early Christian, 183 

Ignatius, St., 176 

Imitation, when used, 285 

" In exitu Israel," Wesley, 1289 

Ingeborg, wife of Hans von Bronsart, pianist 
and composer, pupil of Liszt, 1212 

Ingegneri, M. A., 526 

Inglott, 687 

Instrumental music, employment of it 111 
churches, 494 

lolanthc, Sullivan, 1302 

Irish melodies, 915 

Isaak, Heinrich, German composer of the- 
fifteenth century, 433 

Isis-Hathor, 38 

Islamites. 85 ; their instruments, 106 

Isouard, Nic., French opera composer, 1086 

Israelites, 58 ; possessed a knowledge of har- 
mony, 75 ; characteristic tunes. 81 

" I was glad," Attwood, 1289 

Jacket, English writer, 681 

Jackson, W., composer, 1275 

Jacopone, early Italian composer, 204 

Jacquet, Elis. Claude, 002 

Jadasohn, Sal., pupil of M. Hauptmann, 1032 ? 
professor at Leipzig, 1206 

Jadin, H., opera composer, 1101 

Jadin, L. E., French comic opera composer, 
1080, 1101 

Jahn, Otto, biographer, 899, 1230 

Jan, K. von, 1224 

Jannequin, Clement, realistic composer, 358, 

Jans, Christian, Netherland composer, 346 

Japanese, 7 

Jason, Mackenzie, 1302 

Jeanrenaud, Cecilia, Mendelssohn's wife, 103 1 

Jeduthun, 84 

Jenkins, John, lutenist, 754 

Jensen, Adolf, composer, 1203 

Jerusalem, Pierson, 1294 

Jesius, 815 

Jews of fame as musicians : Meyerbeer, Men- 
delssohn, Moscheles, H. Herz, Halevy, Fer- 
dinand Hiller, J. Rosenhain, Schulhoff. 
Felicien David, Goldmark, and Anton 
Rubinstein, 995 

Joachim, Amalie, singer, 12C8 

Joachim, Jos., violinist and pupil of Moritz 
Hauptmann, 1032, 1034, 1270, 1313 


Johannes von Salzburg, 430 

John, theorist, 201 

Johnson, Edward, (>S~ 

Jomelli, Nicolo, Neapolitan opera composer, 698 

.lone*, Kobert, (J81 

J,,*<),h, V. Horsley, 1295 

.^ph II., 205, 867 

Jiixr/ilt, Macfarren, 1296 

Josquin des Pres, Netherland composer and 
theorist, 340 ; his compositions, 342, 358 

Jony, librettist, 10(53 

Juan IV., of Portugal (King), patron of art 
and composer, wrote in orthodox manner, 

Jubal, inventor of stringed and wind instru- 
ments, 00 

Jullien, M., 1247 

Kade, Otto, historian, 1227 

Kalkbrenner, Friedr. , pianist, 1105 

Kalliiiatha, 2 1 

Kalliwoda, Wenzeslaus, composer, 100G, 1051 

Kallwitz, Jakob, mathematician, chronologist, 

composer, and musical savant, 477 
Kang-Hi, 9 

Karasowsky, Moritz, biographer of Chopin, 1047 
Karl August, Grand Duke of Weimar, 847 
KastiuT. (J., musical savant, 1247 
Kauer, Ferd., 980 

Keiser, Reinhard, composer of 120 operas, 725 
Kelei, Bela, 1266 

Kemengeli, Islamitic stringed instrument, 95 
Kent, James, Church writer, 924 
Keol, J. K., organist and composer, 619 
Kiel, Friedrich, pupil of S. Dehn, 1029, 1032, 


Kiesewetter, R. G., 41, 289, 825 
Kilmansegge, Baron von, 804 
Kin. an old Chinese stringed instrument, 8; 

used by Japanese, 18 
Kindersley, Robert, 738 
AY/i.'/ Arthur, J'urcell, 751 
King, Chinese instrument, 13 ; also Nio-King, 

i:;. :w 

Kin 1,1 I tin-ill, Macfarren, 1296 
" King Harry VIII. 's Pavyn," 665 
Kinnor, little triangular-shaped harp, 60 
Kirby, Dr., 681 

Kirchner, Tlieoil., composer, 1204 
KirnlKTg.T, J. Ph., 617, 731 
Kittel, J. Chr., <;.>.". 
Kittl, Friedr., 12(12 
Klein, Bernh., composer, 1048 
Klrngri. Alex., 104't 
Klopstock, Fr. G., 1194 
Klughardt, August, composer, 1215 
Knorr, Jul., 1037 
Kochel, Ludwig von, Chevalier, antiquary and 

musical historian, 1229 
Kdnigslow, C., violinist, 1272 
Konrad of Wiirzburg, 245 
Korner, Theodore, 973 
K">ter, Louise, 1267 
Kostlin, H., 1224 
Kdstlin, Carl, musical savant, 1235 
Kozeluch, L., composer, 901 

Kramer, 848 

K rates (gee Crates), 152 

Kratinos (Cratinus), 156 

Krebs, Joh. Ludwig, 794 

Krebs, Marie, ]>iauist, 1270 

Kretscluner, Kdmund, composer, 1220 

Kreutzer, Konradin, %9, 992 

Kreutzer, Rod., 1006; violinist, 1100 

Krischna, 22 

Krug, Arnold, composer, New German School, 


Kr'uger, Ed., theorist and historian, 1224, 1225 
Kiicken, Fr. W., song composer, 1050 
Kufferath, J. H., 989 
Kuhnau, Johann, 588, composer, and said to be 

the inventor of the sonata form in many 

parts, 632 

Kullak, Theod., pupil of S. Dehn, 1029 
Kurenberger, 239 
Kurz, comic actor, 859 
Kusse, Siegmund, opera-composer, 724 

Labitzky, Jos., dance composer, 1051 

Lablache, L., singer (bass), 1005, 1310 

Laborde, B. de, historian and theorist, 1105 
i Lachner, Franz, composer, 881, 970, 980 
[ Lachner, Ignaz, 979 
i Lachner, Vincenz, 979 
I Lacombe, L. B., 1105; composer, 1245 
I Lady of the Lake, Macfarren, 1296 

La Harpe, J. F., 836 

Lahoussaye, French violinist, 707 

Lalande, H. Cl., 1132 

Lalouette, 597 

La Mara (Marie Lipsius), 1228 

Lamia, celebrated flute-player, 156, 166 

Landino, Francesco, 312 

Landsberg, 1120 

Lane, Sir Ed. William, Egyptian historian, 43 

Lanner, J., dance composer, 1051 

La Rote, instrument (see Rota), 196, 340 

La Rue, P. de, Netherland composer, 327, 330, 

Lasos, arranged dithyrambic contests, 132 

Lassen, Edward, opera composer of the New 
German School, 1211 

Lassus, Ferdinand, 391 

Lassus, Orlandus, the greatest of the Nether- 
land tone-poets, 346-376 ; his celebrated 
Penitential Psalms, 378 ; most prolific of all 
composers, 382 

Lassus, Rudolf, 391, 619 

Laube, H., 1180 

Lauffensteiner, 624 

Lauska, Meyerbeer's master, 9% 

Lauterbach, Job., violinist, 1272 

Lawes, Henry, composer, 741 

" Lay a Garland," Pearsall, 1279 

Leclair, J. M., violinist, 1100 

Ledebur, K., lexicographer, 1235 

Le Fage, de, 511 

Legrenzi, Giovanni, 536 

Lehman, Lilli, singer, 1267 

Leighton, Sir William, 738 

Leiiora, Macfarren, 12% 



Lenz, William von, musical litterateur, 1261 

Leo Leonardo, prolific Neapolitan composer, 

Leonard, H., 1110 

Leoni, Leone, Venetian master, 494 

Leonin (Magister Leoninus), early French com- 
poser and organist, 290 

Leslie, H. D., 1298 

Lesiieur, J. Franc., 1058 ; French opera com- 
poser, 1064 

Leveridge, first English opera composer, 915 

Levi, Hermann, Wagnerian conductor, 1186 

Liberati, Antonio, 515 

Lichnowski, Prince, 953 

Lind, Jenny, singer, 1004, 1311 

Lindblad, F., 1254 

Lindley, 1311 

Lindpaintner, P. J., composer, 1006 

Linley, G., composer, 1282 

Linley, T., composer, 1275 

Linley, T., Junr., composer, 1275 

Linley, W., composer, 1275 

Linos, 39 

Lipinski, K. J. von, violinist, 993, 1272 

Lipsius, Marie (La Mara), 1228 

Lisley, J., composer, 685 

Liszt, Franz, as a literary man, 1040 ; pianist 
and composer, 1086 

Literary activity among great musicians : Schu- 
mann, Karl Maria von Weber, Franz Liszt, 
Kichard Wagner, Berlioz, 1040 

Lobe, J. C., theorist, 1232, 1233 

Ix>bkowitz, Prince, 824, 953 

Lobwasser, Ambrosius, 476 

Locatelli, P., 552 

Lock, Matthew, composer of chamber music, 755 

Loder, E. J., composer, 1281 

Logier, J. B., 1105 

Logroscino, Nicolo, opera bouffe composer, 589 

Lolli, Ant., opera writer, 540 

Lolli of Bergamo, violinist, 707 

Lombardim, Maddalena, violinist, 707 

Lorenzo (il Magnifico), 434, 517 

Lortziug, Alb., opera composer, 1001 

Lossius, Lukas, German hymn composer, 476 

Lotti, Antonio, 172 

Louis XIV., 599 

Lowe, Karl, song composer, 976 

Lowe, Sophie, singer, 1004 

Lucas, C., 1309 

Lucca, Pauline, singer, 1004, 1267 

Ludford, 681 

Ludwig I. of Bavaria, 392 

Ludwig II. of Bavaria, 851 

Lulli, Giov. Batt., or Lully, violinist and com- 
poser, 593 ; his compositions, 596 ; father of 
the French opera, 002, 1057, 1059 

Lin-line, Balfe, 1281 

Luther, M., and the music of Protestant Church, 
417 ; his skill as a polyphonic writer, 446 ; 
his power of detecting incorrect passages 
and offences against strict canonical part- 
writing, 450 ; was a practical musician, 
453 ; a flautist and organist, 456 ; his ori- 
ginal compositions, 458 ; letter addressed to 
his friend Senfel, 488 

Luzzaschi, Farrarese. considered the greatest 
organist of his time, 546 

Luzzoni, singer, 703 

Lwoff, A., Russian composer, 1260 

Lyre, used by Egyptians, 51 


Maas, J. , singer, 1311 

Mace, Thomas, lutenist, 755 

Macfarren, Nathalie, now Lady Macfarren, 1248 

Macfarren, Sir George, composer, 1248, 1296, 
1309, 1310 

Machaut, Guillaume de, poet and musician, 
298, 590 

Mackenzie, A. C., 1302 

Macrobius, 166 

Madrigal, invented by Willaert, 367, 682 

Maflueroy, Clotilde, 1088 

Maggini, G. P., 530 

Magoudi, Hindoo guitar, 32 

Mahu, Steph., 460 

Maillart, Aim, composer, 1242 

Maldeghem, Van, 1255 

Malibran, Alex., 1104 

Malibran, M., singer, 1005, 1104, 1310 

Mallinger, Mathilde, singer, 1267 

Malten, Theresa, singer, 1185 

Mancina, Giambattista, tenor, 703 

Manelli, Fr., 535 

Maneros, 38 

Manfredi, Italian violinist, 707 

Mangold, K., 1222 

Mannerism, 954 958 

Mantius, Ed., singer, 1025, 1027 

Mara (see Schmeling, Elis.j, 715, 716 

Mara, singer, 1310 

Marais, Marin, a dramatic composer, 601 

Marbecke, John, 668 

Marcello, Benedetto, 543 ; a celebrated com- 
poser of Psalms, 545 

Marchand, Louis, Court organist, 604 

Marchart, 687 

Marchesi, L., singer, 1135 

Marchetti, Sil., 1239 

Marchetto da Padova, early writer on theory 
(1307 A.D.), 219 

Marenzio, Luca di, 524 

Maria Antonia, 727 

Maria, Giov., 515 

Maria Theresa, Gluck's patroness, 834 

Marie Antoinette, 846 

Marini, Biagio, violin composer, 531 

Mario, singer, 1310 

Maritana, Balfe, 1281 

Marius, 730 

Marmontel, A. F., 836, 1105 

Marpurg, F. W., piano maker, 731 

Marschner, Heinr., composer of opera, 970, 1043 

Marson, G., 684 

Marsyas, celebrated flute player, 120 

Martinez, Marianne von, 860 

Martini, composer, 909 

Martini, Giambattista, priest, philosopher, 
mathematician, musical historian, contra- 
puntist, 706 

Martini, P. A., French opera composer, 1079 

Martini, Padre, 829, 904 

Marx, Ad. B., theorist and historian, 1028, 1232 



Maschera of Cremona, organist, noted for fugue 
imitations of the French canzone, 546 

Mason, John, 671, 681 

Masse 1 , Victor, French opera composer, 1244 

Massenet, J., French opera composer, 1243 

Mastersingers, 248 

Materna, Amalie, singer, 1185 

Mattel, 1124 

Mattheson, Johann, composer, and friend of 
Handel, 801 

Ma intuit, Jacques, French composer, 591 

Maiirer, Ludw. Wilh., violin composer, 993 

Mail Queen, Tlie, Bennett, 1285 

Mayrhofer, 974 

Miiyseder, Joseph, symphonist, 1006 

Ma/./occhi, Gebr., 515 

Medes, Music of, 56 

Mflnd. C. N., French opera composer, 1082, 

Mei, Girolamo, Italian writer and theorist, 

Mfilainl, Jacob, German composer, 614 

Meinardus, Ludwig, 1218 

Melzi, 1'rince, 824 

Mendel, Hermann, lexicographer, 1235 

Mendelssohn, Felix, 1007 ; and Schumann com- 
pared, 1008 ; his pianoforte compositions, 
100!) ; a failure as an opera composer, 1010 ; 
is a decided classic, 1010 ; oratorios, 1011 ; 
influenced by the great masters, 1014 ; his 
songs, 1017 ; his birth and early works, 
1024 ; connected with the theorists, musical i 
historian and antiquary S. Dehn, and Mar\, 
1028 ; besides musical knowledge had a , 
sound education, 1030 ; his tutors, 1030 ; ! 
iakru to Paris, his compositions, 1030 ; 
meets Moscheles in London, 1031 ; Leip/ig 
and the Gewandhaus concerts, 1031; his St. 
Paul, 1034 ; Elijah and the Birmingham 
Festival, 1036 ; folk-song, 1043* 

Meheghini, Italian violinist, 707 
, Raphael, painter, 698 

Menter, Sophie, pianist, 1270 

Mercadante, S., opera composer, 1131 

Merkel, Gustavo, organist and composer, 1210 

Mt'isrime, Marie, theorist, 591, 604 

Merulo, Claudio, famous organist, 495 

Mestrini, N., of Milan, violinist, 707 

Metastasio, operatic librettist, 860 

Methfessel, A. G., 1050 

Metrical ]>salmody, 688 

Mi-ttenleiter, J. G., organist, collector, 1220 

.Mi-tiernich, Prince, 1128 

Meyerbeer, Giac., 981 ; his birth, 994 ; as a 
pianist, his operas, 9% ; his compositions 
analysed, 99S ; said to be connected witli 
the introduction of certain brass instru- 
ments, 1005, 1058 

Middle Ages, The development of music in the, 


Mii-ksch, J. A., 1036 
Mk'ksch, Marie, singer, 704 
Mifi-zvvynsky, tenor, 1270 
Mihalovioh, B. . 1162 
Mikado, The, Sullivan, 1302 
Milano, Francesco da, composer, 497 
Milanollo, Maria, violinist, 1103 
Milanollo, Teresa, violinist, 1103 

Milder, singer, 1185 

Milder-Hauptmann, P. A., singer, 1025 

Milleville, Alex., organist, 546 

Milleville, Franz, organist, 546 

Milton, J., composer, 685 

Minnesingers (see Folk-music), 226 ; their music, 

Miriam, (!4 

Mislivecek (Venturini), 709 

Mitterwurzer, A., singer, 1185 

Mizler, L. Oh., 663 

Monday Popular Concerts, 1313 

Monochord or trumscheit, 21 il 

Mpnsigny, P. A., Frencli comic opera composer. 

Monte, Pliilippus de, Netherland writer, 347. 
392, 393 

Monteclair, 602 

Monteverde, Claudio, early opera writer, 525 : 
originator of the modern orchestra, 527 

Monticelli, 732 

Morales, Chr., composer, 582 

Moravie, Jerome de, old French theorist, 295 

Morlacchi, Fr., composer, 1135 

Morley, Thomas, composer, 680 

Mornington, Lord, glee writer, 919 

Morzin, Count, 861 

Moscheles, Ign., 1031 ; pianist and composer, 
1033. 1043 

Moschus, 1-17 

Moses, acquainted with music, 60 

Mosevius, I. Th., 1048 

Mosonnyi, Michael, composer, 1266 

Moszkowski, M., 1263 

Motet, 281 

Moulu, Pierre, 343 

Mountain Sylph, The, Barnett, 1281 

Mouret, Joseph, 602 

Mouton, Jean, composer, 343 

Mozart, Constance (inie Weber), 903, 962 

Mozart, Leopold, 875, 902 

Mozart, Wolf., 882 ; the most universal of th'- 
six great tone-poets, 884 ; see 885 887 ; 
the mirthful in music, 886 ; invents the 
conversational opera, 889 ; also the romantir 
opera, 890; the fairy opera, 892; his com 
positions, 894 901 ; his birth, his filial 
devotion, 902 ; marries under the 
painful anxieties for daily bread, 904 : 
Italian hatred, 904 ; early skill in 
position, 908 ; invents the art-song, '.Hi* : 
on Beethoven, 909 ; his love for Haydn, 

Muffat, George, composer, 623 ; organ composer, 

Muffat, Gottlieb, composer, 681 
Muhamed ben Issa, 92 

Midler, 973 

Mi.ller-Hartung, 1273 

Miiller, Ottfried, 1224 

Miiller, Wenzel, fairy burlesque writer, 900 

Munday, John, 687 

Muris, Jean de, French theorist, 297 

Musical drama, 516 ; birth of the music-drama. 


Musical Union, 1312 
Musiol, Robert, lexicographer, 1236 
"Mynheer van Dunck," Bishop, 1277 



Nablium, an ancient harp of Phoenician origin, 

Naldini, Sante, 512 

Nanini, Bernardo, 373, 503 

Nanini, Giov. Maria, fellow-pupil of Palestrina, 

503, 512 

Napoleon I., 1060 

Naprawnik, Edward, composer, 1263 
Nardini, Pietro, Italian violinist, 707 
Nareda, god of Hindoo music, 20 
Nares, James, Church writer, 924 
Nationality in music, Gluck, 845, Haydn, 857 
Naumann, Emil, pupil of Moritz Hauptmann, 


Naumann, Ernst, German violinist, 707, 1204 

Naumann, Johann Gottlieb, composer, 718 

Neefe, Chr. G., 934 

Nefyr, Arabian trumpet, 110 

Neithard, Heinr., 1035 

Neri, Filippo, organist, 533, 546 

Nero, 164 

Neruda, Norman-, violinist, 1104, 1272, 1313 

Neswadba, Joseph, composer, 1263 

Neszler, Viktor, opera composer, 1222 

Neukomm, S., 881 

Neumes, first attempt at Christian notation, 182 

Neusiedler, 624 

Newark, William, English composer, 668 

New Romantic School, 1143 

Newton, Dr., 681 

Ngai-Tai, 9 

Nichelmann, Chr., 875 

Nicholson, .R., composer, 684 

Nicode, L., 1213 

Ni0 1002 Ott ' rganist and P era composer, 

Nicolini (see Grimaldi), 703 

Niemann, Albert, great tenor, 1004, 1185 1270 

Nietzsche, Fr., 1186 

Night Dancers, The, Loder, 1281 

Nikomachus, 156 

Nilsson, Christine, singer, 1133 1269 

Nisard, Th., 394 

Nithart of Reuenthal, 245 

Nohl, Ludwig, 1186 

Norcome, D., composer, 684 

Nordraak, Rikard, 1254 

Norman, John, composer, 668 

Norman music, 400 

Norman (or Nisard), Theodore, theorist, 1256 

Notation, specimens of the Neume, 198 ; origin 

Oettingen, A., theorist, 1232 
Offenbach, J., opera bouffe composer, 1244 
Oh ! Who will o'er the Downs with Me ? " 

Pearsall, 1279 
Okeghem J 325; real founder of the Nether 

land School, 327, 358 
Oldfield, Thomas, 687 
" Old Mayday," Macfarren, 1296 
" ?$ grant the Kin S a lon S Life," Att wood, 


Olympos, J., 127 

Omar, Caliph, 105 

Onslow, G., 1051 ; composer of French chamber 
music, 1102 

Opera, early stage of, 368 ; its beginnin<- 516 
the first, 524 ; called drama per musica' 
melodrama, 52o ; introduction of word re- 
petition, 535 ; over a hundred composed bv 
Alessandro Scarlatti, 572 ; origin of opera 
butfa, opera comic, 589 ; opera serin, 58!) 
592 ; under Rameau, 606 ; Schiiltz, first 


Nottebohm, M. G., biographer, 1231 
Houmt, Ad., great French tenor, 1076 
Novello, Clara, soprano, 1312 


Oakeley, Sir H. S., composer, 1299 
Oboe, used by Chinese, 18 

^ftS^irs,'' 281; 

Oclande, 681 

, , 697, 704 ; Gluck, 830 ; birth of 
the music-drama, 830 ; conversational opera 
invented by Mozart, 889; also romantic 
opera by Mozart, 890; Mozart fairy opera 
892 ; first English opera, 915 ; the Grand 
Opera and Meyerbeer, 998 ; Berlin opera, 
102o ; the Grand Opera, Paris, and the 
.trench comic romantic opera, 1056 1077 
Oratorio, initiatory stages of, 515 ; Handel's re- 
lation to it, 814 ; Mendelssohn as the reno- 
vator, 1048 

Orchestra, the modern, first steps towards forma- 
tion of, 527 ; increased, 539, 582 ; improve- 
ment under Rameau, 606 ; arrangement of 
at Dresden, 729; Haydn, father of the ' 
modern orchestra, 853 ; Schumann a writer 
tor orchestra, 1018 

Organ, growth and development of, 193 ; largest 
m Anglo-Saxon times at Winchester, .398 ; 
Bach the greatest performer, 789 : im- 
provement in playing it, 546 ; of the Middle 
Ages, 548 ; destroyed in England, 747 
Organistrum, 195 
Organum (see Ars organandi), 207 
Orgeny, Agl., singer, 1269 
Orpheus, 118 

Ortiz, Diego, composer, 582 
Orwel, Robert, 681 

" O Saviour of the World," Goss, 1292 
Osiander, Lucas, 460, 470 
Osiris, 37 
Ossian, 1253 
' ( 'Ossian's Hymn," Goss, 1298 

O Taste and See," Goss, 1292 
Otto, Jul., 1217 
Oulibicheff, Alexander von, musical litterateur, 

Ouseley Sir F. A. G., historian and composer, 

Oxford school of music founded by Alfred the 
Great, 201 

Pachelbel, Johann, organist and composer, 638 
.r acini, LT., n^l 


1:3:! 7 

Padilla y Ramos, 12G9 

Paer, Ferd., opera composer, 703, 1123 

Paesiello (sir Puisiello) 

Paganini, Nicolo, great violinist, 1139 ; self- 
taught, 1140 

Pagin, French violinist, 707 

Paisiello, Giovanni, comic opera composer, 700, 
999, 1060, 1061, 1123 

Paita, Giovanni, tenor, 703 

Palestrina, G. P., 503 ; his style, 505 ; founds a 
school at Home, 506 ; his compositions, 507 

Pallavicini, C., 536 

Pallavicino, B., Venetian composer, 494 

Pan, 127 

Panseron, A., singing master, 1104 

Papier, Rosa, singer, 1269 

Parabosco, 371 

Parbuti, 23 

Parepa, singer, 1311 

Paris, the first purely national school of music, 

Part-writing, first attempts at, 204, 491 ; ela- 
borated working of, 545 

I'nxi-al Jir/iHO, Hatton, 1278 

Pasdeloup, 1245 

Pashe, 681 

Pasi, Antonio, singer, 703 

Pasquini, 15., 422 

Pasta, Guiditta, 1133, 1137 

Pastourelle, 233 

Patience, Sullivan, 1302 

Patihi, singer, 732 

Patti, Adelina, singer, 1269 

Patti, Carlotta, singer, 1269 

Patti, Salvator, Italian tenor, father of Carlotta 
and Adelina, ll>t>9 

Paul, Osk., lexicographer, 1 !.'.'>.") 

Paumann, Conr., 433 

Paxton, S., glee writer, 919 

"Peace to the Souls of the Heroes," 1275 

Pearsall, R. L., 1279 

Pearson, Martin, ($87 

Pedal bass, used by Chinese, 12 

Pedrotti, C., composer, 1239 

IVnhyn, W.,397 

Pepusch, John Christopher, of German birth, 

Pergin, Marianna, Gluck's wife, 827 

Pergolesi, Giov. Matt., sacred and opera com- 
poser, <i97 

Pepin, King, 193 

Peri, Ach., 987 

Peri, .Tacopo, writer of the first opera, 524 ; his 
/:' a />/</ /'</', called Tragedia per Musica, or 
Tragicomedia, 525 

Pericles, 143 

Perotin, early French composer and organist, 291 

Perrin, P., French opera composer, 595 

Persiani, Fanny, singer, 1005, 1137, 1310 

Persians, Music of, 56 

Persons, 681 

Persuis, Loiseau de, French opera composer, 1066 

Peruzzi, singer, 703 

Pes, or ground bass, 221 

Pescetti, 543 

Pevernage, Andreas, part-song writer, 348 

Pfretzschner, 1035 

Philharmonic Society, 1311 

Philidor, 1061 

Philidor, F. A. D., 1076 ; French comic opera 
writer, 1077 

Philip, Sir Thomas, English composer, 66S 

Philis, Jeanne. 1090 

Phillipps, \V. L., 1310 

Phillips, Peter, 6*7 

Phoenicians, Music of, 56 

Phrygians and Lydians, Music of, .">(' 

Phrynis, 146 

Pianoforte, its predecessors, 499 ; early history 
of, 583 ; invented by Cristofori, 587 ; in- 
vention of hammer mechanism, 731 ; Bach's 
48 preludes and fugues, 786 ; Mendelssohn 
and Schumann, 1009 

Piccini, Nicoli, opera composer, 699; "Pic- 

Pien-tschung, Chinese bell instrument, 13 

PiiTohon, see La Rue, P. de 

Pierson, H., composer, 1294 

Pierson, Martin, composer, 744 

Pietri, Giovanni, 687 

Pilkinson, Francis, 738 

Pi HII fore, Sullivan, 1302 

Pindar, 140 

Pinsuti, Ciro, composer, 1239 

Pipe, Shepherd's, 260 

Pirates of Penzance, Sullivan, 1302 

Pisaroni, singer, 1310 

Pisendel, George, 728 

Pisistratos, 142 

Pistocchi, Antonio, founder of a school of 
singing, 704 

Pius IX., 1192 

Plagal or oblique scales, 185 

Planer, M. (Richard Wagner's first wife), 1181 

Plato, 134 

Plectrum, Greek instrument, 148 

Pleyel, J. J., 881 

Pleyel, M. F. D., pianist, 1105 

Po-fou, Chinese small dnim, 15 

Poglietti, Alessandro, 658 

Pohl, K. F., biographer, 1231 

Polchau, G., 1228 

Polidoro, Fed., Italian composer, 1239 

Polietti, or Poglietti, composer, 658 

Polledro, G. B., violinist, 1141 

Polymnestus, 134 

Polyphony, its growth, from the twelfth to the 
sixteenth century, 2(59 ; as used by Jos,|iiiii 
des Pres, 328, 491 ; its climax, 767 

Ponchietti, Am., Italian opera composer, 1236 

Popeliniere, 605 

Popper, D., violoncellist, married Sophie 
Menter, 1271 

Porpara, Nic., composer, 697 

Porta, Costanzo, 369 

Potocka, Countess, 1047 

Potter, P. C. H , composer, 1283, 1309 

Pougin, Arthur, musical savant, 1247 

Power, Leonel, 681 

Praeger, Ferdinand, composer of the New (it-r- 
man school, 1213 ; litterateur and critic, 1250 

Praetorius, Hieronymus, 195, 628, 

Prastorius, Jakob (see Schultz, J.), 349 

Praetorius, Michael, composer and historian, 639 

"Praise the Lord, O my Soul," 1292 

Pratinas, 143 

Princess Ida, Sullivan, 1302 

Proch, Heinrich, 1050 



"Professor of Music," first used in England, 

Programme music, 1052 ; the resuscitator of, 

Proske, K., collector, 122G 

Protestants adopt Catholic hymuology and Gre- 
gorian melodies, 428 

Prudent, E., pianist, 1105 

Psalter, Greek instrument, 148 

Psaltery, Israelitic instrument, 75 

Ptolemy, 126 

Pugnani, G., of Turin, violinist, 707 

Purcell, Henry, English composer, 751 

Puschmann, 253 

Pyggot, 681 

Pythagoras, added an eighth string to the seven- 
stringed lyre of Terpander, 130, 139 


Quanz, Joh. Joach., flautist, 662, 728 
"Queen of the Valley," Callcott, 1275 
Quinault, Phil., 596 


Raaff, Anton, famous German tenor, 715 

Rabanus, Maurus, 202 

Radecke, Robert, composer, 1209 

Radziwill, Prince, 1046 

Raff, Joachim, composer, New German School, 

Raimondi, P., composer, 1135 

Raising of Lazarus, Barnett, 1300 

Rameau, Jean Philippe, great French opera 
composer, 602, 1057, 1059 

Ramos, Padilla y, Spanish singer, 1270 

Rappoldi, Ed., violinist, 1272 

Rehab, Islamitic stringed instrument, 95 

Rebekah, Barnby, 1302 

Rebel (see Organistrum), 195 

Reber, H. Napoleon, composer, 1245 

Rebling, Gustave, 1049 

Redford, 681 

Regis, Joh. (Jean), 356 

Reicha, Anton, French comic opera composer. 

Reichardt, J. Fr. , song composer, 909 

Reicher-Kindermann, singer, 1185 

Reinecke, Karl, composer, 1205 

Reinken, Joh. Ad., organist, 349, 629 

Reinmar, Hagenau, 245, 482 

Reinmar of Zweter, the Minnesinger, 246 

Reinthaler, K., composer, 1208 

Reise, Carl, librettist, 1239 

Reissiger, J. G., composer, 1006, 1048 
Reiszmann, A., historian and composer, 1224, 


Rellstab, Ludwig, critic, 1118 
Jteturrecticn and Ascension, The, Elvey, 1298 
Resurrection, The, Macfarren, 1296 
"Return, Blest Days," Smith, 1276 
Rezio, Mile., singer, 1167 
Rhau, George, 460 
Rheinberger, Joseph, 1219 
Ribecchino, instrument of the violin kind, 523 
Ricci, F. , opera composer, 1136 
Ricci, L. , opera composer, 1136 t 

Eichafort, Jean, 343 

Richards, H. B., composer, 1287, 1310 

Richardson, Ferdinand, 687 

Richter, G. F., theorist, 1234 

Richter, Hans, Wagnerian conductor, 1186 

Ricordi, publisher, Milan, 1135 

Riedel, Hermann, song writer and conductor, 

Riedel, Karl, composer of the New Gen:.<iu 
School, 1212 

Riehl.W. H., theorist, 1234 

Riemann, H., lexicographer, 1235 

Ries, Ferdinand, 938, 1189 

Ries, Frz., composer, 1216 

Ries, Hubert, 939 

Riese, singer, 1270 

Riese, Dr. Karl, 1239 

Rietsehel, G., 968 

Rietz, Jul., violoncellist, 1034, 1206 

Righini, Vincenzo, 703 

Rimbault, E. F., writer, 673, 1308 

Rinck, J. Ch. H., 1049 

Rinuccini, Ottavio, poet, 521 

Risby, 681 

Ritschl, Fr. W., 1231 

Ritter, A. G., 1049 

Robert, King of France, writer and singer of 
sequences, 203 

Roger, Hippolyte, 1090 

Rochlitz, Fr., 660, 964 

Rococo in music, 408 

Rode, Pierre, violinist, 1101 

Roeckel, Friiulein, the lady to whom Beethoven 
made an offer which was declined, she 
being engaged to Hummel, whom she mar- 
ried, 952 

Roger, G. H., tenor, 1005, 1090 

Roi, Jean de (see Regis), 356 

Roland, Lattre (see Lassus, Orl. ), 346 

Roland's horn, 259 

Romani, Felice, 1132 

Romanina, singer, 703 

Romans, music of , 158; their instruments, 159 

Romberg, Andreas, violinist and composer, 993 

Romberg, Bernhardt, violoncellist and composer. 

Rondo (Rondeau), 282 

Roquette, O., librettist, 1188 

Rore, Cyprian van, Netherland writer, 345, 369 

Rosenpliit, 253 

Rose of Castile, The, Balfe, 1280 

Rose of Sharon, Mackenzie, 1302 

Rosetti (see Rosier, Franz), 536 

Rosier, Franz, 709 

Rossini, G., 1041 ; opera composer, 1058 ; Guil- 
laume Tell, 1072 ;' compared with Cherubim 
and Spontini, 1122 ; his birth, 1123 ; his 
operas, 1124 ; his humour, 1125 ; his inap- 
propriate tone painting, 1127 ; in London, 
1128 ; his disgust of the world, 1130 

Rota, favoured instrument of English minstrels, 
French Trouveres, German Minne- and 
Meister-singers, 196 

Rouget de 1'Isle, 1061 

Roundelays, 233 

Rousseau, J. J., 836 

Royal Academy of Music, 1309 

Royal College of Music, 1310 

Roze, Maria, singer, 1311 



Rubebe, stringed instrument of the Trouveres, 


Rubelle (see Organistrum), 195 
Rubinelli, singer, 1135 
Rubini, G. B., tenor, 1005, 1137, 1310 
Rubinstein, Anton, pupil of S. Dehn, 1029 ; 

great pianist and composer, 1259 
Rudolph, Archduke, 614, 936 
Rudortf, Ernst, 1209 
Rufsr, Ph. B., 1213 
Rungenhagen, C. Fr., 1025 
Ruplf (see Ruppich), 455 
Ruppich, 455 

Rust, W., biographer, 1230 
Ruziezka, organist, teacher of Schubert, 971 


Sabillon, Robert de, distinguished dechanteur, 

Sablieres, de (Sieur), 595 

Sacchini, Gasparo, opera composer, 700, 851 

Sachs, Hans, 250 

Sacrati, 536 

Sacred Harmonic Society, 1312 

Sagittarius (see Schiitz, H.), 049 

,S<. John the Baptist, Macfarren, 1290 

Suinton-Dolby, 1309 

Sainton, P., 1312 

Saint-Saens, O., 1084, 1245 ; pianist, organist, 
and composer, 1245 

Sala, Nic., 1114 

Saldoni, B., Spanish writer, 1264 

Salieri, A., 909, 991 

Sulo (nee Gasparo), 530 

Salomon, Joh., violinist, 864, 868 

Samise, Jajwnese lute, 18 

Sammartini, G. B., of Milan, great violinist, 707 

Sand, George, 104(5 ; she and Chopin, 1047 

Santa, Stella, singer and wife of Lotti, 543 

Santley, baritone, 1312 

Sappho, 127, 130 

Sarasate, P. de, violinist and composer, 1264 

Saratelli, Giuseppe, 543 

Sarti, Giuseppe, 589 ; opera composer, 702, 909 

Satanclla, Balfe, 1280 

Sax, Adolphe, 1005 

Saxon music, 398 

Scandellus, Antonius, German hymn composer, 
476, 815 

Scaria, Emil, singer, 1185 

Scarlatti, Alessandro, prolific Neapolitan com- 
poser, 571 ; father of Italian operatic 
writers, 574 ; his compositions, 576 

Scarlatti, Domenico, 768, 803, 874 

Schiiffer, Julius, composer, 1216 

Schah, Iwan, Hindoo musician, 30 

Schaller, 973 

Scharwenka, Phil., composer, 1216 

Scharwenka, Xaver, pianist and composer, 1216 

Schaul, Baptist, composer, 707 

Scheibe, J. A., 725, 875 

Scheible, Nepom., 1049 

Scheidemann, Heinrich, organist, 349, 627, 650 

Scheidler, 024 

Scheidler, Dorette, 989 

Scheidt, Samuel, organist, 349, 627, 650 

Schein, Joh. Herm., composer, 635 

G G G G 

Schenk, J., opera writer, 909 

Schernberk, Theod., 423 

Schicht, J. G., composer, 720 

Schikaneder, E. J., 894 

Schild, Melchior, organist, 349 

Schindler, Ant., 624, 951 

Schletterer, H. M., historian, 1227 

Schlottmann, Louis, composer, 1216 

Schmeling, Elisabeth, known as Mara, 715 

Schmid, Anton, biographer, 1232 

Schmidt, Gustave, composer, 1006 

Schmitt, Aloys, 1204 

Schneider, Fr., 1048 

Schneider, Joh., organist, 1220 

Schnorr, Carolsfeld von, singer, 1185 

Schofar, sacred Temple horn, 61 

Scholtz, Hermann, composer, 1043 

Scholz, Bernh., pupil of S. Dehn, 1029, 1221 

Sohroeder-Devrient, Wilhelmine, singer, 1185 

Schrb'ter, Christopher Gottlieb, piano maker, 

Schroter, Corona, 731 

Schubert, Frz., 958 ; birth and early works, 971; 
his songs, 973 ; his operas, 973 ; his geniality, 
974 ; his songs analysed, 976, 1043 

Schuch-Proska, Clementine, singer, 1269 

Schulhoff, Jules, pianist and composer, 1043, 1047 

Schultz, Jakob, organist, 349, 628 

Schulz, J. A. P., song composer, 969 

Schumann, Clara, Schumann's wife, great pianist 
(gee Wieck, Clara), 1013, 1313 

Schumann, Robert, 1007 ; a failure as an opera 
composer, 1010 ; his style, 1011 ; his ap- 
preciation of Mendelssohn, 1013 ; his songs, 
1017 ; as a writer, 1018 ; his birth and early 
life, 1036 ; foundation of his musical paper, 
Neue Zeitschrift fiir Afusik, 1037 ; his 
criticism, 1037 ; marries, his compositions, 
1038 ; his praise of women, 1040 ; a classic 
in the New Romantic School, his musical 
paper, 1041 ; his opinion of Chopin, 1042, 

Schunke, L. , 1037 

Schuster, Joseph, composer, 719 

Schiitz, Heinrich, first German composer of 
opera, 649 ; his compositions, 653, 815 

Schwartzendorff (see Martini), 1079 

Scottish airs, 915 

Scribe, librettist, 1095 

Sebastian of Weimar, 815 

" See the Chariot," Horsley, 1276 

Seguin, A., singer, 1309 

Seguin, Mrs., singer, 1309 

Seidler, Karol, singer, 1025 

Selby, 681 

Selnecker, Nikolaus, 4 

Sembrich, Marcella, singer, 1268 

Semper, G., 1182 

Senesino (see Bernardi), 703 

Senfel, Ludwig, German composer of the 
Reformation, 438, 488 

Senkrah, A., 1273 

Serinda, Hindoo instrument, 32 

Servais, Francois, Belgian violoncellist and com- 
poser, 1255 

Servantes, songs of the Middle Ages, 233 . 

Setzkorn, 624 

Seyffert, Paul, organist, 349 



Sforza, Galeazzo, Duke of Milan, 357 

Sgambati, G., composer, pupil of Liszt, 1240 

Shaw, Mrs., singer, 1309 

Sheppard, John, English composer, 6G8, 674 

Sheryngham, English composer, 668 

Shield, W., composer, 1275 

Siao, Chinese pan-pipes, 15 

Sieber, F., 12K9 

Sie(/e of Rochdle, Balfe, 1280 

"Sigh no More, Ladies," Stevens, 1276 

Sigismondi, G., 1114 

Silbermann, Gottfr., piano and organ builder, 

Silcher, Fred., song writer, 1050 

Sims Reeves, tenor, 1312 

Sistrum (Kemkem or Isis clapper), Egyptian 
instrument, 52 

"Sleep, gentle Lady," Bishop, 1277 

Smart, H., composer, 1286 

Smart, Sir George, 968, 1286 

Smetana, Fr., composer, 1263 

Smith, J. Chr., 820 

Smith, J. S., 1276 

Smithson, Henrietta, 1166 

Solfeggi (Solfaing), its invention, 209 

Sonata da Camera and Sonata da Chiesa, de- 
velopment of, 533, 588 ; form of, 588 ; im- 
proved by Biber, 623 ; form in many parts, 
632 ; two thousand composed by Sammar- 
tini, 707 ; elevated by Haydn, 857 ; growth 
of the form under Haydn, 874 ; Beethoven 
and sonata form, 931, 945 

Song-dances, composed by Meiland, 615 ; art- 
song invented by Mozart, 908 ; old English 
songs, 557, 913 

Son tag, Henriette, singer, 1025 

Sophie Charlotte, 800 

Sophocles, 113 

Sorcerer, Sullivan, 1302 

Sourdeac, Marquis de, 595 

Spangler, 859 

Speier, Wilh., 1051 

Spervogel, 239 

Spiesz, Herminee, singer, 1269 

Spinetto, forerunner of the pianoforte, 499 

Spitta, Ph.-> 1230 

Spotforth, R., glee writer, 919 

Spohr, L., 981 ; compared with Meyerbeer, 982 ; 
romantic opera composer, his birth, 983 ; 
his violin-playing, 984 ; marries, 989 ; in 
London, 989 ; his compositions considered, 
990 ; programme music, 991 

Spontini, G. L. P., 1058, 1059 ; opera composer, 
1062, 1067 ; realist, 1114 ; as a conductor, 

Staden, Joh. Gottlieb, composer, 722 

Stadler, Fr. Ant., 875 

Stainer, Gebr., 329, 476 

Stainer, J., 1301 

Stamatz, 1105 

Stamitz, K., 728, 857 

Stanford, C., 1303 

Steffani, Agostino, 815 

Stephani, 479 

Stephens, C. E., composer, 1298 

Stevens, E., composer, 1276 

Stevenson, Sir J. A., composer, 1282 

Stewart, Sir R. P., composer, 1299 

Stockel, Clara, 990 

Stockhausen, Julius, singer, 1270 

Stollberg, 973 

Stb'lzel, inventor of the veiitil horn, 1006 

Stone, English composer, 676 

Storace, S., 1275 

Strada, Anna Maria, singer, 703 

Stradella, Allessandro, Neapolitan composer, 


Stradivari, Ant., 530 
Straeten, Edmund van der, musical savant. 


Straube, 624 
Strauss, J., 1051 
Strausz, Richard, 1222 
Strogers, Nicholas, 687 
Strozzi, Pietro, poet and composer, 521, 592 
Stuton, 681 
Style, 954958 
Suard, 836 

Suite, constituent parts, Cll 
Sullivan, A. S., English composer, 1250,1301, 1310 
" Sumer is icumen in," 221 
Suszmayr, Frz. H., 909 

Svendsen, Johann, Norwegian composer, 1253 
Swelinck, Jan Pieters, Protestant Netherland 

writer and organist, 348, 687 
Swert, J. de, Belgian violoncellist, 1255 
Swieten, G. van, 935 
Sybilla, Duchess of Wurtemburg, 622 
Syfert, Paul, 628 
Sylvester II. (Pope), 180, 204 
Symphonic (see Organistrum), 195 
Sympson, C., composer, 755 

Table music in Germany, 267 

Tadblini, opera composer, 1131 

Tiiglichsbeck, Thomas, composer, 1006 

Talisman, The, Balfe, 1280 

Tallis, English composer, 676 

Tambourine, 109 

Ta'mburini, Ant., 1005; singer, 1137, 1310 

Tamtam, Chinese gong, 14 ; used by the Hindoos, 


Tannhduser, 1172 
Tapherumnes, 40 
Tapissier, 298, 314 
Tare, Hindoo trombone, 32 
Tartini, Giuseppe, violinist and composer, 706 
Taubert, W., 1052 ; pianist and composer, 1206 
Taverner, John, 668, 681 
Tcheidt, organist, 349 
Tchoung-fou, Chinese time-beating instrument, 

Telemann, G. Phi], composer, 712 

Tenaglia, inventor of Da capo, 575 

Tenor, origin of term, 215 

Tenzone, quarrelsome or contentious songs, 233 

Teophrastus, 151 

Terpander, 127, 138 

Terpsichore, 120 

Terradellas, D., 698 

Teschner, 704 

Tesi, Vittoria, singer, 703 

Testwood, 681 

Thais, 155 



Thalberg, S., pianist, 1190 
Thaletas, 129 
Thamyris, 122 

Thayer, A. W., biographer, 1251 
"The Cloud-capped Towers," Stevens, 1276 
Theinred, Aeldred, English writer, 562 
"There is Beauty on the Mountain," Goss, 1278 
Thespis, 143 
Thibaut, A. Fr. J., 234 
Thibaut of Champagne, a troubadour, 233 
Thomas, Ambroise, 1105; French opera com- 
poser, 1243 

Thomas, J., harpist, 1309 
Thome, 681 

Thorough bass, Invention of, 533 
Thuret, (iOo 

" Thyrsis, when he left me," Callcott, 1275 
Tichatschek, Joseph, great tenor, 1004, 1185 
Tieffenbrucker, Kaspar, violin maker, 529 
Tietjens, singer, 1311 
Tilesius, Hieron., 423 
Timaeus, 152 
Timotheus, 147, 156 
Tine tor, Johann, celebrated Netherland theorist, 

340 ; his compositions, 3(31 
Tisdall, W., 687 

Tisias, to him is ascribed the division of the 
chorus into three parts, called strophe, anti- 
strophe, and epode, 131 
Todi, L., singer, 703 
Tomaczek, J. W., composer, 1262 
Tumkins, Thomas, 687, 742 
Torelli, Giuseppe, violin composer, 532, 592 
" To see his Face," Bishop, 1277 
Tosi, Francesco, tenor, 703 
Tourette, Cecile, 1110 
Traetta, Tommasso, opera composer, 700 
Travers, John, composer of sacred music. 923 
Trebelli, 1311 
Trial by Jury, 1302 
Trigon, Greek lyre, 148 
Trinity College, 1310 
Tritto, 1114 

Troubadours (see Folk -music), 226 
Trulm, Hieronymus, pupil of S. Delm, 1029 
. Tschaikowsky, P., Russian composer, 1260 
Tsche, Chinese flute, 15 
Tscheng, Chinese and Japanese instrument, 

Tschirch, \Vilh., 1213, 1217 

Tua, Teresa, 1273 

Tuclway, T., 750 

Tunstede, Simon, English writer, 561 

Tuotilo, renowned monk, 202 

Turges, Edmund, English composer, 668 

Turner, W., 7.M) 

Tuscan School, 516 

Tutor, English composer, 668 

Tye, Dr. , English composer, 668 

Tyrtaeus, 127 


Ubaldus (Hucbald, or Hugbald, 840930 A.D.), 
Benedictine monk and founder of an har- 
monic theory, 206 

Ugab, a flute, 60 

Ulrich, Hugo, pupil of S. Dehn, 1029, 1215 
Ulrich von Lichtenstein, 245 
Unger, Karol, 939 
Ungle, 681 
Urban, H., 1213 


Vaccai, N., composer, 1135 

Vaet, Jacob, composer, 375 

Valentini, G., 1054 

Vaqueras, 361 

Vecchi, Orazio, 1226 

Venice, Tone school established at, 363 

Venturini (see Mislivecek), 709 

Veracini, Francesco, r>r>2, 98") 

Verdi, Giuseppe, Italian opera composer, 1236 

Verdelot, Ph., Netherland writer, 370 

Verdonck, Cornelius, part-song writer, 348 

Verhulst, Jean, Dutch composer, 12.15 

Viadana, Lodovico, first master to employ 

figured bass in Church music, 534 
Viardot-Garcia, Pauline, 1104 
Vidal, A., 1247 
Vielle, favourite instrument of the Trouveres. 


Vierling, George, composer, 1219 
Vieuxtemps, Henri, Belgian comiwser, celebrated 

violinist, 125o 
Villoteau, G., historian, valuable work on the 

music of the Oriental nations, 1105 
Vina, Hindoo instrument, 19 ; description of, 31 
Vincent, Alex., French composer, 1247 
Vinci, Leonardo da, opera composer, 698 
Viola, Delia, 369 

Violin, first instruments of the kind, 256 ; im- 
provements in, 528 
Violino, Viola d'amore, Viola da braccia, Viola 

da gamba, 528 
Violoncello, 540 

Viotti, G. B., violinist, 1100, 1139 
Virdung, Sebastian, 58<i 
Virginal, precursor of the piano, 584 
Visconti, Catarina, singer, 703 
Vitali, Antonio, violin composer, inventor of tne 

variation form, 532 

Vitali, Battista, violin composer, 532, 552 
Vitruvius, 193 
Vi try, Philippe de, 296 
Vittoria, T. L. da, Neapolitan composer, 581 
Vivaldi, Antonio, a great violinist, composer, 

and writer of operas, 545 
Vivier, horn player, 1104 
Vogel, Heinrich, singer, 1185, 1270 
Vogel, Therese, singer, 1185 
Vogler, AbbcS, %3 
Vogt, Jean, composer, 1216 
Volkmann, Robert, composer, 1200 
Voltaire, 846 
Vulpius, cantor at Weimar, 619 


Wagele, Antoine, 709 
Wagenseit, G. Ch., 875 
Wagner, Albert, 1181 
"Wagner, Cosima, 1184 
Wagner, David, 1235 



"\Vagner, Johanna, great singer, niece of Richard, 

Wagner? Eichard, a poet, 1040, 1084, 1163 ; and 
the New Romantic School, 1171 ; his Rienzi 
and the Flying Dutchman, 1171 ; Tann- 
hanser and Lohengrin, 1172 ; the Meister- 
sinyer, Tristan und Isolde, Ring des Nibel- 
ungen, his musical dramas analysed, 1173 ; 
criticism upon Wagner, 1176 ; his art 
theories argued, 1177; his great literary 
activity, 1178 ; his birth, his love for Weber, 
1179 ; his early studies, 1180 ; marries, 
1181 ; order of his compositions, 1182 

Wallace, W. V., English composer, 1249, 1280 

Walmisley, T. A., 1292 

Walmisley, T. F., 1292 

Walter, G., singer, 1270 

Walter, instrument maker, G50 

Walther, Job., composer and friend of Luther, 
472 ; harmonises sacred melodies, 473 

Walther, J. Ch., 875 

Walther von Vogelweide, 245 

Warrock, Thomas, 687 

Wasielewski, J., 1035 

Webbe, Samuel, glee writer, 919 

Weber, Aloysia, 1269 

Weber, Karl Maria von, 958 ; birth, early com- 
positions, 963 ; as a conductor, Der Frei- 
xchiitz, 965 ; he and Beethoven, 966 ; studies 
English in London, 967 ; a romantic com- 
poser, 968 ; his instrumentation, 968 ; his 
songs, 969 ; his influence on modern music, 
970 ; a renowned critic, 1040 

Weber, Max von, 1232 

Weelkes, T., composer, 685 

Weigl, Joseph, composer, 720 

Weinlig, Christian Theod., master of 'Richard 
Wagner, 720 

Weiss, S. L., 624 

Weissensee, prolific composer, 618 

Weitzmann, K. Frederick, 1186 

Weldon, John, Church music composer, 757 

Welsh harp, 367 

Welsh music, 396, 914 

Wesley, S., composer, 1289 

Wesley, S. S., composer, 1293 

Westphal, Rud., 1224, 1225 

"When the Wind Blows," Bishop, 1277 

" Where art thou, Beam of Light ? " 1277 

" While Fools their Time," Smith, 1276 

Whitbroke, English composer, 676 

White, 681 

" Who shall win my Lady Fair ? " Pearsall, 1279 

Wieck Clara (see Schumann), pianist, 1036 

Wieck, Fred., 1036 

Wieck, Marie, pianist, 1036 

Wieniawski, H., violinist, 1271 

Wieprecht, W. F., instrument maker, 1005 

Wilbye, J., 685 

Wilderness, The, Goss, 1292 

Wilhelm of Poitiers (10871127 A.D.), a famous 
troubadour, 232 

Wilhelmj, A., great violinist, 1034, 1270 

Wilkinson, 681 

Willaert, Adr., Netherland writer, 345, 363, and 
compositions for two choirs, 364; his ad- 
vances in harmony, 365; the alternating 
chant first used in the service of the Psalms, 
365 ; his compositions for twelve and fifteen 
voices, the inventor of the madrigal, 367 

Wilt, Max, 1267 

Winter, Peter von, opera composer, 719 

Winterfeld, Karl von, historian, 1226 

Wise, M., 750 

Wittgenstein, Countess Karoline, 1191 

Witzlav, Prince, 242, 243 

Wolfram von Eschenbach, 174, 245 

Wolzogen, Hans von, 1186 

Woman of Samaria, The, Bennett, 1285 

Wuerst, Rich., 1035 ; composer, 1207 

Wiillner, Franz, 1217 


Xenokrates, 155 

Ya-ku, Chinese small drum, 14 
" Ye Spotted Snakes," Stevens, 1276 
Ykaert (see Hykaert, B.), 362 
Yo, Chinese clarionet, 15 
Yuen-lo, Chinese instrument, 13 

Zachau, F. W., 821 

Zachino, 609 

Zarlino, G., 349 

Zeelandia, H. de, harmonist of the Gallo-Belgic 

School, 306 

Zelenka, Joh. Dism., composer, 658 
Zelter, Fred., 1031 
Ziani, P. A., 536 

Zimmermann, J. G., pianist, 1104 
Zingarelli, A., 1000, 1135 
Zollner, K., 1217 
'' Zopf " in music, 690 
Zumbusch, 953 
Zumsteeg, J. R., discoverer of the ballad form 

of the Schubert kind, 976 




N 2963 I 


Naumann, Emil 

The history of music